Geography 200 Dr. Stavros Constantinou
The name India comes from the Sanskrit word sindhu which was used to identify the ancient civilization in the Indus Valley. This word became sinthos in Greek descriptions of the area and then sindus in Latin. Corrupted to indus (means river), it was applied to what constitutes today's Pakistan. Subsequently it was again modified to India to refer generally to the land of river basins and clusters of peoples from the Indus River in the west to the Brahmaputra River in the east.
INDIA: LOCATION AND SIZE
India is located between 8° N and 37° N. The Tropic of Cancer passes through northern India. Such cities as Ahmadabad, Kolkata (Calcutta), Karachi, Bhopal and Dhaka are located close to the tropic. India, the world's seventh largest country, has an area of 3,286,170 sq km (1,269,340 sq mi) which represents 2.2 percent of the total land area of the planet (57,900,000 sq mi).
± Bhutan has 900. ± The climate ranges from tropical lowlands to Arctic conditions in the high altitudes of Mount Everest and other peaks. ± The Karakoram Pass provides access from north-central India through the Himalayan and Hindu Kush mountains.035 ft).000 and Sikkim less than one million. ± The Khyber Pass in the west was used by invading groups. ± Rice and wheat are the dominant grain crops. Alpine system: The Himalayas form a major barrier to the movements of air masses north and south and exceed 6. Sikkim has been incorporated into India and is one of its provinces. sedimentary covers.000 ft) in several locations.
± Mount Everest (Nepal: Sagarmatha. ± Population in the Himalayas is limited except in the Vale of Kashmir and in Nepal (25. and Gondwana Shield. Tibetan: Chomolungma) is the world¶s highest mountain at 8.000 people).848 m (29.
.096 m (20.200.INDIA: LANDFORMS
There are three main landform regions in South Asia: Alpine chains.
± Soils (inceptisols) are derived from alluvium and they are relatively fertile and generally level. the Ganges (known as Ganga to Indians). India. ± The climate varies from arid in Punjab to tropical around the Bay of Bengal.INDIA: LANDFORMS
Sedimentary covers: The riverine plains of the Indus. ± This region of plains is from 320 to 500 km (200 to 300 mi) wide and it extends through Pakistan. ± The Ganges River with its various tributaries is the major river of northern India. ± The North Indian Plain forms a belt of alluvial lowlands stretching from Pakistan¶s Indus River on the west to the Brahmaputra on the east. and the Brahmaputra and the coastal plains of the Indian Peninsula form this region.
. and Bangladesh. irrigation has created environmental problems through accumulation of salts (salinization). In the arid areas.
on the west. primarily cultivated with cotton. ± The coastal areas have a humid tropical climate with abundant rain from the orographic effect of the Ghats.
. at the southern margin are the Blue Mountains which exceed 2. ± This plateau is framed on the north by the Vindhyas and the Tapti and Godavari Rivers. ± The central portion of the Deccan Plateau has fertile soils (vertisols). the Western Ghats (Hills) lining the Malabar Coast.800 ft).500 ft).000 to 1.600 m (8. ± Elevations of the Deccan Plateau are approximately 305 to 450 m (1. the Eastern Ghats paralleling the Coromandel Coast. derived from volcanic materials.INDIA: LANDFORMS
Gondwana Shield: This landform region extends southward from the southern borders of the Ganges drainage area and includes the lava covered Deccan Plateau. on the east.
In winter. The air movement effectively prevents moisture from the oceans from moving into the core area of India along the Ganges and dry conditions predominate. Land heats quickly and loses the heat quickly while bodies of water heat up slowly and lose heat slowly. During the summer the jet stream moves north of the Himalayas allowing moist air to penetrate the continent from the oceans. Air flows from land to sea with dry conditions in winter and a sea-to-land movement in summer with humid conditions. With few exceptions the climate of Monsoon Asia is tropical or subtropical. The causes of the monsoon are the shifting of the jet stream north and south of the Himalayas and the differential heating between land and water. the jet stream is divided with one part south of the Himalayas.INDIA: CLIMATE
The monsoon (the seasonal reversal of wind systems) is the dominant climate force.
Tropical savanna (Aw): Western reaches of Vindhya Ranges to Ganges Delta. Humid subtropical (Cwa): Ganges Valley. Subtropical desert (BWh): Indus Valley and the Thar (Great Indian) Desert. 4. Tropical rainforest (Am): Coromandel and Malabar coastal regions.INDIA: CLIMATIC REGIONS
1. Rainshadow effect of Western Ghats. Subtropical steppe (BSh): Deccan Plateau. Inadequate summer moisture. 3. Controls-latitude and orographic effect. 5. 2.
The main vegetation regions of India are the following:
1. 4. minimum height one meter (3 feet).
6. It surrounds the area above. Broadleaf deciduous ( terai): An extensive area from the Gangetic Plains to southern India. shrub form. Bihar and Orissa. Coromandel Coast and Sri Lanka. Broadleaf deciduous trees.
2. Broadleaf evergreen: Malabar Coast. Broadleaf deciduous: Extensive area in northwestern India and Pakistan. Semi-deciduous: broadleaf evergreen and broadleaf deciduous: They are found in an area inward from the Malabar Coast and the lower valley of the Ganges. Broadleaf evergreen. Shrubs can grow to a maximum of one meter (three feet) singly or in groups. Broadleaf deciduous: Same as above except trees grow to a minimum of one meter singly or in groups. 3.
