Powerpoint Templates

Page 1

Powerpoint Templates

Page 2

Powerpoint Templates

Page 3

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

‡ ‡ ‡

Body covered with dry cornified skin, usually with ectodermal scales or scutles; few or no skin glands. Two pairs of limbs, each typically with five toes ending in horny claws and suited to running. Skeleton well ossified, skull with one occipital condyle. Heart incompletely four-chambers, two atria and a partly divided ventricle; one pair of aortic arches; red blood corpuscles nucleated, biconvex, and oval. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Body temperature variable (ectothermal) Respiration by lungs, gills absent, pharyngeal and perhaps cloacal respiration in some aquatic turtles.
Powerpoint Templates Page 4

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Crocodiles are now a bit different, but they have not changed much. They have backbones and lungs. They must come to the surface to breathe. A crocodile can stay underwater for three to five minutes. Crocodiles have four-chambered hearts. They are cold-blooded and have no lips. Their mouths can't close tight. The color of their skin is dark gray or green. Crocodiles have a valve that closes their air pipe so that water can't enter the lungs while they are underwater. The crocodile is usually thirteen to eighteen feet long. They have bony plates on their backs.
Powerpoint Templates Page 5

Powerpoint Templates Page 6 .

There are 26 species of crocodile in total The biggest is Crocodylus porosus (saltwater croc) Crocs live in all the major continents of the world except Europe Powerpoint Templates Page 7 .

so a croc can grow up to 2000 teeth in its life time Teeth can be 6 to 10cm long! Page 8 Powerpoint Templates . which makes tearing flesh off easier Teeth are replaced whenever they fall out.Crocs have 60 teeth The teeth over-lap.

It can bite with a pressure of 3000lbs per square inch That·s the same pressure that forces a bullet out of a gun! Crocs have HUGE jaw muscles to close the jaw. but tiny ones to open it .you can hold their mouth closed with just one hand! An idiot Powerpoint Templates Page 9 .The croc jaw is incredible strong.

The combined effect of huge teeth and strong jaw makes the crocodile very good at ripping meat apart Crocodiles help rip chunks of meat off their food by rolling over and over in water ² its called a death roll Crocodiles also have a bony flap of skin at the back of their throat which means they can eat underwater Powerpoint Templates Page 10 .

A crocodile eye is more sensitive than an owls! It also has partial colour vision. In fact. which protects the eye without inhibiting their vision! Powerpoint Templates Page 11 .Sense Organs Crocodile ears are very sensitive. which is rare in reptiles Crocodiles have a 3rd eyelid. crocodiles can hear their young moving inside their egg shells They are also able to close their ears underwater. which they close underwater.

Crocodiles have a much better immune system than we do Their blood contains special proteins that kill bacteria They can swim in dirty water and not get infections They can survive wounds that would kill most other species Powerpoint Templates Page 12 .

Crocs can stay underwater for up to 8hrs! This is because their hemoglobin is different to ours. which might help athletes perform better! Powerpoint Templates Page 13 . Scientists have made part croc ² part human haemoglobin.

Powerpoint Templates Page 14 .

Special Circulation Powerpoint Templates Page 15 . Special Hemoglobin 2.1.

) pulmonary artery to each lung.) pulmonary veins from lungs.) right atrium. 2. to the 6. and two ventricles. two atria. 5.) sinus venosus. Powerpoint Templates Page 16 .) right ventricle.‡ The heart lies in the anteroventral part of the thorax.) left atrium and 7. ‡ Blood from the veins passes in turn through 1. The ventricles are completely separated in crocodilians but incompletely so in other reptiles. 4. 3. it comprises a small sinus venosus.) left ventricle.

their circulation has one big difference ² the Foramen of Panizza This allows deoxygenated blood to move into the aorta and join with the oxygenated blood Essentially.Crocodiles have a similar circulation to mammals However. blood misses out the pulmonary circuit and just goes around the body over and over Powerpoint Templates Page 17 .

There is a valve in the Foramen of Panizza When the croc is active. it is open.And makes their haemoglobin give up more O2 (when submerged) Powerpoint Templates Page 18 .The deoxygenated blood is acidic .Which helps them generate low stomach pH . it is shut (so the croc has a mammalian circulation) When the croc is inactive. Why? .

Powerpoint Templates Page 19 .

‡ Consist of brain spinal nerve ‡ Specialized cells(neurons. Powerpoint Templates Page 20 . or nerve cells) ‡ Smaller brain ‡ absolute size of the cerebral hemispheres.

