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Adipose Tissue

• Features:
- fat cells or adipocytes
- men: 15-20% body weight vs. 20-25%
Function:
- largest storage of body energy
- padding material of organs
- thermoregulation
Types
Unilocular Multilocular
# of cells
occurrence
blood supply
age
synonyms
nucleus
Cartilage
• Components:
1. Cells – chondrocytes
2. Fibers
3. Ground substance
Chondrocyte and ECM
• Synthesize and secrete the ecm
• Located in lacunae
• Collagen, hyaluronic acid, proteoglycans,
glycoproteins
CHONDROCYTE’S ENVIRONMENT
Inter-territorial matrix
(less proteoglycan
Chondrocyte & thicker collagen
fibrils than teritorial
matrix)

Territorial matrix

Pericellular matrix
(Capsule) mostly PGs

Chondrocyte + Pericellular matrix= CHONDRON


TYPICAL PIECE* OF CARTILAGE
PERICHONDRIUM ( dense irregular CT)
vessels
Chondrocytes

Territorial
matrix
Inter-territorial matrix
* Fibrocartilage does not occur as discrete pieces
Features:
• Avascular
• Lacks nerves and lymphatics
• Low rate of metabolism
• Presence of perichondrium
Perichondrium
• Dense connective tissue surrounding
hyaline and elastic cartilage
• Vascular supply
• Essential for growth and maintenance
• Absent in movable joint
CARTILAGE TYPES Precursor to
bony skeleton
HYALINE stays on as
CARTILAGE Articular cartilage
Laryngeal
Airway pieces
ELASTIC skeleton
CARTILAGE Tracheal rings
like hyaline, but a few ‘vocal’ Laryngeal pieces
reinforced with
elastic fibers Auricle (“ear’)

FIBROCARTILAGE joins bones, e.g., vertebrae,


& tendons to bone
more like dense
fibrous tissue
Growth of Cartilage
Interstitial growth Appositional
- pre existing cells - perichondrial
- from within - regeneration
- occurs in epiphyseal plates
articular cartilage
CARTILAGE GROWTH

PERICHONDRIUM Chondroblasts Appositional growth by


Chondrocytes surface cell division &
differentiation

Territorial
matrix
Interstitial growth by interior
Inter-territorial matrix
(less proteoglycan) cell division & matrix depostion
Though one may be overpowered,
two can defend themselves.
A cord of three strands is not quickly
broken.
Ecc 4:12
Features
• Canalicular system
• Vascularity
• Elongation thru appositional growth
• Continous resorption, reconstruction,
and remodelling
Composition
Cells
1. Osteocytes
2. Osteoblasts
3. Osteoclasts
Bone Matrix
Osteoblasts
• Bone lining cells
• Synthesize bone matrix
• Active – cuboidal to columnar
• Cytoplasmic processes communicate
Osteocyte
• Surrounded by bone matrix
• Occupies a lacunae with canaliculi
• Maintains the matrix
• Death = resorption of matrix
Osteoclasts
• Areas of resorption – Howship’s lacunae
• Giant multinucleate, motile cells with a
ruffled border
• Secrete acid and proteolytic enzymes
Bone matrix
• Collagen – Tyoe 1
• Noncollagen proteins
• Bone mineral or bone salts
Haversian System
• Osteon
• Concentric rings of bone cells and matrix
• Central blood vessels and nerves
• Volkmann’s canal
Bone Formation
• Intramembranous • Endochondral
- Osteoblasts - cartilage model
- Flat bones - Short and long bones
- Thickness of long
bone
ZONES/LAYERS OF THE GROWTH PLATE

}RESTING

Expansion
} PROLIFERATION

} HYPERYTROPHY

} CALCIFICATION

Matching erosion

Osteoclasts stop the


} OSSIFICATION

trabeculae from forever new bone on


extending calcified cartilage
EARLY ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION

perichondrium
} EPIPHYSIS

}
periosteum

Bony collar DIAPHYSIS/SHAFT


provides support
as mineralized
cartilage is eaten
away
primary ossification
front
LATER ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION

Articular cartilage

Growth/epiphyseal plate

Secondary ossification Shaft bone grows by


centers + deposition on the outside,
- with mild resorption on the
inside surface, plus
osteonal remodelling in the
interior

Bone would be larger


than in the previous view
JOINT/ARTICULAR CARTILAGE
resilient, thin, lubricated,
attached, living, nourished,
modifiable,
vulnerable
Bone

Joint capsule

Muscle
JOINT TERMS

{
SYNOVIUM loose connective tissue
lining cells
Joint capsule

j c
o a
i v
n i
t t
. y

Joint cartilage Spongy subchondral


absorbs and bone absorbs and
spreads load directs load to shaft
Joints Classification
1. Diarthroses – allows free bone movement
2. Synarthroses – very limited to none
a. synostosis – skull bones
b. synchondrosis – epiphyseal plate
- rib to sternum
c. syndesmosis – pubic symphisis