# REQUIREMENTS IN OIL AND GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM

Most common used in oil production facility design and similar to national standards which exist in other parts of the world

1. 2. 3. 4.

ANSI B 31.1 ANSI B 31.3 ANSI B 31.4 ANSI B 31.8

-

Power Piping Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping Liquid Petroleum Transporting Piping System Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping System

` `

The concept of hoop stress. The Hoop stress in the pipe is considered a uniform stress over the thickness of the wall for a thin wall cylinder. The force equilibrium equation can be expressed as : 2WtL = P (do ± 2t)L where: W = hoop stress in the pipe wall, psi t = pipe wall thickness, in P = internal pipe pressure, Psi do = outside diameter of pipe, in L = pipe length, ft. Rearranging and solving for required wall thickness the equation reduces to :

`

`

Pd o t! 2(  P)
`

when only considering hoop stress. The standards build upon this formula.

ANSI B 31.8
The wall thickness specified by ANSI B 31.8 for a given pipe can be calculated by :

P.d o t! 2( FETS )
`

FETS term represents an allowable stress. That is, the approximate safety factors for construction type, joint type and temperature are applied to the yield strength of the pipe material to obtain an allowable stress. Most gas transmission lines handle a relatively ³clean´ product and so no specific wall thickness allowance is suggested for internal corrosion. Construction types : Type A ,F = 0.72 Type B , F = 0.60 Type C , F = 0.50 Type D , F = 0.40

`

`

ANSI B 31.4

`

The required wall thickness equation for ANSI B 31.4 is the same as that for ANSI B 31.8 except the safety factor is fixed at F = 0.72. This is because the consequences of a leak in an oil line are not as severe as the consequences of a leak in an gas line. ANSI B 31.4 does not have a temperature derating factor (³T´), as it states that it is only applicable to temperatures between ±20 F and 250 F.

`

`

Industry Standards
`

Piping components (that must be able to withstand the stresses imposed by internal pressure) to be considered : Pipe flanges Fittings Valves To overcome the analysis of the complex geometry of piping components, industry has developed standards on pipe flanges, fittings, and valves. The ANSI B 16.5 and API 6A specifications are the most commonly used.

`

`

`

The ANSI B 16.5 specification has seven classes of piping: 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500. The class designation was the allowable working pressure at 850 F.

`

`

For example : 300 ANSI class rating had a primary pressure rating of 300 psi at 850 F. Most facility piping operates at temperatures less than 200 F.

`

`

The API 6A specification also has seven classes of piping: 2000, 3000, 5000, 10000, 15000, 20000, 30000. The API class designation is the maximum non-shock working pressure rating at 100rF. For example : at 100rF. 2000 API class has a pressure rating of 2000 psi

`

`

`

API flanges are derated by1.8% per 50rF increase in temperature, to a maximum of 450rF. The API standards do not go above 450rF.

`

The purpose of pipe, valve and fitting specifications is:
y y y y y
`

to determine, for a specific job, the governing industry codes material requirements for pipe, flanges, fittings, bolts, nuts, and gaskets material and construction for each valve used in piping welding certification and inspection requirements , and design details, (e.g, branch connections, pipe support spacing, clearances and accessibility).

Each pipe class in the job is assigned a designation that indicates its pressure rating and service. A general description of items to consider is contained in API RP 14E.

`