By: Chitrakshi Goel M. Tech.

EST

Valve
y An integral component in piping system y primary method of controlling the flow, pressure and

direction of the fluid within a system or process y Valves may be required to operate y continuously e.g. control valves, or y intermittently e.g. isolation valves, or y rarely e.g. safety valves ‡ A valve can be an extremely simple, low cost item or it may be and extremely complicated, expensive item.

Valve
y Valve controls a system or process fluid flow and pressure

by performing any of the following functions: y Stopping and starting fluid flow y Varying the amount of fluid flow y Controlling the direction of fluid flow y Regulating downstream system or process pressure y Relieving overpressure in any component or piping

Parts of Valve
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Body Bonnet Stem Actuator Packing Seat Disk

Valve Body
y is the principal element of a valve assembly and y is the framework that holds everything; all other parts fit

onto the body y is usually cast or forged into a variety of shapes y inlet and outlet pipes fit onto the valve body through threaded, bolted or welded joints y resists fluid pressure loads from connecting piping

Valve Body
y Fluid passes through the valve body when the valve is

open y Valve body must be strong enough to take the maximum pressure of the process fluid and must be made of a material that is not attacked by the fluid

Bonnet
y A bonnet acts as a cover on the valve body y is the removable cover fitted to the body y Some bonnets support the moving parts of the valve. y Others just close the hole in the body through which the

moving parts pass for assembly and dismantling. y During manufacture of the valve, the internal parts are put into the body and then the bonnet is attached to hold everything together inside.

Valve Trim
y The internal elements of a valve are collectively referred to

as a TRIM. y The trim typically includes:
y the opening/closing element (disk): closes the fluid path

through the valve body y the valve stem³connects the actuator to the closing element y the valve seat³makes a seal with the closing element when the valve is closed

Stem
y The stem, which connects the actuator and disk, is

responsible for positioning the disk. y Stems are typically forged and connected to the disk by threaded or welded joints. y There are two types of valve stems: rising stems and nonrising stems. These two types of stems are easily distinguished by observation. y For a rising stem valve, the stem will rise above the actuator as the valve is opened. There is no upward stem movement from outside the valve for a non-rising stem design.

Actuator
y The actuator operates the stem and closing element (disk)

assembly. y An actuator may be a manually operated handwheel, manual lever, motor operator etc. y In some designs, the actuator is supported by the bonnet. In other designs, a yoke mounted to the bonnet supports the actuator.

Packing
y Most valves use some form of packing to prevent leakage

from the space between the stem and the bonnet. y Packing is commonly a fibrous material that forms a seal between the internal parts of a valve and the outside where the stem extends through the body.

Disk and Seat
y Disk provides the capability for permitting and prohibiting

fluid flow. y The seat or seal rings provide the seating surface for the disk. A fine surface finish of the seating area of a disk is necessary for good sealing when the valve is closed.

Types of Valves
y Block Valve- stop and start flow y Flow Control Valve- control flow rate y Non-Return Valve- prevent flow reversal y Pressure Control Valve- prevent fluid pressure exceeding a set maximum

Block Valve
y either allow full flow or stop flow completely y should only be operated in the fully open or fully closed position y If they are only partly opened, they offer a lot of resistance to flow y Fluid friction and turbulence cause a loss of pressure in the fluid and can cause vibration. y are not meant to control flow rate

Types of Block Valve
y Gate Valve y Ball Valve y Plug Valve

Gate Valve
y are used to start or stop a flow completely and should not

be used to control flow rate. y Using in a partially open position can damage the valve y Fluid flow across the gate causes erosion to the gate making it impossible to seal well against its seat y Fluid can flow through most gate valves in either direction y The closing element in a gate valve is a wedge-shaped disc or gate attached to the end of the stem y The gate fits into a wedge-shaped seat in the valve body to stop flow through the valve

Rising Stem Gate Valve

Gate Valve
y is classed as linear-motion valve as the closing element

moves in a straight line (e.g. down and up) to close and open the valve y can have rising or non-rising stems y In rising stem gate valve, the stem moves up and down with the gate. Rising stem is fixed to the gate and can not turn in it. y Non-rising stems are threaded at the bottom and this thread mates with a thread in the gate.