. Terai Lowlands in Nepal. 5.
They are immature and weakly developed soils. Aridisols: Northwestern India and Pakistan. Alfisols: Northern sections of the Gangetic plain and extending to Kathiawar Peninsula. Salts may accumulate on or near the surface of these soils which are poor in organic matter. They are also found in area south of 20 degrees N latitude and along the Coromandel Coast. Inceptisols: They are found in the Gangetic plains and the Malabar Coast. 5.INDIA: SOILS
The main soil regions of India are the following:
1. These soils are rich in clays and crack deeply during dry periods. 2. 4. 3.
. Vertisols: An extensive area from north of Mumbai (Bombay) to the Ganges River. Ultisols: They are found in northeastern India (Bihar and Orissa).
India has the largest deposit of high-grade iron ore in the world. a single range is estimated to hold nearly three billion tons of iron ore. India is the second largest producer of grains. The country does not lead the world in any of the important minerals or other sources of energy useful for industrialization and development. making it difficult to increase production. Iron ore deposits are also important in the state of Karnataka. despite gains.6 percent of the world's iron ore and has 6.INDIA: RESOURCES
India has a rather poor resource base. India produces 5. Low productivity per person in the agricultural sector accentuate the problems of population.
. The possibility for expanding production of grains remains very low.6 percent of the world's reserves in iron ore. In Bihar state alone.
India produces 2. and it produces 5. Limited coking-coal deposits are found in Chota Nagpur.5 percent of the world's bauxite.
.2 percent) in the central Deccan plateau and eastern Coromandel Coast.8 percent of the world's coal.2 percent of the world's chromite. and manganese (5. phosphates in the Thar Desert. India has important deposits of uranium. Coal and steel are produced in the Damodar Valley fields of northeastern India which account for more than 50 percent of coal production. provided dams are constructed to exploit the rivers of the country. India has a great hydroelectric potential.INDIA: RESOURCES
India produces 3. India has discovered oil deposits in the Bay of Bengal which hold promise for further expansion.
it is only a matter of time before India becomes the world's most populous country.068.INDIA: POPULATION GEOGRAPHY
India had 1.363. The largest clusters of the Indian population are found in the Gangetic plains in the north and the coastal areas of the country.7% (compared to a 1. These are the most fertile parts of India. At this rate. the world's second largest country in population after China.600.
. India has a rate of natural increase of 1.000 by 2025.000 people in 2003 (17% of the world total).3% world rate) and a projected population of 1.000.
000 people from 2002 to 2003. From 2001 to 2002.002. The population of the country quadrupled in 80 years.100. India had 1. The Ganges-Brahmaputra and Indus River systems are crucial lifelines for hundreds of millions of people. while in 1920 the population of the country was 250.
. the absolute population increase of 16.500.000 people.100.000.000. In 2000.000.INDIA: POPULATION GEOGRAPHY
There was an increase of 19.
INDIA: POPULATION GEOGRAPHY
In India.639 persons per sq mi). 1.
. physiological density (in 2000) was at 557 persons per square kilometer (1442 persons per square mile).040 persons per sq km (2.5 times as high. In neighboring Bangladesh the arithmetic density is approximately 2. population arithmetic density (in 2003) was 325 persons per sq km (842 persons per sq mi).
INDIA: POPULATION GEOGRAPHY
In 1952. Only 8% of federal assistance was tied to performance on birth control by states. In 1977. ± provision of sex education in schools. ± tying financial grants from the federal government to the state governments to their performance in limiting births." In 1976. ± expansion of compensation for voluntary sterilization. ± and use of incentives by governments to encourage people to limit their family size. five is a crowd. the Indian government adopted family planning as a national policy. a national population policy was adopted including: ± the increase of the age of marriage for females to 18 years and for males to 21. ± As a part of the government campaign to limit the number of children.
. this policy was made voluntary following the collapse of the Indira Gandhi government.165 family planning clinics. ± By 1961. there were 4. the government has put up billboards with the following slogan: "four is a family.
439 followed by Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) with 4.216. given that only 28 percent of the country's population resided in urban areas. Mumbai (formerly Bombay). India was one of the least urbanized of the large in population countries of the world. 11 Indian cities have populations in excess of one million inhabitants. Although the proportion classified as urban is small.817.368.208.458
. The largest metropolitan area populations of India are: ± Mumbai 16.914. with 11.546 ± Delhi 12.580.544.INDIA: URBAN GEOGRAPHY
In 2003.000 people residing in urban centers.398 people. in absolute numbers India had 299.084 ± Kolkata 13. is the largest city of India in terms of population. Delhi ranks second with 9.791.
.INDIA: URBAN GEOGRAPHY
Indian urbanization is accelerating. ± Widespread establishment of village men or "caste brothers" who encourage friends and relatives to move to the cities. riots between Hindu and Moslems in Mumbai left hundreds dead. street dwellers. Reasons for migration to cities (internal migration):
± Loosening of ties between poor peasants and their villages. and riots. In 1984. Attendant problems include poor sanitation. and urban India is today growing more than twice as rapidly as the country's overall population.
This area is now a part of Bangladesh. In Chennai (Madras).