Powerpoint Templates Page 21 .

Powerpoint Templates Page 22 .  cerebellum -> is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control. controls all voluntary actions in the body.‡ cerebrum ->with the assistance of the cerebellum.

Powerpoint Templates Page 23 .  Pituitary ->It is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the Pituitary Stalk. ->It is considered to be the "master gland".‡ Olfactory bulb ->regulating the sense of smell ->remains a large and important structure.

->It is considered to be the "master gland". Powerpoint Templates Page 24 .‡ Olfactory bulb ->regulating the sense of smell ->remains a large and important structure.  Pituitary ->It is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the Pituitary Stalk.

Powerpoint Templates Page 25 .

such as the body covering. or trachea. lungs.Ordinary respiration in different animals is performed by various respiratory organs or system. Powerpoint Templates Page 26 . gills.

‡ All land vertebrates. underlaid by a network of blood capillaries. birds and mammals . ‡ A lung is a chamber lined by moist epithelium. have lungs. where atmospheric air can be used. Powerpoint Templates Page 27 . including most amphibians and all reptiles.

Powerpoint Templates Page 28 .

Powerpoint Templates Page 29 . which is reinforced with rings of cartilage. it connects to the tubular trachea. just behind the touge. The trachea extends to the forepart of the thorax and divides into two short bronchi.Air enters the nostrils (internal nares) and passes above the hard palate to the internal nares behind the palatine valve (velum) and thence through the glottis in the laryx. one to each lung. The larynx is supported by several cartilages and contains the paired vocal cords. The lungs contain higher interior partitions than the frog and are spongier.

Powerpoint Templates Page 30 .

Powerpoint Templates Page 31 .

Powerpoint Templates Page 32 .

Powerpoint Templates Page 33 .---> it is the framework of hard. articulated structures that provides: physical support attachment for muscles and protection for the bodies of animals.

Powerpoint Templates Page 34 .

blood supply .metabolically active . Powerpoint Templates Page 35 .capable of being remodeled throughout the life of an organism -can be repaired if injured..

Other materials are also part of the adult skeletal system like: cartilage which is generally present in the joints between bones Powerpoint Templates Page 36 .

Powerpoint Templates Page 37 .

Powerpoint Templates Page 38 . while retaining a degree of lateral flexibility. composed of individual bones known as vertebrae.->the vertebral column. and providing axial (length wise) support for the animal.

-> the ribs which provide support and protection for the front of the thoracic cavity. and are important in the mechanics of breathing. Powerpoint Templates Page 39 .

which is fused to the brain-case and the separate lower jaw.-> the skull which include the brain-case enclosing and protecting the brain. upper jaw. opposite the upper jaw. Powerpoint Templates Page 40 .

the scapular (or shoulder) apparatus. consisting of the bones of the forelimbs (arms and hands).-> appendicular skeleton. Powerpoint Templates Page 41 . to which these attach.

and the pelvic bones. Powerpoint Templates Page 42 .->the hindlimbs (legs and feet). to which the hindlimbs attach.

usually elongated. these teeth are regularly shed and replaced. Powerpoint Templates Page 43 . Teeth of lizards are generally attached to the sides of the mandible without sockets. Taste buds are poorly developed. and not gizzard-like. The tongue of the lizard varies with the species. The stomach of lizards is simple.

Powerpoint Templates Page 44 .

‡ The digestive system of modern reptiles is similar in general plan to that of all higher vertebrates. the esophagus. the stomach. It includes the mouth and its salivary glands. Powerpoint Templates Page 45 . and the intestine and ends in a cloaca.

Powerpoint Templates Page 46 . just like mammals (Pianka and Vitt 2003). This includes many male snakes that rely on scent to find females and that complete fertilization internally. however. Many species of squamates. This is achieved either through ovoviviparity (egg retention) or viviparity (babies born without use of calcified eggs). They often provide considerable initial care for their hatchlings. are capable of giving live birth. ‡ Most reptile species are oviparous (egg-laying). Many of the viviparous species feed their fetuses through various forms of placenta.‡ Most reptiles reproduce sexually.

