Geography 200 Dr. Stavros Constantinou

‡ The name India comes from the Sanskrit word sindhu which was used to identify the ancient civilization in the Indus Valley. ‡ This word became sinthos in Greek descriptions of the area and then sindus in Latin. ‡ Corrupted to indus (means river), it was applied to what constitutes today's Pakistan. ‡ Subsequently it was again modified to India to refer generally to the land of river basins and clusters of peoples from the Indus River in the west to the Brahmaputra River in the east.

‡ India is located between 8° N and 37° N. The Tropic of Cancer passes through northern India. ‡ Such cities as Ahmadabad, Kolkata (Calcutta), Karachi, Bhopal and Dhaka are located close to the tropic. ‡ India, the world's seventh largest country, has an area of 3,286,170 sq km (1,269,340 sq mi) which represents 2.2 percent of the total land area of the planet (57,900,000 sq mi).

035 ft). . ± The climate ranges from tropical lowlands to Arctic conditions in the high altitudes of Mount Everest and other peaks. ± Rice and wheat are the dominant grain crops. ± Mount Everest (Nepal: Sagarmatha. ± The Karakoram Pass provides access from north-central India through the Himalayan and Hindu Kush mountains.000 people). ± The Khyber Pass in the west was used by invading groups.200.INDIA: LANDFORMS ‡ There are three main landform regions in South Asia: Alpine chains. Tibetan: Chomolungma) is the world¶s highest mountain at 8.000 ft) in several locations. ± Population in the Himalayas is limited except in the Vale of Kashmir and in Nepal (25. sedimentary covers. ± Bhutan has 900. ‡ Alpine system: The Himalayas form a major barrier to the movements of air masses north and south and exceed 6.000 and Sikkim less than one million.096 m (20. and Gondwana Shield.848 m (29. Sikkim has been incorporated into India and is one of its provinces.

± Soils (inceptisols) are derived from alluvium and they are relatively fertile and generally level.INDIA: LANDFORMS ‡ Sedimentary covers: The riverine plains of the Indus. ± The climate varies from arid in Punjab to tropical around the Bay of Bengal. irrigation has created environmental problems through accumulation of salts (salinization). In the arid areas. and Bangladesh. and the Brahmaputra and the coastal plains of the Indian Peninsula form this region. ± This region of plains is from 320 to 500 km (200 to 300 mi) wide and it extends through Pakistan. the Ganges (known as Ganga to Indians). India. ± The North Indian Plain forms a belt of alluvial lowlands stretching from Pakistan¶s Indus River on the west to the Brahmaputra on the east. ± The Ganges River with its various tributaries is the major river of northern India. .

at the southern margin are the Blue Mountains which exceed 2.600 m (8.500 ft). ± The coastal areas have a humid tropical climate with abundant rain from the orographic effect of the Ghats.000 to 1. primarily cultivated with cotton.INDIA: LANDFORMS ‡ Gondwana Shield: This landform region extends southward from the southern borders of the Ganges drainage area and includes the lava covered Deccan Plateau. .800 ft). ± This plateau is framed on the north by the Vindhyas and the Tapti and Godavari Rivers. ± Elevations of the Deccan Plateau are approximately 305 to 450 m (1. the Western Ghats (Hills) lining the Malabar Coast. on the west. ± The central portion of the Deccan Plateau has fertile soils (vertisols). on the east. derived from volcanic materials. the Eastern Ghats paralleling the Coromandel Coast.

. ‡ During the summer the jet stream moves north of the Himalayas allowing moist air to penetrate the continent from the oceans. ‡ Air flows from land to sea with dry conditions in winter and a sea-to-land movement in summer with humid conditions. ‡ In winter.INDIA: CLIMATE ‡ The monsoon (the seasonal reversal of wind systems) is the dominant climate force. ‡ Land heats quickly and loses the heat quickly while bodies of water heat up slowly and lose heat slowly. ‡ With few exceptions the climate of Monsoon Asia is tropical or subtropical. ‡ The air movement effectively prevents moisture from the oceans from moving into the core area of India along the Ganges and dry conditions predominate. ‡ The causes of the monsoon are the shifting of the jet stream north and south of the Himalayas and the differential heating between land and water. the jet stream is divided with one part south of the Himalayas.

Rainshadow effect of Western Ghats. Tropical savanna (Aw): Western reaches of Vindhya Ranges to Ganges Delta. 2. Tropical rainforest (Am): Coromandel and Malabar coastal regions. Subtropical steppe (BSh): Deccan Plateau. 3. Inadequate summer moisture. Subtropical desert (BWh): Indus Valley and the Thar (Great Indian) Desert. 5. Controls-latitude and orographic effect. 4. Humid subtropical (Cwa): Ganges Valley. .INDIA: CLIMATIC REGIONS 1.

Broadleaf deciduous trees. Shrubs can grow to a maximum of one meter (three feet) singly or in groups. 6. Broadleaf evergreen: Malabar Coast. Semi-deciduous: broadleaf evergreen and broadleaf deciduous: They are found in an area inward from the Malabar Coast and the lower valley of the Ganges. 5. 4. Bihar and Orissa. Broadleaf evergreen. Coromandel Coast and Sri Lanka. Broadleaf deciduous: Extensive area in northwestern India and Pakistan. minimum height one meter (3 feet). . 3.INDIA: VEGETATION The main vegetation regions of India are the following: 1. Broadleaf deciduous ( terai): An extensive area from the Gangetic Plains to southern India. 2. Broadleaf deciduous: Same as above except trees grow to a minimum of one meter singly or in groups. Terai Lowlands in Nepal. shrub form. It surrounds the area above.

