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HI

A
NUR SABREENA, SITI AMINAH, NAFISSA &
FATIN SYAZWIN
5 SC SOLEHAH 2008©
What is
A - Acquired

I - Immune
D - Deficiency
S - Syndrome
vIt is a collection of
symptoms and infections
resulting from the specific
damage to the immune
system caused by the
human immunodeficiency
AIDS is a collection of disorders
resulting from the destruction of T
cells by the
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
, a retrovirus.

Premature death results from a


series of rare diseases that
overwhelm the body and its
compromised immune system.

FEATU
RES OF
HOW When HIV replicates in the human T cells, it

HIV buds from the T cell plasma membrane encased


in a coat derived from the T cell plasma
membrane. HIV selectively infects and kills T4
VIRUS helper cells.

The viral RNA is converted into DNA by the


INVADE enzyme reverse transcriptase; this DNA can
become incorporated into a human

CELL
chromosome for months or years.

When the infected T cell is needed in the


immune response, the viral genes are activated
and the virus replicates, killing the infected cell
and producing a new round on T4 cell infection.

Gradually the number of T4 cells, the master on


switch for the immune system, decline. The
immune response grows less powerful,
eventually failing.
CLINICAL FEATURES
HIV infected persons are
asymptomatic (without symptoms
) early after the infection.

The infected persons show


symptoms after 2 to 15 years
after initial infection.

The time interval between


development of AIDS symptoms
may range from 5 to 15 years
(Infected to full blown AIDS
development).

When the CD4 –T cell count is


less than 200 (Normal: 500 to
1500), then the patient is
considered to have AIDS. AIDS
Related Complex (ARC) is a less
serious condition than AIDS.

In ARC, the patient test positive


for AIDS infection and often has
SYMPTOMS
OF AIDS
HIV infection progresses in stages.These stages are based on your
symptoms
and the amount of the virus in your blood.Most people go through
the following
Stages after being infected with HIV:

Acute retroviral syndrome is an illness with symptoms like the flu. It often
INITIAL STAGE ( acute retroviral syndrome) :
develops within a few days of infection, but it may occur several weeks after
the person is infected.

Symptoms may include:


•Abdominal cramps, nausea, or vomiting.
•Diarrhea.
•Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, and groin.
•Fever.
•Headache.
•Muscle aches and joint pain.
•Skin rash.
•Sore throat.
•Weight loss.

These first symptoms can range from mild to severe and usually disappear on
their own after 2 to 3 weeks.
Chronic stage :
It may take years for HIV symptoms to develop. But even though no symptoms are
present, the virus is multiplying (or making copies of itself) in the body during this time.
HIV multiplies so quickly that the immune system cannot destroy
the virus. After years of fighting HIV, the immune system starts to weaken.
A doctor may suspect HIV if symptoms persist or if a cause of the symptoms (such as
the flu) cannot be identified.

HIV may also be suspected when several of the following symptoms are present:
• Confusion .
• Diarrhea or other bowel changes.
• Difficulty concentrating
• Dry cough
• Fatigue
• Fever
• Loss of appetite
• Mouth sores
• Nail changes
• Night sweats
• Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, and groin
• Pain when swallowing
• Personality changes
• Shortness of breath
Additionally, HIV may be suspected when a woman has at least one of the following:
• More than 3 vaginal yeast infections in one year that are not related to the use of
antibiotics
• Recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
• Abnormal Pap test or cervical cancer
Children with HIV often have different symptoms (for example, delayed growth or an
enlarged
spleen) than teens or adults.
Late stage :
• AIDS occurs during the last stage of infection with HIV.
If HIV goes untreated, AIDS develops in most people
within 12 to 13 years after the initial infection. With
treatment for HIV, the progression to AIDS may be
delayed or prevented.
• After your immune system starts to weaken, you are
more likely to develop certain infections or illnesses,
called opportunistic infections. Examples include some
types of pneumonia or cancer that are more common
when you have a weakened immune system.
• A small number of people who are infected with HIV are
rapid progressors. They develop AIDS within about 3
years if they do not receive treatment. It is not known
why the infection progresses faster in these people
What are
¥ As we know that there is no cure for
these kind of disease.
¥ But, government convenes a panel of
experts to develop recommendations
for the treatment of HIV and AIDS
disease.
¥ These experts gather and evaluate
reseachdata and put forward
treatment guidelines that can be
used to help practitioners and patient
What is
vHAART stands for Highly Active
Antiretroviral Therapy.