Non-Rising Stem Gate Valve

Ball Valve
y starts and stops flow by rotating a ball-shaped closing

element y classed as rotational-motion valve y The ball has a hole through it of the same diameter as the pipeline. y The valve is open when the hole lines up with the inlet and outlet of the valve body. y only used in the fully closed or fully open positions y The open valve leaves a clear path for flow with no obstruction.

Ball Valve

Plug Valve
y Operation of a plug valve is similar to the ball valve y also rotational-motion valves y The main difference is the shape of the closing element,

which is a tapered plug of circular section. The plug has a hole called a port. y Plug valves are normally used in non-throttling, on-off operations, particularly where frequent operation of the valve is necessary.

Plug Valve

Flow Control Valve
y Control of flow rate is done by reducing the area of the

flow path through a valve, this also reduces the fluid pressure. y Block valves should not be used to control the flow. The pressure drop across them is too great and the flow becomes turbulent. Turbulent flow can cause many problems in pipelines and equipment. In a valve, it can erode the closing element and valve seat. Turbulent flow also increases the rate of wear.

Flow Control Valve
y Flow Control Valves are designed to operate partially opened with little pressure loss and turbulence. y also called regulating valves

Types of Flow Control Valve
y Globe Valves y Butterfly Valves y Diaphragm Valves y Needle Valves

Globe Valve
y is a linear-motion valve and can look very similar to gate valve from the outside y has rising stems but, unlike gate valves, the actuator is fixed to the stem and rises with it. y Its design makes it good for flow regulation as well as starting and stopping flow. y Globe valves can have three main types of body
y Z-type y Angle y Y-type

(a) Valve Closed

(b) Valve Open

y Here, the fluid pressure helps to push the valve open. y used mainly for small-size, lowpressure applications

Z-Type Globe Valve

Angle-Type Globe Valve

Globe Valve
y In Angle-type globe valve the flow changes direction only

once and the pressure drop is less than for the Z-type. It can be used for medium-pressure applications.
y Y-type globe valve have the seat at about 45° to the flow

direction, hence straightens the flow path and reduces the pressure drop. It can be used for high-pressure applications.

Y-Type Globe Valve

Butterfly Valve
y is rotational-motion valve y Like ball and plug valves, it needs only a quarter turn (90°)

to fully open or close it y It can start, stop and regulate flow, although it is not very good at completely stopping the flow. y The closing element is a circular disc of a similar diameter to the ID of the pipe. The disc turns to open and close the valve.

(a) Valve Closed

(b) Valve Open

Butterfly Valve
y Butterfly valves are simple and take up little space. y This makes them especially good for use in large pipelines

or where there is not much space. y Operating a butterfly valve can take a lot of force as one has to push it against the fluid pressure. y Larger valves usually have geared actuators to make operation easier.

Diaphragm Valve
y The closing element of a diaphragm valve is not a solid disc.

Instead, it has a sheet of flexible material called a diaphragm. y This diaphragm completely separates the valve trim from the fluid flowing through the valve. This means that the fluid does not contact the trim and the stem does not need any gland packing. y Diaphragm valves are rising-stem, linear-motion valves. As the actuator turns, the stem screws into or out of the sleeve attached to the actuator.

Diaphragm Valve Positions

Needle Valve
y Needle valves are linear-motion valves. y can make very small adjustments to flow rate. y Its name comes from the long, tapered shape of the bottom

of the spindle that forms the closing element.

