A state in which an employee

identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.


Affective Commitment : Defined as the employee's positive emotional attachment to the organization. An employee who is affectively committed strongly identifies with the goals of the organization and desires to remain a part of the organization. 

Continuance Commitment


The individual commits to the organization because he/she perceives high costs of losing organizational membership, including economic costs (such as pension accruals) and social costs (friendship ties with co-workers) cothat would be incurred. 



The individual commits to and remains with an organization because of feelings of obligation. These feelings may derive from many sources. For example, the organization may have example, invested resources in training an employee who then feels a 'moral' obligation to put forth effort on the job and stay with the organization to 'repay the debt.'

Guidlines to enhance organizational commitment

1) Commit to people-first values: Put it in peoplevalues: writing, hire the right-kind managers, and walk rightthe talk. 2) Clarify and communicate your mission: mission: Clarify the mission and ideology; make it charismatic; use value-based hiring practices; valuestress values-based orientation and training; valuesbuild the tradition.

3) Guarantee organizational justice: Have a justice: comprehensive grievance procedure; provide for extensive two-way communications. twopractise: value4) Community of practise: Build value-based homogeneitly, cross-utilization, and teamwork; crossgetting people to work together.

5) Support employee development: Commit to development: actualizing; provide first-year job challenge; firstenrich and empower; promote from within; provide developmental activities; provide employee security without guarantees.

Is a structured approach to individuals, teams, transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations from a current state to a desired future state.

1 Nature Of Work Place: Place: EXAMPLES More cultural diversity Aging population Many new entrants with inadequate skills

2 Technology:
EXAMPLE Faster, cheaper and more mobile computers

3 Economic shocks:
EXAMPLE Rise and fall in stock market



EXAMPLES Global competitors Mergers and consolidators

Social trends:

EXAMPLES Internet chat rooms Retirement of baby boomers

Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one¶s job; an affective reaction to one¶s job; and an attitude towards one¶s job. This definition suggests that we form attitudes towards our jobs by taking into account our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviors

Models of job satisfaction 

Affect Theory

Edwin A. Locke¶s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. 

Dispositional Theory

It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one¶s job. 

Two-Factor Theory (MotivatorTwo(Motivator-

Hygiene Theory) Theory) Frederick Herzberg¶s Two factor theory Herzberg¶s (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors ± motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. 

Job Characteristics Model

Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a Model, framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction.

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