.INDIA: URBAN GEOGRAPHY
The location of India's modern urban centers is a reflection of colonialism. Mumbai is located on the west coast of India Kolkata (Calcutta) lies 130 kilometers (80 miles) from the east on the Hooghly River. Kolkata (Calcutta) lost a large part of its hinterland to Pakistan at the time of the partitioning of British India. they built a fort in 1640. built adjacently to the old Mogul headquarters of Delhi. Mumbai (Bombay). An 1812 rebellion forced the British to move the colonial capital from Kolkata (Calcutta) to the safer interior city of New Delhi. In Mumbai (Bombay) in 1644. they fostered the growth of a port-city that was closest to Britain and Europe. and Chennai (Madras) as regional trading centers and as coastal focal points for their colony's export and import traffic. The British founded and developed Kolkata (Calcutta). and a myriad of Ganges River delta channels connect it to its hinterland.
an estimated 200.000.000 persons per sq mi) for its entire area of 1036 sq km (400 sq mi). burlap. An estimated 2.000 people live in bustees. New York City averages 1544 persons per sq km (4. in doorways or wherever they can find a spot.900 persons per sq km (36. In Kolkata (Calcutta). Kolkata (Calcutta) averages 13. Slightly better off are the residents of the bustees. or other scrap material.
.000 persons per sq mi). hovels made of cardboard.INDIA: URBAN GEOGRAPHY
Population densities in urban centers are very high.000 residents are known as street people and sleep under bridges. By comparison. railway overpasses.
India's larger cities (more than 100.INDIA: URBAN GEOGRAPHY
Indian urbanization reveals several regional patterns: ± The northern heartland. the west (wheat growing area) is more urbanized than the east (where rice forms the main staple crop). which includes Madras and Bangalore Large cities(more than one million) outside these regions include centrally positioned Nagpur and Hyderabad (capital of Andhra Pradesh). in the east only about 10% of the population resides in urban centers. ± In the west urbanization may be as much as 40%.
.000) are concentrated in three regions: (1) the northern plains from Punjab to the Ganges Delta (2) the Bombay-Ahmadabad area (3) the southern end of the peninsula.
540.892 3.216.000 14.439 4.000.268 3.000.069 2.104.000.223 4.914.515.398 9.540.000
.207.000 6.340 2.580.320 1.215 2.209
2.000 10.000.817.901.707.637.000.000 8.Principal Cities of South Asia
Mumbai (Bombay) Delhi Karachi Kolkata (Calcutta) Bangalore Chennai (Madras) Dhaka Ahmadabad Hyderabad Lahore Poona (Pune) Kanpur Lucknow Nagpur Faisalabad
11.544 4.000 12.627 4.878 2.069 2.000.000.000 4.051.361 3.449.292.
Tamil. Hindi was one of the 14 languages given national status by the Indian constitution.
. In 1947. Dravidian languages are spoken by about 25 percent of the Indian population. the Indian subcontinent had 550 princely states. and languages that belong to the Dravidian family are spoken in southern India. and Malayalam. Languages that are members of the Indo-European family are spoken in the central and northern parts of the country. They include Telugu. 10 in the north and 4 in the Dravidian south. English would remain a lingua franca when Hindi could not serve as a medium of communication at government and administrative levels. 900 separate dialects and 15 major languages. The two major linguistic families are the Indo-European and the Dravidian. Before World War II. the British recognized 179 official languages and 544 dialects (total=723). Hindi is the official and predominant language of India. Today India has fourteen official languages including Hindi and English (associate official). Kannada.INDIA: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY
India is indeed a Babel of languages.
The Ganges River is the most important river of South Asia. including Kolkata (Calcutta) in India and Dhaka in Bangladesh. It is the most sacred of all rivers to the Hindus.INDIA: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY
Southern Asia Is marked by strong cultural regionalism. Division is largely based on religious differences between Moslem dominated and Hindu dominated regions. and provides water to a major urban area along its course. The Hindustan holy city of Varanasi is located on the Ganges.
± Sunni 9.3%
± Protestant 1.4% Zoroastrian 0.9% Buddhist 0.INDIA: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY Religions: Hinduism 81.1% ± Roman Catholic 1.0%
.3% Muslim 12.8% Jain 0.01% Other 1.0% ± Shiite 3.
A caste is a hereditary social group limited to persons of the same rank.INDIA: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY
Hinduism: This system of beliefs forms the cultural basis of the Indian society. and having distinctive mores. since the caste to which one is born in determines the duty that must be followed. occupation. etc. Dharma in Hinduism is the individual duty of each person.
. The caste system is an integral part of Hinduism.. which is highly stratified. Dharma is related to the rigid social order of India (caste system).
and scholars.INDIA: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY Hinduism: Four broad castes exist in Hindu Society: 1. Kshatriya: political leaders and warriors. 2. Brahmans: are the teachers. Vaisya: are engaged in trades or farming. Sudra: are the lowest class and provide services to support the society. religious leaders. 4.
because in the past (and among many Indians today) it is believed that they would contaminate others¶ ritual purity if there was any personal contact between them. Those dealing with death or decaying materials were in the lowest classes of the sudra. had separate wells for water. Untouchables lived in separate communities. were prohibited from using roads used by other castes
. and in the 19th century. At the very bottom of the order are the untouchables (harijans). so called.INDIA: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY
Hinduism: Each of these four broad groups is broken down into subgroups whose relative status is dependent upon their extent of ritual purity (avoidance of contact with unclean objects).
and being liberated from the human processes of death and birth. For the Hindu. or reincarnation.INDIA: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY
Hinduism: Aspect of life related to the cycle of life. but a progression in a circular fashion until freedom is obtained from the cycle. Freedom from continued reincarnation can be obtained through nirvana. which consists of obtaining spiritual unification with the cosmic forces. life is not simply a progression from birth until death. and rebirth.
