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Overview

• Stressing of welded joints:

– Bending analysis of welds – Stress Concentration – Fatigue of welded joints

Bending Analysis of Welds • Bending analysis of welded structures follows on closely from analysis of torsional loading: – breaking the applied loads down into direct (primary) loads (tension and/or shear loads) and (secondary) bending moment – analysing the primary stresses due to the direct loads as force/area – analysing the secondary stresses due to the bending moment. unit second moment of area Iu .

Stressing of welds in combined bending/shearing • For a cantilever with fillet welds along its top and bottom faces: F l .

Stressing of welds in combined bending/shearing • Replace applied load F with V and M: V M .

707 hl = 1.Stressing of welds in combined bending/shearing V F τ '= = A A A = 2 × 0.414hl .

Stressing of welds in combined bending/shearing • The moment M produces bending stresses σ in the welds • It is usual to assume that this stress acts normal to the throat area • True depth of the weld is usually small compared to other dimensions • By treating the welds as lines we can use the unit second moment of area for bending .

707h d b A = 1.Stressing of welds in combined bending/shearing • In this case: 0.414hb b x= 2 d y= 2 bd 2 Iu = 2 .

Stressing of welds in combined bending/shearing • Unit 2nd moment of area about horizontal axis is: bd 2 Iu = 2 • Second moment of area is: I = 0.707 hI u • Normal stress (at a distance y from the neutral axis) is: Ty σ= I .

.Stressing of welds in combined bending/shearing If there is no shear loading: • Assume that the maximum shear stress in the weld is equal to the nominal tensile (or compressive) stress we have calculated based on the throat area • Assess the strength of the weld by comparing this nominal shear stress with the allowable shear stress in the material.

Combining the shear and bending stresses • Shigley et al use vectorial combination of stresses • A better approach is to use Mohr’s circle (for 2 or 3 dimensional stresses) 2θ σ +τ .

Example • Estimate the safety factor in the bracket if the maximum allowable stress is 120 MPa 120 F = 7.5 kN 6 120 6 60 6 .

Example • Use the relationships from row 5 of the table in appendix A A = 0.707h( b + 2d ) b x= 2 d2 y= b + 2d 3 2d Iu = − 2d 2 y + ( b + 2d ) y 2 3 120 60 .

12 ) 2 120 F = 7.707 × 6 × 10 −3 ( 0.273 × 10 m −3 = 0.89 MPa 120 .707h( b + 2d ) = 1.5 ×103 τ '= = A 1.5 kN V 7.Example: Primary Stress • The primary stress is F/A (as always!) A = 0.273 × 10 −3 = 5.06 + 2 × 0.

12))( 48 ×10 −3 ) 3 = 460.12) 2 × 48 ×10 −3 + (0.12 2 y= = = 48 mm b + 2d 0.12) 3 = − 2(0.06 + 2(0.12) • The unit second moment of area is: 2d 3 Iu = − 2d 2 y + ( b + 2d ) y 2 3 2 2(0.06 + 2(0.Example: Secondary Stress • The vertical centroid distance is: d2 0.8 ×10 −6 m 3 .

707 hI u = 0.954 ×10 −6 m 4 My 7.5 ×103 × 72 ×10 −3 σ= = I XX 1.8 ×10 −6 = 1.954 ×10 −6 = 33.16 MPa 72 120 .Example: Secondary Stress • The maximal secondary stress occurs furthest from the neutral axis (maximum y.707 × 6 × 10 −3 × 460. AKA c = 72 mm) I = 0.

175 MPa σ (33.16. 5. 5.6° 34.Example: total stress • Combine the primary and secondary stresses using Mohr’s circle: (0.89) +τ .89) 2θ = 19.

8° off the horizontal and acting on the toe of the vertical weld • This represents a safety factor (under static loading of a ductile material) of 120 n= = 3. 9.5 34.Example: Secondary Stress • The maximal stress is 34.175 MPa.175 .

Stress Concentrations • For elastic materials nominal stress is F t b F σ nom = bt • Saint-Venant’s Principle says this is so beyond a characteristic length (b) from a stress raiser F .

Stress Concentrations • Maximum stresses may be much larger than the nominal • Stress concentration factor is: F t b σ m ax K= σ nom F .

reducing section – note the blend radii .Stress Concentration • Stress concentration factors are found empirically (look for them in tables) • Stress concentrations are geometry and surface finish stress concentration in a flat bar of dependent.

Stress Concentration • In ductile materials stress concentrations are usually ignored due to material flow • Stress concentrations must be accounted for in designs involving: – brittle materials (which are very sensitive) – Fatigue loading – Impact loading Photoelastic and FEA determination of stress concentrations in the flat bar of reducing section .

2 on a reinforced butt weld • Reduces to 1 if weld is “dressed” .Stress concentrations in welds • Stress concentration is 1.

Stress concentrations in welds • Stress concentration at the end of a parallel fillet weld is 2.7 .

0 .Stress concentrations in welds • Fatigue Stress concentration factors (Kfs ) for weld and parent metal: • • • • Reinforced butt weld 1.2 Toe of transverse fillet 1.7 T weld with sharp corners 2.5 End of parallel fillet 2.

• For steel the fatigue limit is around 50% of the UTS for static loading • For aluminium it’s poorly defined but around 25% of UTS Fatigue limit is shown on the S-N (endurance) diagram Failure stress σ Fatigue limit Number of cycles to failure .Fatigue Loading • Many materials exhibit a fatigue limit. below this limit fatigue failure is unlikely.

R. R.. Mischke.gowelding.. Mechanics of Materials (4th edition).roymech. and Timoshenko. 1997.M.. S. Mechanical Engineering Design (7th international edition). Boston. .P. J. • Gere.E. 2004.com/ – all manner of information • Shigley. McGraw Hill.Welding & Fatigue Resources • http://www. PWS Publishing. Budynas. J.G.co.uk/Useful_Tables/Fatigu – Tables of stress concentration factors + design guide • http://www. C.

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- 41 Bending of Welds

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