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Chapter 6
Research Design: An Overview

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

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Learning Objectives
‡ Understand the major descriptors of research design ‡ Understand the major types of research designs ‡ Understand the relationships that exist between variables in causal designs and the steps for evaluating those relationships

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Research Design
Blueprint Plan Guide Framework

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Exhibit 6-1 Design in the Research Process

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Exhibit 6-2 Descriptors of Research Design
Category
The degree to which the research question has been crystallized The method of data collection The power of the researcher to produce effects in the variables under study The purpose of the study The time dimension The topical scope²breadth and depth²of the study The research environment

Options
‡ Exploratory study ‡ Formal study ‡ Monitoring ‡ Communication Study ‡ Experimental ‡ Ex post facto ‡ Descriptive ‡ Causal ‡ Cross-sectional ‡ Longitudinal ‡ Case ‡ Statistical study ‡ Field setting ‡ Laboratory research ‡ Simulation ‡ Actual routine ‡ Modified routine

The participants¶ perceptions of the research activity

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The Degree of Structure
Exploratory Study ‡ Loose structure ‡ Expand understanding ‡ Provide insight ‡ Develop hypotheses Formal Study ‡ Precise procedures ‡ Begins with hypotheses ‡ Answers research questions

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The Topical Scope
Statistical Study ‡ Breadth ‡ Population inferences ‡ Quantitative ‡ Generalizable findings Case Study ‡ Depth ‡ Detail ‡ Qualitative ‡ Multiple sources of information

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Descriptive Studies

Who?

How much?

What?

When?

Where?

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Causal Studies
Experiment Ex Post Facto study ‡ Study involving the ‡ After-the-fact report manipulation or on what happened to control of one or more the measured variables to determine variable the effect on another variable

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Exhibit 6-3 Mills Method of Agreement

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Exhibit 6-4 Mills Method of Difference

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Methods of Data Collection
Monitoring Communication

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The Time Dimension

Cross-sectional

Longitudinal

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The Research Environment
Field conditions Lab conditions

Simulations

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Participants¶ Perceptions
No deviation perceived Deviations perceived as unrelated Deviations perceived as researcher-induced

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Approaches for Exploratory Investigations
‡ Interviewing ‡ Participant observation ‡ Film, photographs ‡ Projective techniques ‡ Psychological testing ‡ Case studies ‡ Street ethnography ‡ Elite or expert interviewing ‡ Document analysis ‡ Proxemics and Kinesics

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Desired outcomes of Exploratory Studies_1
Established range and scope of possible management decisions

Established major dimensions of research task Defined a set of subsidiary questions that can guide research design

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Desired outcomes of Exploratory Studies_2
Developed hypotheses about possible causes of management dilemma

Learned which hypotheses can be safely ignored Concluded additional research is not needed or not feasible

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Common Exploratory Techniques for Research
Secondary Data Analysis

Experience Surveys

Focus Groups

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Delve emphasizes that face-to-face interaction is still one of the best ways to learn about consumers

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Experience Surveys
‡ What is being done? ‡ What has been tried in the past with or without success? ‡ How have things changed? ‡ Who is involved in the decisions? ‡ What problem areas can be seen? ‡ Whom can we count on to assist or participate in the research?

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Focus Groups
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Group discussion 6-10 participants Moderator-led 90 minutes-2 hours

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Descriptive Studies
Descriptions of population characteristics Estimates of frequency of characteristics Discovery of associations among variables

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Causal Studies

Symmetrical Reciprocal

Asymmetrical

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Exhibit 8-3 Asymmetrical Casual Relationships

Stimulus-Response PropertyDisposition

PropertyBehavior

Disposition-Behavior

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Exhibit 6-6 Types of Asymmetrical Causal Relationships
Relationship Type Nature of Relationship
Stimulus-response An event or change results in a response from some object.

Examples
‡ A change in work rules leads to a higher level of worker output. ‡ A change in government economic policy restricts corporate financial decisions. ‡ A price increase results in fewer unit sales. ‡ Age and attitudes about saving. ‡ Gender attitudes toward social issues. ‡ Social class and opinions about taxation. ‡ Opinions about a brand and its purchase. ‡ Job satisfaction and work output. ‡ Moral values and tax cheating. ‡ Stage of the family life cycle and purchases of furniture. ‡ Social class and family savings patterns. ‡ Age and sports participation.

Property-disposition

An existing property causes a disposition. A disposition causes a specific behavior. An existing property causes a specific behavior.

Disposition-behavior

Property-behavior

Definitions: A stimulus is an event or force (e.g., drop in temperature, crash of stock market, product recall, or explosion in factory). A response is a decision or reaction. A property is an enduring characteristic of a subject that does not depend on circumstances for its activation (e.g., age, gender, family status, religious affiliation, ethnic group, or physical condition). A disposition is a tendency to respond in a certain way under certain circumstances (e.g., attitudes, opinions, habits, values, and drives). A behavior is an action (e.g., consumption habits, work performance, interpersonal acts, and other kinds of performance).

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Evidence of Causality
Covariation between A and B

Time order of events

No other possible causes of B

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Causation and Experimental Design

Control/ Matching

Random Assignment

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Ex Post Facto Design

Club Member Age
Under 30 years 30 to 45 45 and over

Nonclub Member High Absentee
30 35 5

High Absentee
36

Low Absentee
6 4 0

Low Absentee
48 117 115

Substitute BRM 4 Exhibit 6-8
0

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Key Terms
‡ Asymmetrical relationship ‡ Case study ‡ Causal study ‡ Causation ‡ Children¶s panels ‡ Communication study ‡ Control ‡ Control group ‡ Correlation ‡ Cross-sectional study ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Descriptive study Ethnographic research Ex post facto design Experience Experiment Exploratory study Field conditions Focus group Formal study Individual depth interview Intranet

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Key Terms (cont.)
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Laboratory conditions Longitudinal study Matching Monitoring Primary data Qualitative techniques Random assignment ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Reciprocal relationship Research design Secondary data Simulation Statistical study Symmetrical relationship

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