Eggs are waterproof. (2) the yolk sac encloses the yolk.‡ Amniotic eggs are covered with leathery or calcareous shells and are compartmentalized by four membranes: (1) The amnion encloses the embryo and the amnion fluid in which it floats. (Towle 1989). Sperm are placed inside the female by internal fertilization prior to the formation of the shell. the embryo's protein-rich food reservoir. but permeable to gases. and (4) the chorion is the outer membrane that lines the shell and thereby encloses the egg's other three membrane-bound compartments and the fluid in which they are bathed. Powerpoint Templates Page 47 . (3) the allantois stores the embryo's nitrogenous wastes until hatching.

agamids. This asexual reproduction. xantusiids. a pattern of asexual reproduction has been identified in six families of lizards and one snake family. a population of females is able to produce a unisexual diploid clone of the mother. called parthenogenesis. In some species of squamates (lizards and snakes).‡ In some reptiles. and typhlopids. occurs in several species of gecko and is particularly widespread in the teiids (especiallyAspidocelis) and lacertids (Lacerta). Powerpoint Templates Page 48 . ‡ In addition to the common pattern of sexual reproduction among reptiles. the sex of the juvenile is determined by the incubation temperature. Parthenogenetic species are also suspected to occur among chameleons.

Powerpoint Templates Page 49 .

. however. only the organs specifically for the excretion process are considered a part of the excretory Powerpoint Templates Page 50 system. unnecessary or dangerous materials from an organism. As most healthy functioning organs produce metabolic and other wastes. so as to help maintain homeostasis within the organism and prevent damage to the body. the entire organism depends on the function of the system.‡ The excretory system is a passive biological system that removes excess. It is responsible for the elimination of the waste products of metabolism as well as other liquid and gaseous wastes.

Powerpoint Templates Page 51 .

uric acid or a combination of these. Renal arteries receive blood from the renal portal system. coprodeum 2. Nitrogenous wastes in the form of ammonia. Crocodilians. Urine passes into the cloaca and then into the urinary bladder.Kidneys lobulated.urodeum. it is connected to the cloaca by a short urethra. The cloaca typically consists of 3 chambers. 3. if present. 1. Powerpoint Templates Page 52 . In lizards with a bladder. urea. snakes and some lizards do not have a urinary bladder.The caudal proctodeum. or into the distal colon where water resorption occurs.

many reptiles use the colon to aid in the reabsorption of water. Unlike the kidneys of mammals and birds.‡ Excretion is performed mainly by two small kidneys. Powerpoint Templates Page 53 . In diapsids. uric acid is the main nitrogenous waste product. excrete mainly urea. which is present in the nephrons of birds and mammals. Excess salts are also excreted by nasal and lingual salt glands in some reptiles. reptile kidneys are unable to produce liquid urine more concentrated than their body fluid. like mammals.. Because of this. turtles. Some are also able to take up water stored in the bladder. This is because they lack a specialized structure called a loop of Henle.

waste can have large effect on water balance ‡ When proteins and nucleic acids are broken down it results in ammonia ² Some animals convert it to other less toxic compounds which requires ATP Powerpoint Templates Page 54 .‡ Since water is needed to dissolve waste before it is removed.

‡ Ammonia ‡ Urea ‡ Uric Acid Powerpoint Templates Page 55 .

it can occur across the whole body structure ² In fishes. dilute quantities) ² Readily passes through membranes and lost by diffusion to the surrounding water ² In invertebrates. most ammonia is lost in form of ammonium ions across epithelium of gills.‡ Ammonia is very soluble but only tolerable at low concentrations ² Aquatic species excrete this because access to a lot of water. (Ammonia is toxic. must be excreted in large. kidneys excrete minor amounts of nitrogenous wastes ² Freshwater fish: gill epithelium takes up sodium ions from water in exchange for ammonium ions while helps maintain a higher sodium concentration in body fluids Page 56 than surrounding Powerpoint Templates water .

000X less than ammonia) ² Animals can transport and store Urea safely ² Requires much less water.‡ Urea is ammonia and carbon dioxide ² Low toxicity (100. more suitable for terrestrial animals because less water is lost when a given quantity of nitrogen is excreted ² Allows waste to be excreted in concentrated solutions (Good for land animals) ² Must expend energy to produce it from ammonia ² Excreted by mammals. and turtles ‡ Powerpoint Templates Page 57 . sharks and some marine bony fish. adult amphibians.

many reptiles. land snails. land birds Powerpoint Templates Page 58 . land snails.‡ Insects. and many reptiles excrete uric acid ² Relatively nontoxic ² Largely insoluble in water ² Excreted as semi-solid paste with little water ² Takes even more energy than urea but saves water ² Excreted by insects.

‡ Skin ‡ Lungs ‡ Kidneys ‡ Ureter ‡ Urinary Bladder ‡ Urethra Powerpoint Templates Page 59 .