Inceptisols: They are found in the Gangetic plains and the Malabar Coast. . Salts may accumulate on or near the surface of these soils which are poor in organic matter. Alfisols: Northern sections of the Gangetic plain and extending to Kathiawar Peninsula. Ultisols: They are found in northeastern India (Bihar and Orissa). They are also found in area south of 20 degrees N latitude and along the Coromandel Coast. 5. Vertisols: An extensive area from north of Mumbai (Bombay) to the Ganges River. 3. 2. They are immature and weakly developed soils.INDIA: SOILS The main soil regions of India are the following: 1. These soils are rich in clays and crack deeply during dry periods. Aridisols: Northwestern India and Pakistan. 4.

India produces 5.INDIA: RESOURCES India has a rather poor resource base. The possibility for expanding production of grains remains very low. The country does not lead the world in any of the important minerals or other sources of energy useful for industrialization and development. Iron ore deposits are also important in the state of Karnataka. making it difficult to increase production.6 percent of the world's iron ore and has 6. . ‡ India has the largest deposit of high-grade iron ore in the world. ‡ India is the second largest producer of grains. despite gains. a single range is estimated to hold nearly three billion tons of iron ore.6 percent of the world's reserves in iron ore. Low productivity per person in the agricultural sector accentuate the problems of population. In Bihar state alone.

and it produces 5.5 percent of the world's bauxite.2 percent of the world's chromite. Coal and steel are produced in the Damodar Valley fields of northeastern India which account for more than 50 percent of coal production.INDIA: RESOURCES ‡ India produces 3. ‡ India has a great hydroelectric potential.2 percent) in the central Deccan plateau and eastern Coromandel Coast. and manganese (5. Limited coking-coal deposits are found in Chota Nagpur. ‡ India has discovered oil deposits in the Bay of Bengal which hold promise for further expansion. ‡ India has important deposits of uranium.8 percent of the world's coal. provided dams are constructed to exploit the rivers of the country. phosphates in the Thar Desert. ‡ India produces 2. .

3% world rate) and a projected population of 1. These are the most fertile parts of India. the world's second largest country in population after China. ‡ At this rate. .068. ‡ India has a rate of natural increase of 1.000. ‡ The largest clusters of the Indian population are found in the Gangetic plains in the north and the coastal areas of the country.000 by 2025.600. it is only a matter of time before India becomes the world's most populous country.363.7% (compared to a 1.000 people in 2003 (17% of the world total).INDIA: POPULATION GEOGRAPHY ‡ India had 1.

000. ‡ The population of the country quadrupled in 80 years. while in 1920 the population of the country was 250. ‡ In 2000.100.002.INDIA: POPULATION GEOGRAPHY ‡ There was an increase of 19.000.000 people from 2002 to 2003. the absolute population increase of 16. ‡ The Ganges-Brahmaputra and Indus River systems are crucial lifelines for hundreds of millions of people. ‡ From 2001 to 2002. India had .000 people.

5 times as high.040 persons per sq km (2. physiological density (in 2000) was at 557 persons per square kilometer (1442 persons per square mile). ‡ In neighboring Bangladesh the arithmetic density is approximately 2.INDIA: POPULATION GEOGRAPHY ‡ In India. 1. .639 persons per sq mi). population arithmetic density (in 2003) was 325 persons per sq km (842 persons per sq mi).

± By 1961. ± expansion of compensation for voluntary sterilization. the government has put up billboards with the following slogan: "four is a family.INDIA: POPULATION GEOGRAPHY ‡ In 1952. ± and use of incentives by governments to encourage people to limit their family size.165 family planning clinics. ± provision of sex education in schools." ‡ In 1976. ‡ In 1977. ± tying financial grants from the federal government to the state governments to their performance in limiting births. five is a crowd. Only 8% of federal assistance was tied to performance on birth control by states. the Indian government adopted family planning as a national policy. a national population policy was adopted including: ± the increase of the age of marriage for females to 18 years and for males to 21. ± As a part of the government campaign to limit the number of children. this policy was made voluntary following the collapse of the Indira Gandhi government. . there were 4.

546 ± Delhi 12.580. ‡ Mumbai (formerly Bombay).439 followed by Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) with 4.000 people residing in urban centers. is the largest city of India in terms of population.458 .216. ‡ Although the proportion classified as urban is small.544.INDIA: URBAN GEOGRAPHY ‡ In 2003.208.914. India was one of the least urbanized of the large in population countries of the world. ‡ 11 Indian cities have populations in excess of one million inhabitants.791.398 people. Delhi ranks second with 9. in absolute numbers India had 299.817. with 11.368.084 ± Kolkata 13. ‡ The largest metropolitan area populations of India are: ± Mumbai 16. given that only 28 percent of the country's population resided in urban areas.

and urban India is today growing more than twice as rapidly as the country's overall population. ± Widespread establishment of village men or "caste brothers" who encourage friends and relatives to move to the cities. street dwellers. ‡ Attendant problems include poor sanitation. ‡ Reasons for migration to cities (internal migration): ± Loosening of ties between poor peasants and their villages.INDIA: URBAN GEOGRAPHY ‡ Indian urbanization is accelerating. ‡ In 1984. . riots between Hindu and Moslems in Mumbai left hundreds dead. and riots.