Non-return (Check) Valve
y Non-return valves, also called check valves, stop flow

reversal in a pipe. y only allow fluid to flow in one direction. y The pressure of the fluid passing through the valve in the correct direction opens it automatically. y If the flow tries to reverse, the valve closes automatically. y There are a number of designs of non-return valve. Some rely on the weight of the closing element and fluid flow only to close them. Others have a spring to help close them.

Types of NRV
y Swing Check Valves y Lift Check Valves y Piston Check Valves y Ball Check Valves y Stop Check Valves

Swing Check Valve
y In this type, the valve disc is hinged at the top. When there

is no flow, the weight of the disc closes the valve. This valve must be mounted in a horizontal pipeline, with the disc hinge at the top to allow gravity to close it.

Lift Check Valve
y These valves have a similar valve body and seating

arrangement to globe valves. y Flow must enter from under the seat to lift the closing element. y Flow in the reverse direction pushes the closing element against its seat. y The closing element may be free to fall under its own weight, or it may be helped by a spring

Piston Check Valve
y Piston check valves

are similar to lift check valves. y Instead of a valve disc there is a piston that slides in a cylinder. y This gives a smoother motion during operation.

Ball Check Valve
y This type of valve

has a spherical (ball-shaped) closing element. y Like the other check valves, the closing element may operate by gravity or the flow pressure or it may be spring-loaded.

Stop Check Valve
y A stop check is a non-return globe valve. y It is similar to a globe valve but the valve disk is free to slide

on the stem. y With the valve stem raised, it acts as a lift check valve allowing flow only from below the disc. y If there is no flow, or if flow reverses, the disc drops into the seat. y When the stem is lowered to the closed position, the disc can not lift and flow is stopped in both directions.

Pressure Control Valve
y Pressure control valves can be divided into three main types:
y pressure reducing y pressure relief y pressure safety

y Pressure reducing valves operate where a pressure drop is needed between two parts of a process. y Pressure relief valves maintain fluid pressure below a maximum allowable value for a process. y Pressure safety valves protect the plant from damage caused by overpressure.

Pressure Reducing Valve
y Reducing valves automatically reduce liquid or gas pressure

to a pre-set value. y One common use is to control the pressure of gas leaving gas bottles and vessels, for example pressure reducing valves on gas welding equipment. y During operation, the valve continuously opens and closes to maintain a flow of fluid at the reduced pressure. y The operation of this valve depends on the balance between the fluid pressures acting above and below a piston, and a spring force.

Pressure Reducing Valve
y When the force of the low pressure fluid plus the spring

force pushing down on the piston is more than the force of the high pressure supply fluid pushing up, the piston closes the valve. y When the force of the low pressure fluid drops, the new lower pressure plus the spring force pushing down on the piston becomes less than the force of the high pressure fluid pushing up and the piston opens the valve.

Pressure Relief Valve
y is used mainly to relieve overpressure of liquids. y This happens when a liquid in a closed container or pipeline

expands as its temperature increases. y Under normal operating conditions, a spring holds the PRV closed. Fluid pressure pushes against the spring to open the valve. y The fluid pressure needed to push the valve open is called the set-point pressure. The setpoint pressure is usually the maximum normal operating pressure of the liquid.

‡ When the liquid pressure exceeds the set-point pressure, the valve opens slowly. It releases just enough liquid to bring the pressure down to the normal operating pressure. ‡ The spring then closes the valve slowly so that normal operations can continue. The outlet from the valve is connected back into the inlet of the equipment so that no liquid is lost.

Pressure Safety Valve
y is used mainly to relieve overpressure of gases and vapours

(e.g. steam). y The set-point pressure is greater than the maximum normal operating pressure of the process fluid but less than the maximum safe working pressure of the equipment. y When the fluid pressure exceeds the set-point pressure, the valve pops fully open. This happens very quickly to release overpressure as quickly as possible. y The pressure at which the valve closes again is lower than the opening set-point pressure.

y The valve outlet

diameter is greater than the inlet. This allows fluid to escape quickly to bring pressure down to normal (both in PRV and PSV).

THANKS

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