Computer

Hardware

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In 

this chapter, we will study:
The hardware components of an information system:
CPU (central processing unit)  Memory (primary and secondary storage)  Input devices  Output devices. 

The classification of computers by power.  Strategic issues regarding hardware. 

increase revenue and provide better service  Managers are expected to know about hardware To help define business needs  To ask questions and evaluate options when buying equipment  .Why Learn About Hardware?  Can improve productivity.

processing. storage.Hardware : An Introduction  Hardware: any machinery (most of which use digital circuits) that assists in the input. and output activities of an information system .

Computer System The CPU Control ALU Unit Input Devices Registers Primary Storage Output Devices Communication Devices Secondary Storage .

The CPU A microprocessor that executes instructions to perform processing tasks. Component parts are: Control Unit  Arithmetic-Logic Unit  Registers  Primary Storage  The CPU Control ALU Unit Registers Primary Storage .

The CPU (continued)  Control  Unit Access program instructions  Decode (interpret) instructions  Control the flow of data throughout system  Data flows through paths called buses The CPU Control ALU Unit Registers Primary Storage .

The CPU (continued)  Arithmetic-Logic  Unit Perform computations on data  Perform comparisons on data The CPU Control ALU Unit Registers Primary Storage .

The CPU (continued)  Registers High speed storage areas  Hold data and instructions  The CPU Control ALU Unit Registers Primary Storage .

The CPU (continued)  Primary  Storage (Main Memory) Stores instructions from programs  Stores data to be processed The CPU Control ALU Unit Registers Primary Storage .

The CPU (continued)  Machine  Instruction Cycle An instruction is fetched from primary storage by the Control Unit  The Control Unit decodes the instruction  The ALU receives the data and the instruction and performs the calculation or comparison  The result is stored in primary storage. Machine cycle time is measured in: Nanoseconds (1 billionth of a second) Picoseconds (1 trillionth of a second) MIPS (millions of instructions per second) .

The CPU (continued)   Computer performance is measured by the number of Machine Instruction Cycles performed per second. Factors affecting this performance include: Clock Speed series of electronic pulses produced at a predetermined rate that affects machine cycle time  Word Length  Line Width  .

Hardware Components in Action  Step 1: Fetch instruction  Step 2: Decode instruction  Step 3: Execute instruction  Step 4: Store results .

Hardware Components in Action (continued) Execution of an Instruction .

Physical Characteristics of the CPU Digital circuits on chips  Electrical current flows through silicon  Moore¶s Law: transistor density of chips will double every 18 months  .

CPU Architecture simultaneous execution of two or more instructions at the same time  Multiprocessing using coprocessors  Multiprocessing:  Coprocessor: speeds processing by executing specific types of instructions while the CPU works on another processing activity .

Parallel Computing  Parallel computing: simultaneous execution of the same task on multiple processors to obtain results faster Parallel Processing Pipelining   .

Parallel Computing (continued)  Different  approaches to achieving parallel computing Single instruction/multiple data (SIMD) parallel processors  Multiple instruction/multiple data (MIMD) parallel processors  Grid computing: use of a collection of computers. to work in a coordinated manner to solve a common problem . often owned by multiple individuals or organizations.

Other Architectures  CISC( Complex Instruction Set Computer)  RISC ( Reduced Instruction Set Computer) .

Computer Memory The CPU Control ALU Unit Input Devices Registers Primary Storage Output Devices Communication Devices Secondary Storage .

The binary system consists of two values: 0 & 1 8 bits = byte Bytes are the basic measure of storage in computers Kilobytes. and represent data in bit patterns Bit is shorthand for Binary digIT. Gigabytes. Megabytes.Computer Memory Basics      Computers are digital. Terabytes .

but not on the CPU chip itself  Rapidly provides data and instructions to the CPU .Memory Characteristics and Functions  Main  memory Located physically close to the CPU.

Types of Memory  Random  access memory (RAM) Temporary and volatile  Types  of RAM DRAM (Dynamic RAM)  SRAM (Static RAM) .

Types of Memory (continued)  Types  of nonvolatile memory ROM (read-only memory)  PROM (programmable read-only memory)  EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory)  Cache memory: high-speed memory that a processor can access more rapidly than main memory .

Types of Memory (continued) SRAM Basic Types of Memory Chips EDO*.Extended Data Out .

Types of Memory (continued) Cache Memory .

output. Serial . and storage  Connect via Ports  parallel.Peripherals  Devices that are separate from the basic computer  Classified  as input.

Storage Devices  Secondary  storage Data and programs must be copied to primary memory for CPU access  Online storage  Offline storage ± loaded when needed .

Storage Capacity Computer Storage Units .

Speed  Measured by access time and data transfer rate  Access time: average time it takes a computer to locate data and read it  millisecond = one-thousandth of a second  Data transfer rate: amount of data that moves per second .

Secondary Storage  Compared with memory. and portability required are determined by the information system¶s objectives . storage capacities. greater capacity. and greater economy  Access methods. offers the advantages of nonvolatility.

Access Methods  Sequential  access: records must be retrieved in order Devices used are called sequential access storage devices (SASDs)  Direct  access: records can be retrieved in any order Devices used are called direct access storage devices (DASDs) .

Devices        Magnetic tapes Magnetic disks RAID( Redundant Array of Independent Disks) Optical disks Digital video disk (DVD) Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) Memory cards .

Enterprise Storage Options  Attached storage  Network-attached storage (NAS)  Storage area network (SAN) .

