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Chapter 21
Presenting Insights and Findings: Written and Oral Reports

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

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Learning Objectives
Understand . . . ‡ a quality presentation of research findings can have an inordinate effect on a reader¶s or a listener¶s perceptions of a study¶s quality ‡ contents, types, lengths, and technical specifications of research reports ‡ the writer of a research report should be guided by questions of purpose, readership, circumstances/ limitations, and use

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Learning Objectives
Understand . . . ‡ while some statistical data may be incorporated into the text, most statistics should be placed in tables, charts, or graphs ‡ oral presentations of research findings should be developed with concern for organization, visual aids, and delivery in unique communication settings

Exhibit 21-1 Sponsor Presentation and the Research Process

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The Written Research Report

Short

Long

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Guidelines for Short Reports
Tell reader why you are writing Remind reader of request Write in an expository style Write report and hold for review Attach detailed materials in appendix

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Long Reports

Technical

Management

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Report Modules

Prefatory Information Introduction Methodology Findings Conclusions Appendices Bibiography

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Components: Short Report Memo or Letter-Style 1. Introduction 
    Problem statement Research objectives Background Summary and conclusions Recommendations

2. Conclusions

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Components: Short Report Technical 1. Prefatory Information (all) 2. Introduction (all plus brief methods and limitations) 3. Findings 4. Conclusions 5. Appendices

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Components: Long, Report Management 1. Prefatory Information (all) 2. Introduction (all plus brief methods and limitations) 3. Conclusions and Recommendations 4. Findings 5. Appendices

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Components: Long Report Technical 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Prefatory Information Introduction Methodology Findings Conclusions Appendices Bibliography

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Exhibit 22-3 Example Findings Page

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Prewriting Concerns
What is the report¶s purpose? Who will read the report? What are the circumstances? How will the report be used?

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The Outline
I. Major Topic Heading A. Major subtopic heading 1. Subtopic a. Minor subtopic 1) Further detail

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Types of Outlines
Topic I. Demand A. How measured 1. Voluntary error 2. Shipping error a. Monthly variance Sentence I. Demand for refrigerators A. Measured in terms f factory shipments as reported by the U.S. Department of Commerce 1. Error is introduced into year to year comparisons

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Exhibit 21-4 Grammar and Style Proofreader Results

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Considerations for Writing

Readability Comprehensibility Tone

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Adjusting Pace

Use ample white space Use headings Use visual aids Use italics and underlining Choose words carefully Repeat and summarize Use service words strategically

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Avoiding Overcrowded Text

Use shorter paragraphs Indent parts of text Use headings Use bullets

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Presentation of Statistics

Text Tables

Semi-tabular Graphics

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Example of Text Presentation Wal-Mart¶s continued ascendancy to the ranks of super-business is clearly visible in a comparison between it and the Forbes 500 top-ranked business, General Electric. While ranked 6th overall, Wal-Mart surpasses the number 1-ranked GE in overall sales (85.6% greater) and sales growth over the previous year (167.3% greater).

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Example of Semi-Tabular Presentation ‡ Wal-Mart¶s sales ($244.5 billion) are 85.6% greater than GE sales (131.6 billion) ‡ Wal-Mart¶s sales growth (12.3%) is 1.7 times greater than GE¶s sales growth (4.6%) ‡ Wal-Mart¶s profit growth (20.5%) is 2.9 times greater than GE¶s profit growth (7.1%)

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Example of Tabular Presentation
Company Rank Sales Sales Growth 4.60% 12.30% Profits Profit Growth 7.1% 20.5%

GE Wal-Mart

1 6

$131,698 m $244,524 m

$15,133 m $8,039 m

Internet Access and Online Service Usage (2000)*
____Have Internet Access____ Any online Internet usage Used any online service in the past 30 days

Title Column Heads

Item

Total adults

Home or work

Home only

Work only

B a n n e r

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Total Adults (1,000) PERCENT DISTRIBUTION Age 18 to 34 years old 35 to 54 years old 55 years old or over Gender Male Female

199,438

90,458

112,949

77,621

50,476

75,409

Exhibit 21-5 Sample Tabular Findings

32.5 39.9 27.6 48 52.0 47.9 36.9 15.2 42.1 23.7 57.2 19.1 22.5 26.5 51.0 55.1 20.7 20.1 4.1

39.7 47.7 12.7 49.8 50.2 40.2 44.4 15.4 47.7 27.5 61.6 10.9 38.0 34.8 27.2 33.6 26.2 32.6 7.6

37.9 46.0 16.2 48.5 51.5 41.0 43.3 15.7 47.0 26.0 61.1 12.9 33.6 33.7 32.8 38.3 25.7 29.4 6.7

35.1 49.4 15.5 49.3 50.7 37.9 45.9 16.2 48.7 23.4 66.2 10.3 38.6 34.0 27.3 29.9 26.9 34.7 8.5

34.9 5534 9.7 52.3 47.7 41.8 44.6 13.6 48.0 22.6 65.3 12.0 49.2 30.6 20.3 23.3 27.4 39.6 9.7

40.3 47.4 12.3 49.3 50.7 29.5 44.5 16.1 47.9 28.4 60.6 47.9 37.8 35.0 27.2 32.9 26.0 33.1 8.0

S t u b

Household size 1 to 2 persons 3 to 4 persons 5 or more persons Any child in household Marital Status Single Married Other Educational Attainment Graduated college plus Attended college Did not attend college Household Income Less than $50,000 $50,000 to $74,000 $75,000 to $149,000 $150,000 or more

Body

* For persons 18 years or age or older (199,438). As of spring. Based on sample and subject to sampling error; see source for details. Source: Mediamark Research, Inc. New York, NY. CyberStats, © Spring 2000. Internet site http://www.mediamark.com (accessed 23 May 2000).

Footnote Source Note

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Example Graphics Presentation

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Exhibit 21-7 Sample Line Graph

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Exhibit 21-9 Sample Area Chart

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Exhibit 21-9 Sample Pie Charts

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Sample Bar Chart

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Pictographs and Geographs

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Exhibit 21-10 3-D Graphs

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The Oral Report

Opening Findings and conclusions Recommendations

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Presentation Type

Extemporaneous

Memorized

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Speaker Characteristics
Vocal ‡ Do you speak softly? ‡ Do you speak too rapidly? ‡ Do you vary volume, tone, and rate of speaking? ‡ Do you use nonwords (e.g., you know, uhm)? Physical ‡ Do you rock back and forth? ‡ Do you fiddle with things? ‡ Do you stare into space? ‡ Do you misuse visuals?

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Audiovisuals
Low Tech ‡ Chalkboard/ Whiteboard ‡ Handouts ‡ Flip charts ‡ Overhead transparencies ‡ Slides High Tech ‡ Computer-drawn visuals ‡ Computer animation

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Key Terms
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Area chart Bar chart Briefing Executive summary Extemporaneous presentation ‡ Geographic chart ‡ Letter of transmittal ‡ Line graph ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Management report Pace Pictograph Pie chart Readability index Sentence outline Technical report 3-D graphic Topic outline

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