Karma specifies that for each good act there will be a reward and for each evil act there will be a punishment. An individual's status in the caste system reflects actions in the previous incarnations.INDIA: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY
Associated with nirvana and reincarnation is the concept of karma. It is impossible to move upward in the caste system through education or acquisition of wealth or social change. or law of the deed. since a specific caste is a result of previous actions. Suttee is a Hindu practice whereby a widow immolated herself on the funeral pyre of her husband.
INDIA: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY
Aryan invaders from Western Asia conquered the early Indus Valley civilization around 3500 BC. India¶s culture developed from this beginning. They pushed settlement frontiers east into the Gangetic Plain and south into the center of the peninsula. where it still prevails. remaining strong only in Sri Lanka.
. Buddhism soon declined in South Asia. including the Hindu religion and the caste system ± rigid social stratification. Buddhism was dominant during the Mauryan Empire (3rd century BC to 2nd century AD). Buddhism today is centered mainly in East and Southeast Asia.
Under the Mogul system the individual peasant retained ownership of the land. Taxation of land was based on granting rights to tax to a local authority. The Mogul dynasty collapsed in 1707. The Mogul dynasty was founded in 1526.
. Islam was a strong influence in India. but not Hinduism. After the 10th century. Muslims remain a sizeable minority (slightly less than 15%) in India. bringing with them Islam. driving out Buddhism. and form overwhelming majorities in Pakistan and Bangladesh. leaving a kingdom without a ruler and presenting the opportunity for European domination.INDIA: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY
Arabs invaded northwestern India shortly after 700 AD. which remained dominant in India¶s Ganges core area and southern India.
. ± Period II (1858-1947).INDIA: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY
European contacts in south Asia were made by the Portuguese. French. and British. India as a British Crown Colony. Queen Elizabeth I granted exclusive rights to the spice trade of Asia to the British East India Company. Dutch. but eventually Britain emerged as the dominant colonial power in South Asia. The period of British colonial dominance in India can be divided into two parts : ± Period I (1757-1857). under which India began to come under British control. Domination of India by the British East India Company. All European colonial powers established trading posts for spices and fabrics.
The British introduced many innovations to India. nearly 2/3 of the subcontinent was ruled directly by the company.INDIA: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY
By 1858. the remaining inaccessible areas were controlled by more than 500 princely states. Rebellion of Indian troops against the British in 1857 culminated in a decision to strip the British East India Company of its monopoly and proclaim the subcontinent a crown colony (1858).
. Britain exercised outright political control over India from 1857 to 1947. but forced the colonial economy of India to become a raw material producer subservient to the English master.
.INDIA: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY
The impact of colonialism on India can be summarized as follows:
± Pros: Creation of a civil service patterned after the British model which became part of the new independent governments that were set up upon the departure of the British. India inherited a well planned and developed system. Although the development of this system had as its objective the movement of troops to troubled spots. Development of an extensive railroad and road transportation system. Improvements in sanitation and simple hygienic practices that led to the beginnings of rapid population increases.
Because crops encouraged by the British East India Company were for export. and jute. because of the production of a surplus of textile goods by the mechanized British factories. Destruction of a large Indian textile handicraft industry. opium also became an important crop. and a large rural landless class emerged.INDIA: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY
Cons: The British East India Company granted the village representatives deeds to the lands from which they had collected taxes under the Moguls. Peasants produced crops demanded by the British East India Company including coffee. the village representatives became landlords charging cash rent. as it could be resold or traded in China for additional high-value spices. spices. Maintenance of the cultural fragmentation of the subcontinent through the application of indirect rule. sugar. cotton. tea. Property ultimately ended in the hands of urban moneylenders as peasants borrowed at exorbitant interest rates to pay taxes. As British influence in Asia spread to China. indigo. Thus.
. an asymmetrical relationship developed in trade between the Indian subcontinent and the British East India Company.
West Pakistan (now Pakistan) and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh. At the same time.000 people.INDIA: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY
Indians began calling for independence from Britain in the 1930s and 1940s. Before withdrawing they separated their former territory into Hindu India and Islamic Pakistan. and independent from Pakistan).
.000. It also caused conflict and social stresses that persist to the present day. This partitioning involved mass migrations of approximately 15. Muslims Indians were demanding a separate state from Hindu India. The British left India in 1947.
or no land at all. In the early 1980s more than 1/4 of India's cultivated area was still owned by only 4 percent of the country's farming families. Land consolidation efforts have had only limited success. Substantial progress toward modernization has been made in the Punjab's wheat zone.000 villages. Haryana. Animals are frequently used for power.
.INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY
Indian agriculture is inefficient and labor intensive. and Uttar Pradesh.25 acres) or less. The village is the focus of life for 74 percent of the Indian population with an estimated 580. Half of all rural families either owned as little as a half hectare (1. Approximately 2/3 of India's huge working population (63 percent) depends directly on the land for its livelihood. except in the states of Punjab.