‡ In Mumbai (Bombay) in 1644. ‡ In Chennai (Madras). . and a myriad of Ganges River delta channels connect it to its hinterland. Mumbai is located on the west coast of India ‡ Kolkata (Calcutta) lies 130 kilometers (80 miles) from the east on the Hooghly River. they fostered the growth of a port-city that was closest to Britain and Europe. ‡ Kolkata (Calcutta) lost a large part of its hinterland to Pakistan at the time of the partitioning of British India. built adjacently to the old Mogul headquarters of Delhi. and Chennai (Madras) as regional trading centers and as coastal focal points for their colony's export and import traffic. they built a fort in 1640. ‡ An 1812 rebellion forced the British to move the colonial capital from Kolkata (Calcutta) to the safer interior city of New Delhi. ‡ The British founded and developed Kolkata (Calcutta). This area is now a part of Bangladesh.INDIA: URBAN GEOGRAPHY ‡ The location of India's modern urban centers is a reflection of colonialism. Mumbai (Bombay).

or other scrap material. railway overpasses. burlap. hovels made of cardboard.900 persons per sq km (36.000 persons per sq mi). in doorways or wherever they can find a spot. New York City averages 1544 persons per sq km (4.000 persons per sq mi) for its entire area of 1036 sq km (400 sq mi).000 residents are known as street people and sleep under bridges. an estimated 200. ‡ In Kolkata (Calcutta). ‡ Slightly better off are the residents of the bustees. ‡ An estimated 2.INDIA: URBAN GEOGRAPHY ‡ Population densities in urban centers are very high.000 people live in bustees. . ‡ By comparison.000. ‡ Kolkata (Calcutta) averages 13.

INDIA: URBAN GEOGRAPHY ‡ Indian urbanization reveals several regional patterns: ± The northern heartland. which includes Madras and Bangalore ‡ Large cities(more than one million) outside these regions include centrally positioned Nagpur and Hyderabad (capital of Andhra Pradesh). the west (wheat growing area) is more urbanized than the east (where rice forms the main staple crop). ‡ India's larger cities (more than 100. . ± In the west urbanization may be as much as 40%. in the east only about 10% of the population resides in urban centers.000) are concentrated in three regions: (1) the northern plains from Punjab to the Ganges Delta (2) the Bombay-Ahmadabad area (3) the southern end of the peninsula.

000 14.000.340 3.209 2.000 .439 4.000.817.000.901.544 4.398 9.540.051.000 8.580.215 4.637.320 1.878 2.000 10.104.000 12.707.069 2.361 3.449.914.627 4.000 4.000 6.000.Principal Cities of South Asia Mumbai (Bombay) Delhi Karachi Kolkata (Calcutta) Bangalore Chennai (Madras) Dhaka Ahmadabad Hyderabad Lahore Poona (Pune) Kanpur Lucknow Nagpur Faisalabad - 11.216.268 3.000.515.540.069 2.

the British recognized 179 official languages and 544 dialects (total=723). ‡ English would remain a lingua franca when Hindi could not serve as a medium of communication at government and administrative levels. ‡ Languages that are members of the Indo-European family are spoken in the central and northern parts of the country. ‡ Hindi was one of the 14 languages given national status by the Indian constitution. 900 separate dialects and 15 major languages. Hindi is the official and predominant language of India. and Malayalam. the Indian subcontinent had 550 princely states.INDIA: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ India is indeed a Babel of languages. They include Telugu. ‡ The two major linguistic families are the Indo-European and the Dravidian. ‡ Before World War II. 10 in the north and 4 in the Dravidian south. Kannada. ‡ Today India has fourteen official languages including Hindi and English (associate official). and languages that belong to the Dravidian family are spoken in southern India. In 1947. ‡ Dravidian languages are spoken by about 25 percent of the Indian population. Tamil. .

and provides water to a major urban area along its course. . It is the most sacred of all rivers to the Hindus.INDIA: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ Southern Asia Is marked by strong cultural regionalism. ‡ The Hindustan holy city of Varanasi is located on the Ganges. ‡ The Ganges River is the most important river of South Asia. ‡ Division is largely based on religious differences between Moslem dominated and Hindu dominated regions. including Kolkata (Calcutta) in India and Dhaka in Bangladesh.

4% ‡Zoroastrian 0.0% ± Sunni 9.3% ‡ Muslim 12.3% ± Protestant 1.3% ‡ Christian 2.8% ‡Jain 0.0% ± Shiite 3.01% ‡Other 1.INDIA: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ Religions: ‡ Hinduism 81.1% ± Roman Catholic 1.0% ‡Sikh 1.0% .9% ‡Buddhist 0.

INDIA: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ Hinduism: ‡ This system of beliefs forms the cultural basis of the Indian society. ‡ Dharma in Hinduism is the individual duty of each person. . etc.. and having distinctive mores. occupation. ‡ The caste system is an integral part of Hinduism. ‡ A caste is a hereditary social group limited to persons of the same rank. which is highly stratified. Dharma is related to the rigid social order of India (caste system). since the caste to which one is born in determines the duty that must be followed.

Sudra: are the lowest class and provide services to support the society. Kshatriya: political leaders and warriors. 3. . 4. 2. and scholars. Brahmans: are the teachers. Vaisya: are engaged in trades or farming. religious leaders.INDIA: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ Hinduism: ‡ Four broad castes exist in Hindu Society: 1.

and in the 19th century. ‡ At the very bottom of the order are the untouchables (harijans). ‡ Untouchables lived in separate communities. were prohibited from using roads used by other castes .INDIA: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ Hinduism: ‡ Each of these four broad groups is broken down into subgroups whose relative status is dependent upon their extent of ritual purity (avoidance of contact with unclean objects). had separate wells for water. so called. because in the past (and among many Indians today) it is believed that they would contaminate others¶ ritual purity if there was any personal contact between them. ‡ Those dealing with death or decaying materials were in the lowest classes of the sudra.

death. but a progression in a circular fashion until freedom is obtained from the cycle. ‡ For the Hindu. and being liberated from the human processes of death and birth. which consists of obtaining spiritual unification with the cosmic forces. or reincarnation.INDIA: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ Hinduism: ‡ Aspect of life related to the cycle of life. . ‡ Freedom from continued reincarnation can be obtained through nirvana. and rebirth. life is not simply a progression from birth until death.

