CONTROL OF GASEOUS EMISSIONS

Absorption by liquids

Adsorption 3.Control of gaseous emissions from stationary sources ‡ Addition of add-on control devices to recover or destroy gaseous pollutants from effluent streams: ‡ Commonly used control technologies1. Incineration . Absorption 2. Condensation 4.

‡ The liquid phase used is known as scrubbing medium .a scrubbers are of many types. ‡ Transfer of pollutants from gas to liquid phase across the interface in response to the concentration gradient. ‡ Absorbers a.Absorption by liquids ‡ Commonly used technique to control gaseous emissions before discharge.k. ‡ Dissolution of gaseous pollutant in liquid.

Properties of scrubbing medium: ‡ High gas solubility ‡ High selectivity ‡ Low vapor pressure ‡ Non Corrosive ‡ Easy regeneration & recovery ‡ Low cost .Selection of Scrubbing medium Effectiveness of absorption process depends on the selection of suitable scrubbing medium.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Low viscosity at absorption temperature Nontoxic Non-flammable Chemical Stability Scrubbing medium should not cause Water pollution or waste disposal problems .

NaOH. NaOH solutions etc. Paper.POLLUTANT Sulfur dioxide Nitrogen Oxides INDUSTRIES Refineries . Paper & Pulp Ammonium bicarbonate & bisulfite . Paper. Water Hydrogen Sulfide Hydrogen Chloride Chlorine Phosgene Ammonia . Galvanizing and Battery Plastics. KOH solution Iron & Steel . ammonia. Petrochemicals. NaOH. industries. Paper Mills. Textiles Chemical Industries Power plants. Sodium sulfite. SUITABLE SOLVENT NaOH. Glass & Sugar industries etc. Tanneries. magnesium oxide. calcium carbonate solution Fertilizer. CaOH & MgOH solution Water. Petroleum Glass . Power plants CaOH. MgOH. Sodium sulfide & thiosulfite solution NaOH & Water Sulfuric acid . Fertilizer Water.

‡ Counter current flow ‡ Ceramic saddles. Raschig rings .Absorption Equipments Packed tower Scrubber ‡ Commonly used. low capital & operational costs . ‡ Gas stream passed through packed structure. ‡ Package material provides larger wetted surface area. crushed rock etc are used as packaging materials ‡ Hi-efficiency.

‡ Spray towers used for absorption of highly soluble gases increases the mass transfer area. ‡ Counter current .Plate tower Scrubber ‡ Highly efficient ‡ Stepwise contact between liquid and gas. ‡ Gas bubbles through liquid to pass through different stages.

Venturi Scrubbers ‡ Gas is accelerated through the converging section before entering the throat. ‡ Co-Current ‡ Extremely efficient ‡ Hi-operation costs . ‡ Scrubbing liquor enters around the top of convergent section ‡ Hi-velocity gas stream atomizing the liquor droplets is achieved.

‡ Absorbers/Scrubbers can achieve removal efficiencies greater than 95% ‡ Generation of waste water is 1 of the potential problem of scrubbers. .‡ Packed tower scrubbers are widely used. ‡ Around 10% cases make use of Tray column and Venturi scrubbers.

.!!! .Adsorption by Solids.

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