Chick Peas./acre). Dry northwest notably in the Punjab and neighboring areas of the Upper Ganges.
2.000 kg (900 lbs.
. Plantation. (Kerala) Millet. Setaria italica. India has the largest acreage of rice among the world's countries. 4.INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY
1. Groundnut. Malabar Coast. Kathiawar Peninsula. extensively cultivated in the East and in southern Europe for its small seed or grain. and eastern Uttar Pradesh.
5. West Bengal. Bihar. More than 1/4 of all of India's farmland lies under rice cultivation. used as food for man and fowls. however. Northeast. 6. Many gains from the Green Revolution through the introduction of high-yielding varieties developed in Mexico. Yields per hectare are still low at below 1.S.
3. Cotton. Orissa.
Major crop zones:
Wheat. 7. 8. This area has more than 100 cm (40 inches) of rainfall. A cereal grass. Southwestern India. Coconut. West-Central India (Deccan Plateau). grown chiefly for fodder. most of it in the states of Assam. Rice. Northwest. but in the U. Moist east and a summer monsoon drenched south.
Sheep are of major importance in the drier west where the Islamic population is clustered.5.200.000.
± ± ± ± Cows .INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY
Livestock: India has more livestock than any other country in the world.000.60. donkeys. Water buffalo is dominant in the Ganges Delta and coastal regions.000 water buffalo .60.
.000 Horses. and elephants .000.000 Goats and sheep .000. Cattle (particularly the Brahman or Zebu breeds) are found throughout India.
the principle source of domestic fuel a year. ± Cattle graze on forage which would otherwise be wasted during a dry season. rice husks. ± The maintenance of the large numbers of cows and buffalo is a completely rational activity in the Indian agricultural economy. and a host of other tasks). ± Cattle consume secondary agriculture byproducts (straw. ± When a cow dies.000. ± Cattle produce an estimated 771. ± They are the primary source of draft power (plowing.INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY
Cattle are an integral element of the Indian agricultural economy. ± Cattle also produce most of India's milk (the bulk of which comes from the water buffalo). ± Dung is also mixed with mud and used for plaster. grinding grain. ± Cow hides are a major source of leather.
. it is consumed by the untouchables (who have no prohibitions about consuming beef when it is available) of the large Hindu population. and corn stalks).000 tons) of cow dung. pulling carts.000 metric tons (850. also a major source of fertilizer.000.
INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY
Green Revolution describes the development of extremely highyielding grain crops that allow major increases in food production. producing dramatic increases in wheat yields. scientists developed rust-resistant dwarf wheats which doubled Mexico's per acre production in the next decade. After a major drought in India in 1965. produced a six-fold increase of rice under field conditions.IR-8 was spotted in 1965 at the Los Ba>os research institute in the Philippines. Mexican dwarf wheat was widely planted in the Punjab region. from 60 trial tons of seeds. which was set up using aid from the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations. particularly in subtropical areas.
. The improved rice (IR). Its first harvest. About 10% of India's paddy land is now planted with IR-8 varieties. In 1953.
and Japan now looks for exports. ± ³Miracle grains" have a wider tolerance for climatic variations.INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY
Green Revolution benefits: ± Two to four times the yield of indigenous grains. ± A shortened growing season allows two crops per year. Green Revolution problems ± Need for high application of fertilizer and insecticide. As a result. ± Traditional marketing patterns have been upset. and in the case of rice. there is a need for copious irrigation. ± "Miracle grains" have been adopted in the most prosperous areas and among the most prosperous farmers. interregional and social gaps have widened.
. Thailand and Myanmar (Burma) have found their traditional markets disappearing.
(Receivers. tools. Gandhi championed development of the cottage industries that existed prior to the intervention of Britain. Manufacturing employs only 13% of the labor force. ± Cottage industries are very important because they are labor intensive. ± A cottage industry involves small scale production using high labor inputs. etc.000 in capital.INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY
Secondary sector: At the time of independence (1947). plumbing fittings. Indian industries emphasized textiles and food processing. ± They employ 40 individuals for every one employed in a large automated factory producing the same products.).
. ± A total of 750 products is produced by small industries which use <=$100.
± In the nearby Chota-Nagpur district. coarse fiber used for making burlap.
. India¶s single largest steel making complex (Indian Ruhr).
± Calcutta forms the center of the Bihar-Bengal area where jute manufacturing dominates. gunny. Kolkata (Calcutta) and Jamshedpur form an emerging industrial region in northeastern India. and Bhilai is a growing nucleus of heavy industry. it is obtained from two East Indian plants-Corchorus capsularis and Corchorus olitorius of the linden family. Jute: a strong. ± The Jamshedpur region 240 km (150 mi) west of Calcutta has the Tata Steel Works. chemical and cotton industries also exist. but engineering. coal mining and iron and steel manufactures have developed. and cordage.INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY
Manufacturing Regions: 1.
Southeastern Zone. machine tools. Western Zone-Mumbai (Bombay)-Ahmadabad: This Maharashtra. Bangalore supports diversified electrical manufacturing. automobiles.INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY
Manufacturing Regions: 2. 4.