INDIA: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ Associated with nirvana and reincarnation is the concept of karma. ‡ An individual's status in the caste system reflects actions in the previous incarnations. or law of the deed. ‡ It is impossible to move upward in the caste system through education or acquisition of wealth or social change. ‡ Karma specifies that for each good act there will be a reward and for each evil act there will be a punishment. . ‡ Suttee is a Hindu practice whereby a widow immolated herself on the funeral pyre of her husband. since a specific caste is a result of previous actions.

‡ Buddhism was dominant during the Mauryan Empire (3rd century BC to 2nd century AD). ‡ They pushed settlement frontiers east into the Gangetic Plain and south into the center of the peninsula. remaining strong only in Sri Lanka. ‡ Buddhism today is centered mainly in East and Southeast Asia. .INDIA: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ Aryan invaders from Western Asia conquered the early Indus Valley civilization around 3500 BC. including the Hindu religion and the caste system ± rigid social stratification. ‡ Buddhism soon declined in South Asia. ‡ India¶s culture developed from this beginning. where it still prevails.

. and form overwhelming majorities in Pakistan and Bangladesh. driving out Buddhism. ‡ The Mogul dynasty collapsed in 1707. ‡ After the 10th century. but not Hinduism. bringing with them Islam. Islam was a strong influence in India. leaving a kingdom without a ruler and presenting the opportunity for European domination. which remained dominant in India¶s Ganges core area and southern India. ‡ Under the Mogul system the individual peasant retained ownership of the land. ‡ The Mogul dynasty was founded in 1526. ‡ Muslims remain a sizeable minority (slightly less than 15%) in India. ‡ Taxation of land was based on granting rights to tax to a local authority.INDIA: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ Arabs invaded northwestern India shortly after 700 AD.

. ‡ All European colonial powers established trading posts for spices and fabrics.INDIA: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ European contacts in south Asia were made by the Portuguese. ± Period II (1858-1947). India as a British Crown Colony. Queen Elizabeth I granted exclusive rights to the spice trade of Asia to the British East India Company. but eventually Britain emerged as the dominant colonial power in South Asia. under which India began to come under British control. ‡ In 1600. and British. French. ‡ The period of British colonial dominance in India can be divided into two parts : ± Period I (1757-1857). Dutch. Domination of India by the British East India Company.

. but forced the colonial economy of India to become a raw material producer subservient to the English master. the remaining inaccessible areas were controlled by more than 500 princely states. ‡ Rebellion of Indian troops against the British in 1857 culminated in a decision to strip the British East India Company of its monopoly and proclaim the subcontinent a crown colony (1858). ‡ Britain exercised outright political control over India from 1857 to 1947. nearly 2/3 of the subcontinent was ruled directly by the company.INDIA: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ By 1858. ‡ The British introduced many innovations to India.

‡ Improvements in sanitation and simple hygienic practices that led to the beginnings of rapid population increases. ‡ Development of an extensive railroad and road transportation system. . Although the development of this system had as its objective the movement of troops to troubled spots.INDIA: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ The impact of colonialism on India can be summarized as follows: ± Pros: ‡ Creation of a civil service patterned after the British model which became part of the new independent governments that were set up upon the departure of the British. India inherited a well planned and developed system.

and a large rural landless class emerged. sugar. tea. spices. Thus. ‡ Maintenance of the cultural fragmentation of the subcontinent through the application of indirect rule. ‡ Peasants produced crops demanded by the British East India Company including coffee. As British influence in Asia spread to China. opium also became an important crop. indigo. cotton. an asymmetrical relationship developed in trade between the Indian subcontinent and the British East India Company. as it could be resold or traded in China for additional high-value spices. because of the production of a surplus of textile goods by the mechanized British factories.INDIA: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY Cons: ‡ The British East India Company granted the village representatives deeds to the lands from which they had collected taxes under the Moguls. Property ultimately ended in the hands of urban moneylenders as peasants borrowed at exorbitant interest rates to pay taxes. and jute. . ‡ Destruction of a large Indian textile handicraft industry. the village representatives became landlords charging cash rent. Because crops encouraged by the British East India Company were for export.

‡ Before withdrawing they separated their former territory into Hindu India and Islamic Pakistan. and independent from Pakistan). West Pakistan (now Pakistan) and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh. .000 people. Muslims Indians were demanding a separate state from Hindu India.INDIA: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ Indians began calling for independence from Britain in the 1930s and 1940s. ‡ This partitioning involved mass migrations of approximately 15. ‡ The British left India in 1947.000. ‡ It also caused conflict and social stresses that persist to the present day. ‡ At the same time.

‡ Approximately 2/3 of India's huge working population (63 percent) depends directly on the land for its livelihood.INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY Primary Sector: ‡ Indian agriculture is inefficient and labor intensive. ‡ Half of all rural families either owned as little as a half hectare (1. ‡ In the early 1980s more than 1/4 of India's cultivated area was still owned by only 4 percent of the country's farming families. . and Uttar Pradesh. ‡ The village is the focus of life for 74 percent of the Indian population with an estimated 580. except in the states of Punjab. or no land at all.000 villages. ‡ Land consolidation efforts have had only limited success. ‡ Substantial progress toward modernization has been made in the Punjab's wheat zone. Haryana.25 acres) or less. ‡ Animals are frequently used for power.