vIt is one type of drug that had been


used in this kind of therapy.

vHAART is used to nucleoside or


nucleotide reserve transcript tase
inhibitor (NRPI’s) plus a non-
nucleoside reserve transcript tase
inhibitor (NNRPI’s) or protease
inhibitor (PI).
IMPACT OF
FAMI AIDS COUNT
LY RY
vImpact of an AIDS death in the vThe HIV/AIDS epidemic is responsible for
family such as financial, occupation slowing the rate of growth of the gross
and inter-personal problems arise national product.
apart from the unresolved fears
vThe AIDS epidemic will slow or reverse
about death and dying.
growth in the labour supply.
vThe refusal to conduct funeral rites,
vThe economic impact can vary according
ostracisation of family members, the
adverse impact on the surviving to the sector of the economy, the degree
members especially their widows are to which HIV/AIDS affects hard-to-
not uncommon. replace skilled labour and whether or not
there is a substantial pool of “surplus
vThe epidemic not only causes labour”.
children to lose their parents or
vSavings and investments of families will
guardians, but sometimes their
childhood as well. be reduced owing to the increase in
As parents and family members HIV/AIDS-related health expenditures. If
become ill, children take on more children’s education, health and nutrition
responsibility to earn an income, suffer as a result, prospects for longer-run
produce food and care for family economic growth and development will
members. It is harder for these decline.  
PRECAUTIONS
TO BE TAKEN
Prevention :
You can keep from getting HIV by avoiding behaviors that might
result in contact with infected blood, semen, or vaginal fluids.
• Practice safe sex to prevent HIV. Always use a condom during
sexual activity, unless you are in a relationship with one partner
who does not have HIV or other sex partners.
• If you do have sex with someone who has HIV, it is important to
practice safe sex and to be regularly tested for HIV.
• Reduce your number of sex partners, preferably to one partner.
• Talk with your sex partner or partners about their sexual history,
as well as your own sexual history. Find out whether your partner
has engaged in high-risk behaviors.
• Avoid alcohol and drugs, which can impair both your judgment
and your immune system. People who know and understand
safer sex practices may not practice them when they are under
the influence of alcohol or drugs.
• Do not share intravenous (IV) needles, syringes, cookers, cotton,
cocaine spoons, or eyedroppers with others if you use drugs.
If you are HIV-positive (infected with HIV) or have
engaged in sex or needle-sharing with someone who
could be infected with HIV, take precautions to
avoid spreading the infection to others.

• Tell your sex partner or partners about your behavior and


whether you are HIV-positive.
• Follow safe sex practices, such as using condoms.
• Do not donate blood, plasma, semen, body organs, or body
tissues.
• Do not share personal items, such as toothbrushes, razors, or sex
toys, that may be contaminated with blood, semen, or vaginal
fluids.
• An HIV-infected pregnant woman can prevent or reduce the risk
of spreading HIV to her baby if she takes the medicine zidovudine
(ZDV, formerly AZT) during pregnancy and if she does not breast-
feed her baby. The baby should also receive ZDV after birth.
• If you do not regularly engage in high-risk behaviors for HIV, such
as having unprotected sex or injecting drugs, and you feel you
have been exposed this way, contact your doctor as soon as
possible. He or she may recommend medicine if your exposure
was within the past 72 hours.