. the construction industry. and food processing. 3.Chennai (Madras): specializing in textiles. and petrochemicals. Gujarat area specializes in cotton and chemicals with some engineering and food processing.
Nehru. Gandhi). charismatic leaders (Gandhi. and its capacity to modify and re-modify the federal map. an ability to tolerate individuality in its states.
. Forces that tend to bind a political system together are call centripetal forces.INDIA: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY
It is remarkable that India has been able to survive such centrifugal forces (divisive). Among the most important centripetal forces of India are: ± The cultural and religious strength of Hinduism ± Strong. ± The flexibility on the language issue that was demonstrated by the federal government.
As early as 1953. and Sri Lanka). This area has more than 13. the federal government yielded to demands for the creation of a Telugu speaking state from Tamil dominated Madras. the state of Andhra Pradesh was formed.000 people. India. along with Delhi. ± The UTs are small in area and population and they come under direct federal control. following partition of British India (West and East Pakistan. The capital of modern India is New Delhi. located in the NCT.000.INDIA: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY
India is the world's largest and most complex federal democracy. and it forms a federation of 28 states and 6 union territories (UTs) and 1 National Capital Territory (NCT). 1947. India became independent on August 15. thus. The Taj Mahal is a remnant of the Muslim presence in India.
. As many as 15 million people crossed the superimposed boundary which was determined on the criterion that all contiguous civil divisions and territories with Moslem majorities had to be incorporated in the Muslim state (Pakistan).
Gujarat and Maharashtra. Naga peoples (less than half million) in the east put up a struggle against federal authority and local Assamese administration and Nagaland was established as a state in 1961. In the northwest.INDIA: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY
In 1960. Pressure for greater regional autonomy continues in several other parts of India especially Assam and Tamil Nadu.
. the Sikhs demanded the breakup of the original state of Punjab into a Sikh dominated west (now Punjab) and a Hindu east (now Haryana). The Sikh religious capital is Amritsar. The religion Sikhism developed and is still based in the Punjab region of India. the state of Bombay was fragmented into two linguistic states.
and Jharkhand (11/15/00).000). Uttaranchal covers the northern hilly sections of the state of Uttar Pradesh. Chhattisgarh was carved out of the eastern districts of the state of Madhya Pradesh in order to accommodate the demands of the local people who felt exploited and without a voice in state government.INDIA: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY
Three new states were created in November 2000. It was granted statehood because the environment and the ways of life are very different from those prevalent in the Ganges Valley. Uttaranchal (11/8/00).000. the largest state in population (160. Those were the following: Chhattisgarh (11/1/00).
At the time of independence (1947) this state was one of the 562 princely states in India. The control of Jammu and Kashmir is still under dispute by India and Pakistan. Pakistan. about half of them lived in the Vale of Kashmir where the capital of Srinagar is also located.750.000. China. The population was 4.INDIA: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY
Kashmir: The state of Jammu and Kashmir is located adjacent to India. About 45% of the population lived in Jammu with the remainder scattered in the high mountains
. and Afghanistan.
While at the time of independence the maharajah chose autonomy over union with either India or Pakistan.INDIA: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY
Kashmir: The main conflict between India and Pakistan arose over the sovereignty of the state of Kashmir. soon he was faced with a Muslim rebellion against Hindu rule. by controlling the Kashmir. controls the vital water resources of the Indus River. The war between India and Pakistan lasted for more than one year and the negotiation of the cease fire line left about 80% of the state¶s population under the control of India. The maharajah invited the assistance of India and Pakistani troops came the help of the Muslims. The recent nuclear tests of both countries do not bode well for accommodation any time soon. Kashmir presents the same situation that existed at the time of independence with the separation of Muslims and Hindus into Pakistan and India.
. Pakistan is worried that India. because the ruler was Hindu and about 75% of the population was Muslim. which also flows through Kashmir. Moreover.
Pakistan is an Islamic Republic. With 149. after India. Pakistan is bordered by Iran. For the most part. As a dry-world country. both in area and population. Pakistanis live around this river like the Egyptians cluster around the Nile.000 people in 2003. Pakistan owes much of its existence to the waters of the exotic Indus River that originates in the northern reaches of the country to flow through the middle of the country and empty in the Arabian Sea.100. Afghanistan. Pakistan is one of the world's ten largest countries in population. China and India.
Pakistan is the second largest country in southern Asia. Tajikistan.
901. In Pakistan.PAKISTAN
Pakistan lacks any major resources with the exception of some natural gas and chromite in Baluchistan and minor iron deposits which are used in a small plant at Multan. The region called the Punjab was partitioned in 1947.
.627 (5. Karachi with 4.300. The major urban centers of the country are Karachi and Lahore.000) inhabitants was Pakistan's first capital city and major seaport. Pakistan is a highly rural society with only 34 percent of the population classified as urban (world average is 47 percent). Both are located within the Punjab. the Punjab is the core area of the country. Consequently. both India and Pakistan have areas called the Punjab.
Founded in the first or second century A. In 1959. a manifestation of Pakistan's determination to emphasize its presence in the contested north. Agriculture is labor intensive and the output is low.025.707. yields are low because of outdated irrigation systems and the paucity of incentives for landless peasants.000) residents is located very close to the sensitive boundary with India.D. until Islamabad was completed near the boundary of Kashmir.PAKISTAN
Lahore with 2. The most significant industry of Pakistan is textiles that use the country's substantial cotton production. Rawalpindi became the new capital.215 (3. In Sind where large estates exist..