7. Dry northwest notably in the Punjab and neighboring areas of the Upper Ganges. A cereal grass. used as food for man and fowls. Orissa. 2. 3. Yields per hectare are still low at below 1. 8. West-Central India (Deccan Plateau). Coconut. Southwestern India. West Bengal. Groundnut. Chick Peas. grown chiefly for fodder. 6. but in the U. Kathiawar Peninsula. India has the largest acreage of rice among the world's countries. This area has more than 100 cm (40 inches) of rainfall. (Kerala) Millet. however. 4.INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY ‡ 1. Moist east and a summer monsoon drenched south. extensively cultivated in the East and in southern Europe for its small seed or grain. Malabar Coast. 5. Setaria italica. More than 1/4 of all of India's farmland lies under rice cultivation. Northeast.S. Rice. Major crop zones: Wheat. most of it in the states of Assam. Plantation. . Many gains from the Green Revolution through the introduction of high-yielding varieties developed in Mexico./acre). Northwest. Cotton.000 kg (900 lbs. and eastern Uttar Pradesh. Bihar.

and elephants . ‡ Water buffalo is dominant in the Ganges Delta and coastal regions. donkeys.INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY ‡ Livestock: ‡ India has more livestock than any other country in the world. ‡ Cattle (particularly the Brahman or Zebu breeds) are found throughout India.000 water buffalo .200.000. ± ± ± ± Cows . Goats and sheep .000 ‡ Sheep are of major importance in the drier west where the Islamic population is clustered.000 Horses.000. .

and a host of other tasks). ± When a cow dies. it is consumed by the untouchables (who have no prohibitions about consuming beef when it is available) of the large Hindu population.000 tons) of cow dung. ± Cattle produce an estimated 771.000. ± They are the primary source of draft power (plowing.000 metric tons (850. ± Cow hides are a major source of leather. rice husks. also a major source of fertilizer. and corn stalks). the principle source of domestic fuel a year. pulling carts. ± Cattle consume secondary agriculture byproducts (straw.INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY ‡ Cattle are an integral element of the Indian agricultural economy. ± The maintenance of the large numbers of cows and buffalo is a completely rational activity in the Indian agricultural economy. ± Dung is also mixed with mud and used for plaster.000. grinding grain. ± Cattle also produce most of India's milk (the bulk of which comes from the water buffalo). . ± Cattle graze on forage which would otherwise be wasted during a dry season.

particularly in subtropical areas. scientists developed rust-resistant dwarf wheats which doubled Mexico's per acre production in the next decade. ‡ After a major drought in India in 1965. ‡ In 1953. ‡ Its first harvest.INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY ‡ Green Revolution describes the development of extremely highyielding grain crops that allow major increases in food production. . Mexican dwarf wheat was widely planted in the Punjab region. ‡ The improved rice (IR).IR-8 was spotted in 1965 at the Los Ba>os research institute in the Philippines. which was set up using aid from the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations. producing dramatic increases in wheat yields. ‡ About 10% of India's paddy land is now planted with IR-8 varieties. produced a six-fold increase of rice under field conditions. from 60 trial tons of seeds.

As a result. ‡ Green Revolution problems ± Need for high application of fertilizer and insecticide.INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY ‡ Green Revolution benefits: ± Two to four times the yield of indigenous grains. and in the case of rice. and Japan now looks for exports. interregional and social gaps have widened. ± ³Miracle grains" have a wider tolerance for climatic variations. ± Traditional marketing patterns have been upset. Thailand and Myanmar (Burma) have found their traditional markets disappearing. ± "Miracle grains" have been adopted in the most prosperous areas and among the most prosperous farmers. . there is a need for copious irrigation. ± A shortened growing season allows two crops per year.

tools. Indian industries emphasized textiles and food processing.000 in capital. ± They employ 40 individuals for every one employed in a large automated factory producing the same products. ‡ Manufacturing employs only 13% of the labor force. ‡ Gandhi championed development of the cottage industries that existed prior to the intervention of Britain. etc. . (Receivers. ± A total of 750 products is produced by small industries which use <=$100. ± A cottage industry involves small scale production using high labor inputs.INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY ‡ Secondary sector: ‡ At the time of independence (1947). ± Cottage industries are very important because they are labor intensive.). plumbing fittings.

but engineering. ± Calcutta forms the center of the Bihar-Bengal area where jute manufacturing dominates. coarse fiber used for making burlap. ± The Jamshedpur region 240 km (150 mi) west of Calcutta has the Tata Steel Works. India¶s single largest steel making complex (Indian Ruhr). . gunny. it is obtained from two East Indian plants-Corchorus capsularis and Corchorus olitorius of the linden family. chemical and cotton industries also exist. and cordage. Kolkata (Calcutta) and Jamshedpur form an emerging industrial region in northeastern India. and Bhilai is a growing nucleus of heavy industry.INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY Manufacturing Regions: 1. coal mining and iron and steel manufactures have developed. ± In the nearby Chota-Nagpur district. Jute: a strong.

4.Chennai (Madras): specializing in textiles. Southeastern Zone. the construction industry. Bangalore supports diversified electrical manufacturing. and food processing. Gujarat area specializes in cotton and chemicals with some engineering and food processing. . machine tools. 3.INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY Manufacturing Regions: 2. automobiles. Western Zone-Mumbai (Bombay)-Ahmadabad: This Maharashtra. and petrochemicals.

an ability to tolerate individuality in its states. Gandhi). and its capacity to modify and re-modify the federal map. ‡ Forces that tend to bind a political system together are call centripetal forces.INDIA: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ It is remarkable that India has been able to survive such centrifugal forces (divisive). charismatic leaders (Gandhi. Among the most important centripetal forces of India are: ± The cultural and religious strength of Hinduism ± Strong. ± The flexibility on the language issue that was demonstrated by the federal government. Nehru. .

