estern part of ltanate in northw su Borneo, ically located off it was strateg outh China Sea. he sea lanes of S t authority over owever, Brunei’s H y had begun to its vast territor the coming of the weaken due to s. estern powers. W

inning of 16 Be g tnery as an important cenu u i w Br

Who are those Western Powers?




In 1577 and 1580,
Spanish tried to conquer Brunei with naval attacks.

they even ransacked Brunei Town in 1645.

However, they did not succeed in establishing a lasting hold over Brunei. Thus it was left to Dutch and British in their attempt to dominate Borneo

In 1600, Dutch Admiral, Oliver van Noort visited Brunei. Dutch were not interested in North Borneo but they focused on southern and western parts of Borneo. When the Dutch merchants arrived, they began to develop trade relations with sultanates along southern & western coasts of Borneo.

Oliver Van Noort’s Ship

What is Northern Part of Borneo?
The Northern Part of Borneo is Sabah.

What are the Southern and Western Parts of Borneo?
The Southern Part of Borneo is Sarawak and the Western Part of Borneo is Kalimantan

ters struck when disas ied to establish Dutch tr themselves.
• 1603 - Dutch factory in

attacked • 1610 - Factory in Sambas was destroyed

century d of 18 En

h succeeded Dutc partially in ishing their establ ontrol in the c western and f thern part o sou eo by using Born s in an , ce verd political development for Howe omopy. soon forced them to dipl ur ac e E from most of their withdraw . rritories in Borneo te

In 1780 Dutch entered American War of independence.

In the end, bankruptcy occurred which ruined the Dutch East Indies Company and made it impossible for them to manage their territories

Beginning of 19th century
British concentrated on the northern part of the island due to strategic reasons. Dutch extended their influence in southern part for political and commercial reasons.

ia Company ish East Ind Engl (EIC)

North Borneo became important to British as they needed a place for their ships to stop over between Straits of Malacca and .

ritish interest in North B Borneo

British captured Manila in 1762 during the Seven tears war in Europe but had no long-term interest on it so it was returned to Spain in 1764.

January 1761, Alexander Dalrymple made a treaty of Alliance and Commerce with Sultan of Sulu. In 1763, he obtained Sulu territories in North Borneo. Later in 1773, British small factory was established in Balambangan.

Balambangan was the best location for a centre of trade in the East. However, it was poorly managed and was abandoned two years later when it was attacked and destroyed by the Sulus.

In 1774, Britain sought refuge in Brunei. Sultan of Brunei then offered the EIC a site which was Labuan for settlement. Because he needed protection from the Sulus. EIC was not interested in acquiring Labuan, instead directors of EIC decided that no new site would be chosen if Balambangan failed.

Britain did not have important trading stations in the East until Singapore was founded by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819

Century 19

Anglo-Dutch Treaty 1824
The treaty was signed on 23 March 1824 and through this treaty, Dutch and

British agreed to settle their territorial conflicts in the East.

As a result:The Dutch control the south of the Straits of Malacca (southern part of Borneo, Bencoolen) The British control the north of Straits of Malacca (Malacca, Singapore)

 Malay Peninsula & East Indies were separated into two areas of influence. Malay Peninsula was to be British area of influence. Sumatra and all islands to the south of the Strait of Singapore were to be Dutch’s.  Both agreed not to have any settlements in each other’s area.  Bencoolen, a British port in western Sumatra was to be exchanged for Dutchcontrolled Malacca.  British were allowed to remain in Singapore.

 Both agreed to co-operate with each other in removing piracy.  Dutch gained exclusive control over the trade of the Spice islands but not the trade of Malay Archipelago.

James Brooke a wellknown British adventurer, had been a military officer in British India. With the money that his father left for him, James Brooke bought a yacht called the “Royalist”. His plan was to explore the Marudu Bay, New Guinea and Sulu Islands for Scientific and Commercial interests. At that time, he had no political

James Brooke reached in Singapore in 1838 where he heard that Sarawak was rich in antimony ore.So he set off to Lidah Tanah (Kuching) in august 1839. At the same time,Datu Patinggi Ali lead a rebellion against the oppressive Pengiran Indera Mahkota (Brunei’s Governor of Sarawak) who was hated by the local people for using forced labour to extract ore

Pengiran Muda Hashim was sent by Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien II to solve the political problem in Sarawak. However Pengiran Muda Hashim failed to settle due to the dispute he have with Pengiran Indera Mahkota. When James brooke arrived,Pengiran Muda Hashim asked for his help to end the rebellion in return he will be appointed as the Governor of Sarawak.

After James Brooke successfully ended the rebellion, he asked Pengiran Muda Hashim to keep his promise to appoint him as the Governor of Sarawak and forgive the rebels, but Pengiran Muda Hashim Refuse to do so. James Brooke was very angry that he threatened to attack the house of Pengiran

Later, on 24 September 1841,Pengiran Muda Hashim had to appoint James Brooke as the Governor of Sarawak by signing the Treaty of 1841.Due to this treaty, Pengiran Indera Mahkota had to step down and left for Mukah. Realizing the treaty was not binding without the Sultan’s approval, James brooke then set off for Brunei and signed Treaty of 1842 with Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien II on 31 July 1842.Under the terms of the treaty, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien II confirmed James