. after just over a decade as the federal capital of Pakistan. Lahore became established as a great Moslem center during the Mogul period. Islamabad is a forward capital.
Pathans.000) and have encouraged those living in the northwestern region of Pakistan to demand their own state of Pakhtunistan (Pathanistan). improved communications.000. or Pushtuns) constitute about 50% of the population of Afghanistan (28. later the secession of East Pakistan and the formation of Bangladesh (1971). but Afghan irredentism continues.PAKISTAN
The political geography of Pakistan has been a turbulent one since the inception of the country in 1947. Pakistan's response to this problem was to hasten integration through education. An additional problem is the manifestation of irredentism in Baluchistan along the border with Iran and Pathanistan which is along the border with Afghanistan. Pakhtuns (also called Pashtuns. then the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the 3. and other facilities. At first it was the conflict with India.000 of refugees that fled into Pakistan.
260 sq mi) with 146.173 sq km (50.000 people (Ohio's area is 40.BANGLADESH
Bangladesh became independent from Pakistan in 1971.953 sq mi). East Pakistan provided most of Pakistan¶s foreign exchange. 130. mostly from jute. Bangladesh is a comparatively small country in area. Until then.700.
. Bangladesh was called East Pakistan and formed a part of Pakistan. since the partition of the British India (1947).
In most places three harvests of rice per year are possible. In the hinterland of Chittagong. with rice. harvests are not big enough to support the huge population. jute. the flat terrain of the floodplains rises into hills and mountains. however. The land is fertile. with the exception of a short stretch of boundary that adjoins Myanmar (Burma) on the southeast and the southern coastal area. and tea being the major crops. Bangladesh occupies the deltaic plains of the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system which empties into the Bay of Bengal through numerous distributaries. Bangladesh is surrounded by India on all sides.BANGLADESH
Territorially. Bangladesh has a very high proportion of its land that is agriculturally useful.
. especially following the war of secession.
China.000 in Tangshan.
. Resources of natural gas. It was the second greatest natural disaster of the 20th century after the 1976 earthquake that killed upwards of 700.BANGLADESH
Cyclones (as hurricane or typhoon type storms are called there) constitute a major natural hazard because much of southern Bangladesh lies less than four m (13 feet) above sea level. and several minerals remain unexploited because of the focus on the fighting of malnutrition. coal. timber.000 lives. In early 1971. a devastating tropical cyclone exacted 600.
as compared to 128.BANGLADESH
In 2003 the population of Bangladesh was 146. mi).700. mi. km (2.. km (78 persons/sq.000 -. km (122 persons per sq. mi). the world density is 47 persons per sq.019 persons per sq.639 persons per sq.)and the U.2 percent and a density of 1.000 in 2000.100. density is 30 persons per sq. For comparison purposes.S.
. The country has an average annual growth of 2. The population of Bangladesh is 87 percent Islamic and 11 percent Hindu.
892 people (6.308 in the metropolitan area). It lacks any major urban centers with the exception of Dhaka.BANGLADESH
Bangladesh is one of the world's poorest countries with a per capita income in 2000 of only $350.070 residents (2.637.537. Only 23 percent of the people live in towns and cities.566. and the port of Chittagong with 1.342.662 in the metropolitan area). the centrally positioned capital.
. which has 3.
was taken over by India in 1975 and made into a state. Sikkim. This development underscores the vulnerability of these kingdoms. The independent kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan are in the east of this frontier.
.SOUTH ASIA: THE MOUNATAINOUS NORTH
A tier of landlocked countries occupy the mountainous zone between India and China. which was wedged between Nepal and Bhutan.
3.035 ft). The Terai. A northern zone which includes the lofty peaks of the Himalayas including Mount Everest (29. A central zone which comprises the Himalayan foothills and is dominated by swift flowing streams and deep valleys. 2. and fertile lowland.NEPAL
The country of Nepal has three distinct zones:
1. a southern. subtropical.
where the capital of the country is located.NEPAL
The core of the country is in the Valley of Kathmandu. a blend of Hindu and Buddhist elements.000 in 2003. a language related to Hindi.200. Hinduism is the official religion. about 90% of the people speak Nepali. The total population of the country is 25. Although a dozen languages are spoken.
wheat. millet. and corn). A growing population exacerbated these problems. Nepal has substantial tourist industry because of the Himalayas.NEPAL
Nepal faces serious economic problems that stem from environmental degradation. About 95% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming (rice. Deforestation is particularly severe in the alpine woodlands¶ regions of the country.
the country became a constitutional monarchy. But as the bloody royal killings have demonstrated.
. Nepal has problematic relations with Bhutan over the treatment of the Nepalese minority in the country. the country is far from a tranquil place. The Nepalese are fearful of Indian domination.NEPAL
Following tensions in the 1980s. The southern Terai zone is much more similar to neighboring India than the core of the country.
Ethnic tensions between the declining Nepalese minority and the Bhutia have resulted in the exodus of Nepalese refugees from Bhutan in the 1990s.BHUTAN
In Bhutan.000 people in the northwestern part of the country. Isolation and distance from world markets have prevented economic development in this landlocked buffer state that is sandwiched between India and China. The dominant religion is Buddhism. and forestry. The capital of the kingdom of Bhutan is Thimphu with about 50. the king rules with absolute power. The total population is 900.000 in 2003.