Magnetic Disks       Track ± circle Cylinder ± same track on all platters Block ± small arc of a track Sector ± pie-shaped part of a platter Head ± reads data off the disk Number of bits on each track is the same! Denser towards the center. .

A Hard Disk Layout .

Locating a Block of Data  Average seek time: time required to move from one track to another  Latency: time required for disk to rotate to beginning of correct sector Transfer time: time required to transfer a block of data to the disk controller buffer  .

Disk Access Times 


Avg. Seek time 

average time to move from one track to another average time to rotate to the beginning of the sector Avg. Latency time = ½ * 1/rotational speed
1/(# of sectors * rotational speed)

Avg. Latency time 
 

 

Transfer time 

Transfer Rate
Number of bytes stored per track * rotational speed

Total Time to access a disk block 

Avg. seek time + avg. latency time + avg. transfer time

Alternate Disk Technologies 

Removable hard drives  

Disk pack ± disk platters are stored in a plastic case that is removable Another version includes the disk head and arm assembly in the case One head per track Eliminates the seek time 

Fixed-head disk drives 


Magnetic Tape 
Offline

storage  Archival purposes  Disaster recovery  Tape Cartridges
20 ± 144 tracks (side by side)  Read serially (tape backs up) 

Optical Storage   Reflected light off a mirrored or pitted surface CD-ROM    Spiral 3 miles long. 2 sides = 17G . 4 id) 288 bytes for advanced error control  DVD-ROM   4. containing 15 billion bits! CLV ± all blocks are same physical length Block ± 2352 bytes    2k of data (2048 bytes) 16 bytes for header (12 start.7G per layer Max 2 layers per side.

Optical Storage   Laser strikes land: light reflected into detector Laser strikes a pit: light scattered .

Displays Pixel ± picture element  Size: diagonal length of screen  Resolution (pixels on screen)  VGA: 480 x 640  SVGA: 600 x 800  768 x 1024  1280 x 1024  Picture size calculation  Resolution * bits required to represent number of colors in picture  Example: 16 color image. 100 pixels by 50 pixels 4 bits (16 colors) * 100 * 50 = 20.000 bits  .

Display Screen    Screen size: measured diagonally Resolution: minimum identifiable pixel size Aspect ratio: x pixels to y pixels   4:3 on most PCs 16:9 on high definition displays .

Color and Displays  Pixel color is determined by intensity of 3 colors ± Red Green Blue or RGB  4 bits per color  16 x 16 x 16 = 4096 colors  24  bit color (True Color) 16.7 million colors  Video memory requirements are significant! .

non-interlaced (progressive scan)  Text monitors    24 lines x 80 chars A character is the smallest unit on a screen Very little memory required .CRT¶s and Text Monitors  CRTs (similar to TVs)     3 stripes of phosphors for each color 3 separate electron guns for each color Strength of beam brightness of color Raster scan   30x per second Interlaced vs.

Interlaced vs Non interlaced .

green. and blue light Final filter lets through the brightness of light proportional to the polarization twist .LCD ± Liquid Crystal Display    Fluorescent light panel 3 color cells per pixel Operation     1st filter polarizes light in a specific direction Electric charge rotates molecules in liquid crystal cells proportional to the strength of colors Color filters only let through red.

Printers  IMPACT  Printers Dot matrix ± usually 24 pins. impact printing  Typewriter / Daisy wheels  Non-IMPACT  Printers Inkjet ± squirts heated droplets of ink  Laserjet .

Speed: 40cps Bidirectional printer Line spacing time =25ms Company uses 72 line per page stationary and each page contain only 60 line. (assume 80 column per page) Ans : 6105 second . The entire bill runs to 50 pages. Estimate printing time in sec.The ABC Company uses a printer( Daisy wheel) with the following characteristic to print their monthly bill.

5. Dots of laser light are beamed onto a drum Drum becomes electrically charged Drum passes through toner which then sticks to the electrically charged places Electrically charged paper is fed toward the drum Toner is transferred from the drum to the paper The fusing system heats and melts the toner onto the paper A corona wire resets the electrical charge on the drum . 7.Laser Printer Operation 1. 3. 2. 6. 4.

mouse. graphics tablets  Communication  Telephone modems  Network devices . light pens. hand-held  Light is reflected off the sheet of paper   User  Input Devices Devices Keyboard. sheet-fed.Other Computer Peripherals  Scanners Flatbed.

Input and Output Devices: The Gateway to Computer Systems  Through input and output devices. people provide data and instructions to the computer and receive results from it  Selection of input and output devices depends on organizational goals and IS objectives .

Characteristics and Functionality  Data can be human-readable or machine-readable  Data entry: converts human-readable data into machine-readable form  Data input: transfers machine-readable data into system  Source data automation: capturing and editing data where the data is initially created and in a form that can be directly input to a computer .

Input Devices  Personal  computer input devices Keyboard  Mouse  Speech-recognition  Digital technology cameras  Terminals .

Input Devices (continued)        Scanning devices Optical data readers Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) devices Automated teller machine (ATM) devices Pen input devices Touch-sensitive screens Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) .

Output Devices  Display monitors  Liquid crystal displays (LCDs)  Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)  Printers and plotters  Digital audio player .

.Computer Classifications  Computers are commonly classified by their processing power:       Supercomputers Mainframes Midrange Workstations Microcomputers Computing appliances  Classification boundaries are blurred.

Selecting and Upgrading Computer Systems  Dispose of old equipment properly  Consider factors such as speed. cost. and performance when upgrading Hard drive  Main memory  Printer  .

END .

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