‡ As many as 15 million people crossed the superimposed boundary which was determined on the criterion that all contiguous civil divisions and territories with Moslem majorities had to be incorporated in the Muslim state (Pakistan). located in the NCT. along with Delhi. the federal government yielded to demands for the creation of a Telugu speaking state from Tamil dominated Madras. . thus. and it forms a federation of 28 states and 6 union territories (UTs) and 1 National Capital Territory (NCT). ± The UTs are small in area and population and they come under direct federal control.INDIA: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ India is the world's largest and most complex federal democracy. ‡ India became independent on August 15.000 people. India. This area has more than 13. following partition of British India (West and East Pakistan.000. and Sri Lanka). ‡ As early as 1953. ‡ The capital of modern India is New Delhi. 1947. ‡ The Taj Mahal is a remnant of the Muslim presence in India. the state of Andhra Pradesh was formed.

the state of Bombay was fragmented into two linguistic states. ‡ In the northwest. Gujarat and Maharashtra. The Sikh religious capital is Amritsar. ‡ Pressure for greater regional autonomy continues in several other parts of India especially Assam and Tamil Nadu. ‡ Naga peoples (less than half million) in the east put up a struggle against federal authority and local Assamese administration and Nagaland was established as a state in 1961.INDIA: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ In 1960. ‡ The religion Sikhism developed and is still based in the Punjab region of India. the Sikhs demanded the breakup of the original state of Punjab into a Sikh dominated west (now Punjab) and a Hindu east (now Haryana). .

000).INDIA: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ Three new states were created in November 2000. ‡ Uttaranchal covers the northern hilly sections of the state of Uttar Pradesh. Those were the following: Chhattisgarh (11/1/00). Uttaranchal (11/8/00). and Jharkhand (11/15/00).000. . ‡ Chhattisgarh was carved out of the eastern districts of the state of Madhya Pradesh in order to accommodate the demands of the local people who felt exploited and without a voice in state government. It was granted statehood because the environment and the ways of life are very different from those prevalent in the Ganges Valley. the largest state in population (160.

and Afghanistan.750. ‡ About 45% of the population lived in Jammu with the remainder scattered in the high mountains . ‡ The population was 4. ‡ At the time of independence (1947) this state was one of the 562 princely states in India. ‡ The control of Jammu and Kashmir is still under dispute by India and Pakistan. China. Pakistan. about half of them lived in the Vale of Kashmir where the capital of Srinagar is also located.000.INDIA: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ Kashmir: ‡ The state of Jammu and Kashmir is located adjacent to India.

‡ The war between India and Pakistan lasted for more than one year and the negotiation of the cease fire line left about 80% of the state¶s population under the control of India. .INDIA: POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY ‡ Kashmir: ‡ The main conflict between India and Pakistan arose over the sovereignty of the state of Kashmir. controls the vital water resources of the Indus River. ‡ Pakistan is worried that India. which also flows through Kashmir. Kashmir presents the same situation that existed at the time of independence with the separation of Muslims and Hindus into Pakistan and India. ‡ The recent nuclear tests of both countries do not bode well for accommodation any time soon. ‡ While at the time of independence the maharajah chose autonomy over union with either India or Pakistan. soon he was faced with a Muslim rebellion against Hindu rule. ‡ The maharajah invited the assistance of India and Pakistani troops came the help of the Muslims. ‡ Moreover. because the ruler was Hindu and about 75% of the population was Muslim. by controlling the Kashmir.

after India. Afghanistan. ‡ For the most part. ‡ Pakistan is an Islamic Republic. ‡ As a dry-world country.000 people in 2003. . Pakistanis live around this river like the Egyptians cluster around the Nile. ‡ Pakistan is bordered by Iran.PAKISTAN ‡ Pakistan is the second largest country in southern Asia. Tajikistan. China and India.100. Pakistan owes much of its existence to the waters of the exotic Indus River that originates in the northern reaches of the country to flow through the middle of the country and empty in the Arabian Sea. both in area and population. ‡ With 149. Pakistan is one of the world's ten largest countries in population.

000) inhabitants was Pakistan's first capital city and major seaport.PAKISTAN ‡ Pakistan lacks any major resources with the exception of some natural gas and chromite in Baluchistan and minor iron deposits which are used in a small plant at Multan.300. both India and Pakistan have areas called the Punjab. ‡ Pakistan is a highly rural society with only 34 percent of the population classified as urban (world average is 47 percent). Both are located within the Punjab.627 (5. ‡ Karachi with 4.901. the Punjab is the core area of the country. . ‡ The region called the Punjab was partitioned in 1947. Consequently. In Pakistan. ‡ The major urban centers of the country are Karachi and Lahore.

after just over a decade as the federal capital of Pakistan.D.707.PAKISTAN ‡ Lahore with 2. . ‡ In Sind where large estates exist. ‡ Founded in the first or second century A. until Islamabad was completed near the boundary of Kashmir. Rawalpindi became the new capital.025. ‡ Islamabad is a forward capital. ‡ The most significant industry of Pakistan is textiles that use the country's substantial cotton production. ‡ In 1959. Lahore became established as a great Moslem center during the Mogul period. ‡ Agriculture is labor intensive and the output is low.000) residents is located very close to the sensitive boundary with India.215 (3.. yields are low because of outdated irrigation systems and the paucity of incentives for landless peasants. a manifestation of Pakistan's determination to emphasize its presence in the contested north.

and other facilities. . ‡ At first it was the conflict with India. improved communications. then the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the 3. ‡ Pakhtuns (also called Pashtuns.PAKISTAN ‡ The political geography of Pakistan has been a turbulent one since the inception of the country in 1947. ‡ Pakistan's response to this problem was to hasten integration through education. Pathans.700. later the secession of East Pakistan and the formation of Bangladesh (1971). but Afghan irredentism continues. ‡ An additional problem is the manifestation of irredentism in Baluchistan along the border with Iran and Pathanistan which is along the border with Afghanistan.000.000 of refugees that fled into Pakistan. or Pushtuns) constitute about 50% of the population of Afghanistan (28.000) and have encouraged those living in the northwestern region of Pakistan to demand their own state of Pakhtunistan (Pathanistan).