. although officially the country is a constitutional monarchy. Bhutan has considerable mineral resources. and tourism have a great potential. hydroelectricity.
the overwhelming majority of the people voted to join India. That year. was an independent country.SIKKIM
Until 1975. Nepal¶s eastern neighbor.
pear-shaped island located off the southern tip of India. Unlike India or Pakistan. It has been sovereign since 1948.SRI LANKA
Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon) is a compact. the majority -some 75% of its population -.
.900.is Buddhist.000 people in 2003. Sri Lanka is a plantation country (a legacy of European colonialism). The majority of Sri Lanka's people are not Dravidian. but are of Aryan origin with a historical link to ancient northern India. the Sinhalese. speak a language belonging to the Indo-Aryan language family of northern India. Emigrants from India brought to Ceylon the Buddhist religion and irrigation techniques. Today their descendants. This is neither a Hindu nor a Moslem country. Population was 18.
Sri Lanka sought the repatriation of these people in an agreement with India.
. The Tamils practice the Hindu religion. when the British brought thousands of Tamils from the mainland to work on the plantations.SRI LANKA
The Dravidian from southern India introduced the Hindu way of life. brought the Tamil languages to Sri Lanka and today constitute 12% of the total population. Their numerical strength increased in the second half of the 19th century. Tamil was granted the status of a national language in Sri Lanka. In 1978.
km (24. 950 sq. Rivers flow radially from the interior highland across this lowland rim. mi) but it has considerable topographic diversity. Northern Sri Lanka is entirely low-lying.000 feet). The upland core lies in the south where elevations reach 2.500 m (8.SRI LANKA
Sri Lanka is not a large island -. This upland is surrounded by a lowland.64. The focus of Sinhalese Empire was Anuradhapura.621 sq. most of which lies below 300 m (1000 feet).
. The present focus is the moist upland southwest.
Three important plantation crops: 1. 2.000 feet).
± Rice production is not as efficient as plantation agriculture. and 3. Rubber up to about 600 m (2.SRI LANKA
Plantation economy is the dominant feature of Sri Lanka¶s economic geography. Coconuts in the hot lowlands. Tea constitutes 2/3 of Sri Lanka's annual exports by value. Tea in the highlands above.
Graphite is the most valuable mineral export. Sri Lanka's limited industry is located in Colombo (population 740,000), the country's capital, largest city, and leading port. In 1983, extremist Tamils rioted to demand the creation of a separate homeland in the island's northern lowland; this triggered a violent response by Sinhalese bands. Religions: Buddhist-69%; Hindu-15%; Islam-8%; Christian 8%.
The Maldives are an insular country with more than 1,000 islands and an area of 300 sq. km (115 sq. mi). Their highest point barely exceeds two m (6 ft) above sea level. The population is 300,000, about a fourth of which resides in the capital Maale. The country is a popular European tourist destination. There is a danger of submergence even with a minor rise in the level of the ocean. The population adheres to Islam
SOUTH ASIA: LIST OF TERMS
Punjab A northwestern province of India. Tributary A smaller stream that flows into a bigger one. Exotic (allogenic) A stream that originates in a humid environment and flows through a dry area. Salinization The process by which salts accumulate on the surface in dry environments. Orographic Mountain induced precipitation. Monsoon The reversal of the wind systems in southern Asia. Jet stream A band of fast-moving air usually found in middle latitudes in the upper troposphere. Terai A type of vegetation found in northern India. Green Revolution A western technology package that is used to increase agricultural production in developing countries.
± Kshatriya In the caste system of India. Caste system The hierarchical. ± Harijans The lowest caste in India because it is believed that they would contaminate one's ritual purity.SOUTH ASIA: LIST OF TERMS
Cottage industries Small scale industries in India.
. ± Vaisyas The people engaged in trades and farming in the caste system of India. if there was any personal contact with them. ± Brahmans The upper caste in India comprising the scholars and teachers. hereditary social organization of India. ± Sudra The lowest caste that provides services and support to the rest of the society. the political leaders and warriors. Hinduism The predominant religion of India.
Karma In Hinduism. the law of the deed. Centrifugal forces A set of forces that tends to disunite a certain population. Lingua franca The language of common use in areas where more than one language is in use. the spiritual unification with cosmic forces. Dravidian The languages spoken in southern India. Centripetal forces A set of forces that tends to unite a certain population.SOUTH ASIA: LIST OF TERMS
Nirvana In Hinduism. Suttee A Hindu practice whereby a widow immolated herself on the funeral pyre of her husband. Bustee A shanty town in south Asia
They are descendants of people that emigrated from southern India and laborers that were introduced by the British to work in the plantations of the area. The minority people in Sri Lanka. A region in southern Pakistan.
Sind Forward capital
. The majority group in Sri Lanka. i. Islamabad in Pakistan. One of the smaller channels into which a river channel divides before it empties into the sea. The Sinhalese are descendants of people who emigrated from northern India. A capital city that is relocated into a new area where a certain country wants to make a statement of interest about that part of the country.e.SOUTH ASIA: LIST OF TERMS
Typhoon Distributary A name used to describe a hurricane type storm in Asia.