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The art and science of designing and erecting buildings and other physical structures. The word Architecture (Greek) has a historical meaning:
± May refer to a building style of a particular culture or to an artistic movement such as Greek, Gothic, Renaissance architecture.
Also known as ³Stone-Age´ architecture contains some of the oldest known structures made by mankind. Neolithic cultures have been shown to have existed in southwest Asia as early as 8000 B.C. to 6000 B.C. Many of the paintings were drawn with red and yellow ochre, hematite, manganese oxide and charcoal. Sometimes the silhouette of the animal was incised in the rock first.
. Houses were plastered and painted with ancient scenes of humans and animals. The most common themes in cave paintings are large wild animals. Many of the more famous Neolithic structures were remarkably made by enormous stones. and tracings of human hands . horses. such as bison.Neolithic Architecture Neolithic Architects mainly used mud-brick to construct houses and villages. and deer.
EARLY MAN s HOUSE THE WORLD`S OLDEST HOUSE .
Ancient Egyptian Architecture (from 3000 BC to 700 BC) Egyptian architecture is easily recognizable.000 and 30. The construction of these impressive burial places for pharaohs and their families required between 20. .000 workers. Construction materials were limestone and sunbaked bricks. thanks to its most famous buildings ² pyramids.
. which were often decorated with hieroglyphics and carvings.Ancient Egyptian Architecture Workers had to transport materials by sled and than they had to lift the blocks using the system of ramps and pulleys. Other Egyptian structures were temples and tombs.
The Great Pyramid of Giza .
Temple of Ramesses II .
Pyramidal arrangement of blocks .
believed that builders should use mathematical principles for construction of temples. Ionic and Corinthian. The invention of concrete helped the Romans build arches and domes. Romans differentiated among three types of column ² Doric. The Roman Coliseum is a famous example of Roman classical architecture. .Roman architecture (from 500 BC to 400 BC) Roman architect Marcus Vitruvius. who lived during the first century BC.
Ancient Rome s Architecture
The Pantheon, one of the most impressive buildings in Rome. The original rectangular temple, consisting of sixteen single granite columns, became the porch for the newly devised dome structure. The inside had a hole or ³eye´ in the ceiling, called an oculus. The oculus let light in day and night.
The Parthenon The Coliseum .
Peter's Basilica in Vatican and the Louvre in Paris are examples of Renaissance architecture. Other typical features were columns. arches and domes as well as harmonious arrangements of doors and windows.Renaissance Architecture (15 ² 17th century) During the Renaissance. Characteristic building was the palace. St. . architects were inspired by the symmetrical and well-balanced buildings of Greece and Rome.
Peter's Basilica Louvre .St.
flying buttresses. elaborate sculptures and stained glass windows. where architects were inspired by Romanesque architecture and the pointed arches of Spanish Moorish architecture. Flying buttresses . It's easy to recognise Gothic buildings because of their arches.Gothic Architecture (12 ² 15th century) Gothic architecture began mainly in France. ribbed vaulting .
Gothic Architecture During the period of Renaissance it fell out of fashion and it was not respected by many artists. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin. . Examples of Gothic architecture: Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris and St.
St. Patrick's Cathedral Notre Dame de Paris .
Use of geometric shapes and repetitive art. Minarets or towers. (arabesque) Use of decorative Arabic calligraphy. which were inherited from the first mosque built by Muhammad in Medina. Domes. Mihrab or niche on an inside wall indicating the direction of Mecca .Islamic Architecture Islamic architecture may be identified with the following design elements. . as well as features adapted from churches and synagogues.
usually hemispherical in form. placed over a circular.Domes Dome a circular roof. oblong. or polygonal space. . square.
blues. . constructed in 1691-92. and crowns in greens. and gold. jewels. It has mosaics depicting scrolling vines and flowers.Dome of the Rock (Jerusalem) The earliest architectural monument of Islam that retains most of its original form is the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
1557) in Istanbul.Sulayman Mosque Complex Istanbul. . One of the most famous Turkish architects was Sinan. He constructed or designed most of Sulayman s buildings. Turkey In Turkey the mosque form was also derived from Persia. as was most Turkish art. chief architect in the Ottoman court . the most noted of which is his Sulayman Mosque (c.
The base structure is essentially a large. the "teardrop on eternity." completed in 1648 by emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. forming an unequal octagon that is approximately 55 meters (180 ft) on each of the four long sides . multi-chambered cube with chamfered corners. The extensive use of precious and semiprecious stones as inlay and the vast quantity of white marble required nearly bankrupted the empire.Taj Mahal The most famous example of Mughal architecture is the Taj Mahal.
Taj Mahal .
Plant motifs Delicate pierce work JALI SCREEN Tombs of shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal .
The sapphire came from Sri Lanka and the carnelian from Arabia.000 elephants were used to transport building materials. In all. The total cost has been estimated to be about 32 million Rupees at that time. The Taj Mahal was constructed using materials from all over India and Asia and over 1. the jasper from Punjab. jade and crystal from China. Rajasthan. The translucent white marble was brought from Makrana. with the river-facing side left open. .Facts and figures of Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal complex is bounded on three sides by red sandstone walls. twenty eight types of precious and semiprecious stones were inlaid into the white marble.
thou art at rest. Return to the Lord at peace with Him.The calligraphy on the Great Gate reads "O Soul." . and He at peace with you.
It was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 . Sculptors from Bukhara. The hands of these labor were cut off so that they don¶t make a replica of it. stonecutters from Baluchistan. inlayers from southern India. another who carved only marble flowers were part of the thirty-seven men who formed the creative unit.(UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANISATION) .Facts and figures of Taj Mahal A labor force of twenty thousand workers was recruited across northern India. calligraphers from Syria and Persia. .
housing the deity of the temple. Another important component of Indian temples was the garba-griha or the womb chamber. The garbha-griha was provided with a circumambulation passage around. the Dravida or the Southern style and the Vesara or Mixed style. The temple gate is so adorned as to keep evil spirits out.Temple Architecture Three main style of temple architecture are the Nagara or the Northern style. . The door of the temple complex is very important.
Gadag district Karnataka state. India Dravida Style of Temple .Dodda Basappa temple in Dambal.
Swami Narayan Temple. Ahmedabad Nagara Style of Temple .
Ajanta caves These caves are excavated in horse±shoe shaped bend of rock surface nearly 76 m in height overlooking a narrow stream known as Waghora. The process of painting involved several stages. . There are scenes carved from the life of the Buddha as well as a number of decorative motifs. The plaster was made of clay. dung and lime. The first step was to chisel the rock surface. hay. the drawings were done and the colors applied. While the plaster was still wet. to make it rough enough to hold the plaster.
The paint brushes used to create the artwork were made from animal hair and twigs. The stucco had the ingredients of lime and powdered seashell. and plants were used in combinations to prepare different colors.' Various kinds of stones. The wet plaster had the capacity to soak the color so that the color became a part of the surface and would not peel off or decay easily.CONTINUED«. minerals. The colors were referred to as 'earth colors' or 'vegetable colors. Sculptures were often covered with stucco to give them a fine finish and lustrous polish. .
QUIZ What type of architecture is Vidhan Soudha? .
The Cabinet room has a huge sandalwood door. Vidhana Soudha of Bangalore boasts of exquisite Dravidian architecture. the national symbol of India. which has been beautifully carved. Constructed purely out of granite and porphyry.ANSWER Built in the year 1956. . It is adorned with four domes on its four corners. The entrance of the buildings is the Four-headed Lion.
Subhank Darshan .THANK YOU By:.
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