‡ East Pakistan provided most of Pakistan¶s foreign exchange.700. ‡ Until then.953 sq mi). ‡ Bangladesh is a comparatively small country in area.173 sq km (50. since the partition of the British India (1947). mostly from jute.000 people (Ohio's area is 40. 130.260 sq mi) with 146. Bangladesh was called East Pakistan and formed a part of Pakistan. .BANGLADESH ‡ Bangladesh became independent from Pakistan in 1971.

.BANGLADESH ‡ Territorially. ‡ The land is fertile. with rice. and tea being the major crops. ‡ In most places three harvests of rice per year are possible. with the exception of a short stretch of boundary that adjoins Myanmar (Burma) on the southeast and the southern coastal area. however. especially following the war of secession. harvests are not big enough to support the huge population. the flat terrain of the floodplains rises into hills and mountains. Bangladesh is surrounded by India on all sides. ‡ Bangladesh occupies the deltaic plains of the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system which empties into the Bay of Bengal through numerous distributaries. ‡ Bangladesh has a very high proportion of its land that is agriculturally useful. jute. ‡ In the hinterland of Chittagong.

‡ In early 1971. coal. ‡ Resources of natural gas. ‡ It was the second greatest natural disaster of the 20th century after the 1976 earthquake that killed upwards of 700.BANGLADESH ‡ Cyclones (as hurricane or typhoon type storms are called there) constitute a major natural hazard because much of southern Bangladesh lies less than four m (13 feet) above sea level. . China.000 lives. timber.000 in Tangshan. a devastating tropical cyclone exacted 600. and several minerals remain unexploited because of the focus on the fighting of malnutrition.

. ‡ The population of Bangladesh is 87 percent Islamic and 11 percent Hindu.)and the U.2 percent and a density of 1. the world density is 47 persons per sq. mi). . mi). compared to 128.100.S. ‡ The country has an average annual growth of 2. km (122 persons per sq. km (2.000 -.639 persons per sq.019 persons per sq.BANGLADESH ‡ In 2003 the population of Bangladesh was 146. km (78 persons/sq. ‡ For comparison purposes. density is 30 persons per sq.000 in 2000.

.070 residents (2.566.637.BANGLADESH ‡ Bangladesh is one of the world's poorest countries with a per capita income in 2000 of only $350.308 in the metropolitan area). and the port of Chittagong with 1.892 people (6. ‡ Only 23 percent of the people live in towns and cities. which has 3.342.537.662 in the metropolitan area). ‡ It lacks any major urban centers with the exception of Dhaka. the centrally positioned capital.

‡ This development underscores the vulnerability of these kingdoms. which was wedged between Nepal and Bhutan. was taken over by India in 1975 and made into a state. ‡ Sikkim. ‡ The independent kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan are in the east of this frontier. .SOUTH ASIA: THE MOUNATAINOUS NORTH A tier of landlocked countries occupy the mountainous zone between India and China.

The Terai. and fertile lowland. a southern. 2. A northern zone which includes the lofty peaks of the Himalayas including Mount Everest (29. A central zone which comprises the Himalayan foothills and is dominated by swift flowing streams and deep valleys. .035 ft). 3. subtropical.NEPAL ‡ The country of Nepal has three distinct zones: 1.

‡ Although a dozen languages are spoken. . about 90% of the people speak Nepali.200. ‡ The total population of the country is 25. where the capital of the country is located. ‡ Hinduism is the official religion. a blend of Hindu and Buddhist elements. a language related to Hindi.NEPAL ‡ The core of the country is in the Valley of Kathmandu.000 in 2003.

‡ About 95% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming (rice. millet. . ‡ Deforestation is particularly severe in the alpine woodlands¶ regions of the country. ‡ Nepal has substantial tourist industry because of the Himalayas. wheat. ‡ A growing population exacerbated these problems. and corn).NEPAL ‡ Nepal faces serious economic problems that stem from environmental degradation.

‡ The Nepalese are fearful of Indian domination. the country is far from a tranquil place. ‡ The southern Terai zone is much more similar to neighboring India than the core of the country.NEPAL ‡ Following tensions in the 1980s. . ‡ Nepal has problematic relations with Bhutan over the treatment of the Nepalese minority in the country. ‡ But as the bloody royal killings have demonstrated. the country became a constitutional monarchy.

and forestry. hydroelectricity. ‡ Isolation and distance from world markets have prevented economic development in this landlocked buffer state that is sandwiched between India and China. ‡ The capital of the kingdom of Bhutan is Thimphu with about 50. .BHUTAN ‡ In Bhutan. ‡ The total population is 900. ‡ The dominant religion is Buddhism. ‡ Bhutan has considerable mineral resources. and tourism have a great potential.000 people in the northwestern part of the country.000 in 2003. ‡ Ethnic tensions between the declining Nepalese minority and the Bhutia have resulted in the exodus of Nepalese refugees from Bhutan in the 1990s. although officially the country is a constitutional monarchy. the king rules with absolute power.

Sikkim. ‡ That year. the overwhelming majority of the people voted to join India. was an independent country.SIKKIM ‡ Until 1975. . Nepal¶s eastern neighbor.

‡ Emigrants from India brought to Ceylon the Buddhist religion and irrigation techniques. pear-shaped island located off the southern tip of India. speak a language belonging to the Indo-Aryan language family of northern India. ‡ Population was 18. ‡ The majority of Sri Lanka's people are not Dravidian. . the Sinhalese. ‡ This is neither a Hindu nor a Moslem country. ‡ It has been sovereign since 1948.900. ‡ Today their descendants.000 people in 2003.SRI LANKA ‡ Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon) is a Buddhist. ‡ Unlike India or Pakistan. but are of Aryan origin with a historical link to ancient northern India. Sri Lanka is a plantation country (a legacy of European colonialism). the majority -some 75% of its population -.

.SRI LANKA ‡ The Dravidian from southern India introduced the Hindu way of life. brought the Tamil languages to Sri Lanka and today constitute 12% of the total population. ‡ In 1978. Tamil was granted the status of a national language in Sri Lanka. when the British brought thousands of Tamils from the mainland to work on the plantations. ‡ Their numerical strength increased in the second half of the 19th century. ‡ The Tamils practice the Hindu religion. ‡ Sri Lanka sought the repatriation of these people in an agreement with India.

‡ This upland is surrounded by a lowland. mi) but it has considerable topographic diversity. 950 sq.64.500 m (8. ‡ Rivers flow radially from the interior highland across this lowland rim. ‡ The upland core lies in the south where elevations reach 2. ‡ Northern Sri Lanka is entirely low-lying. most of which lies below 300 m (1000 feet). ‡ The focus of Sinhalese Empire was Anuradhapura. km (24. ‡ The present focus is the moist upland southwest. .621 sq.SRI LANKA ‡ Sri Lanka is not a large island -.000 feet).

Tea constitutes 2/3 of Sri Lanka's annual exports by value.000 feet). Coconuts in the hot lowlands. Rubber up to about 600 m (2. and 3. 2.SRI LANKA ‡ Plantation economy is the dominant feature of Sri Lanka¶s economic geography. . ± Rice production is not as efficient as plantation agriculture. Tea in the highlands above. ‡ Three important plantation crops: 1.

‡ Graphite is the most valuable mineral export. ‡ Sri Lanka's limited industry is located in Colombo (population 740,000), the country's capital, largest city, and leading port. ‡ In 1983, extremist Tamils rioted to demand the creation of a separate homeland in the island's northern lowland; this triggered a violent response by Sinhalese bands. ‡ Religions: Buddhist-69%; Hindu-15%; Islam-8%; Christian 8%.

‡ The Maldives are an insular country with more than 1,000 islands and an area of 300 sq. km (115 sq. mi). ‡ Their highest point barely exceeds two m (6 ft) above sea level. ‡ The population is 300,000, about a fourth of which resides in the capital Maale. ‡ The country is a popular European tourist destination. ‡ There is a danger of submergence even with a minor rise in the level of the ocean. ‡ The population adheres to Islam

‡ Punjab A northwestern province of India. ‡ Tributary A smaller stream that flows into a bigger one. ‡ Exotic (allogenic) A stream that originates in a humid environment and flows through a dry area. ‡ Salinization The process by which salts accumulate on the surface in dry environments. ‡ Orographic Mountain induced precipitation. ‡ Monsoon The reversal of the wind systems in southern Asia. ‡ Jet stream A band of fast-moving air usually found in middle latitudes in the upper troposphere. ‡ Terai A type of vegetation found in northern India. ‡ Green Revolution A western technology package that is used to increase agricultural production in developing countries.

. ± Vaisyas The people engaged in trades and farming in the caste system of India. ± Sudra The lowest caste that provides services and support to the rest of the society. if there was any personal contact with them. the political leaders and warriors. ± Harijans The lowest caste in India because it is believed that they would contaminate one's ritual purity. ± Brahmans The upper caste in India comprising the scholars and teachers. ‡ Caste system The hierarchical.SOUTH ASIA: LIST OF TERMS ‡ Cottage industries Small scale industries in India. hereditary social organization of India. ± Kshatriya In the caste system of India. ‡ Hinduism The predominant religion of India.

Bustee A shanty town in south Asia ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .SOUTH ASIA: LIST OF TERMS ‡ Nirvana ‡ ‡ In Hinduism. Dravidian The languages spoken in southern India. Suttee A Hindu practice whereby a widow immolated herself on the funeral pyre of her husband. Centrifugal forces A set of forces that tends to disunite a certain population. Centripetal forces A set of forces that tends to unite a certain population. Lingua franca The language of common use in areas where more than one language is in use. the law of the deed. the spiritual unification with cosmic forces. Karma In Hinduism.

‡ Sind ‡ Forward capital ‡ Sinhalese ‡ Tamils . They are descendants of people that emigrated from southern India and laborers that were introduced by the British to work in the plantations of the area. A capital city that is relocated into a new area where a certain country wants to make a statement of interest about that part of the country. One of the smaller channels into which a river channel divides before it empties into the sea. Islamabad in Pakistan. The majority group in Sri Lanka. The minority people in Sri Lanka.SOUTH ASIA: LIST OF TERMS ‡ Typhoon ‡ Distributary A name used to describe a hurricane type storm in Asia. i. A region in southern Pakistan. The Sinhalese are descendants of people who emigrated from northern India.e.

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