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• Create a better understanding of the
principles of ergonomics
• Guide us through an evaluation and adjustment
of their workstation.
• Outline exercises designed to reduce the risk of
injury.

BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS
KIM A. DECENA, MD 1-20-09

Scientific discipline primarily
concerned
with the application of
natural laws
governing human work
BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS
A. DECENA, MD 1-20-09
KIM

design engineers • Work physiologist/ occupational therapist • Medical and occupational health and safety professionals • Industrial Hygienists BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. DECENA. production. • Industrial. MD 1-20-09 .

• Human body size (anthropometry) • Bodily response to internal and external forces (biomechanics) • Work and environmental physiology • Human behavior response to work • Information processing and decision making (skill psychology) • Training and effort perception • Adapting equipment and device for human use BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. MD 1-20-09 . DECENA.

• NECESARY IF PARTICULAR JOB CAUSES ADVERSE HEALTH DIRECTLY EFFECT AFFECT: JOB ( ENGINEERING ADAPTATION) WORKER (ADMINISTRATIVE INTERVENTION)  BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF THE JOB  JOB TASK ROTATION  TRAINING PROGRAMS BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. DECENA. MD 1-20-09 .

CLASSIFICATION: A. DECENA. WORKPLACE ACCOMMODATION/JOB REDESIGN BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. WORKER TRAINING B. WORKER SELECTION C. MD 1-20-09 .

A. MD 1-20-09 instructions ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM . WORKER TRAINING: • Wide Acceptance • Intensive campaign to educate workers Fitness and stretching exercises Back support belts Postural BVT: MEDICAL A. DECENA.

DECENA.B. MD 1-20-09 . WORKER SELECTION • Strategy for strenous job • Match worker capacity and job requirements • Method of choice if job redesign/engineering modification cannot be performed BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A.

MD 1-20-09 . WORKPLACE ACCOMMODATION/JOB REDESIGN • CTD not prevented by selecting workers • Most effective ergonomic A.intervention BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM DECENA.C.

Assessment should begin with evaluation of individual’s workstation BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. DECENA. MD 1-20-09 .

MD 1-20-09 . Work Station Reach Zone EASY REACH ZONE • Determined by moving hands and forearms with elbows at sides and shoulders relaxed • 16" to 18" in front of their body BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. DECENA.

DECENA. without leaning forward • 26" to 34" in front of their body • Less frequently used items BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. MD 1-20-09 . Work Station Reach Zone MAXIMUM REACH ZONE • How far they can reach.

DECENA. CUSTOMIZING THE WORK STATION Accountant's Work Area Receptionist's Work Area BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. MD 1-20-09 .

MD 1-20-09 . DECENA.LEFT HANDED WORK STATION RIGHT HANDED WORK STATION • Determined by location of keyboard relative to work area • Identified by laterality of writing surface BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A.

SEATED WORKSTATION STANDING WORKSTATION BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. DECENA. MD 1-20-09 .

• Items to be handled < 10 lbs • Fine-motor tasks predominate work • Hand < 6 inches from work station • All items within reach from seated position. BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. DECENA. MD 1-20-09 .

MD 1-20-09 . DECENA. • Top of computer monitor in line with workers eye • Allow for downward gaze angle of 15 degrees (maintain the cervical lordotic) BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A.

Lower monitor b. DECENA. Eyeglass specific for computer BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. MD 1-20-09 . Individual with eyeglass: • Pay particular attention to placement of monitor • Unknowingly tilting head backward may lead to neck and shoulder discomfort • Potential Solution: a.

DECENA. • Adjust the tilt of the monitor so that the screen is free of glare MONITOR AT USE FILE USE GLARE FOLDER OR RIGHT SCREEN ANGLE WITH A SCREEN TILT THE MONITOR LIGHT HOOD DOWN SLIGHTLY SOURCE BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. MD 1-20-09 .

•Worker directly in front of the screen (Decrease excessive cervical rotation or coupled side  Too close bending) eyestrain Too far  slouch forward thus increase the • Optimum stress in distance the from monitor spine is 12 to 18 inches or one arm length BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. MD 1-20-09 . DECENA.

DECENA. MD 1-20-09 . ARMRESTS: • Elbows at < 70-90° • Slightly below elbows • Arms hang comfortably at sides BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A.

UPPER EXTREMITY POSITION • Neutral. DECENA.shoulder s relax at side • Elbows flexed to 70-90 degrees BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. MD 1-20-09 .

DECENA. HEIGHT OF THE WORKSTATION Too high Too high • Abduct or elevate the shoulder • Increase sustained muscle contraction • Compensates with wrist ulnar deviation Too low • Slouch in chair • Rounding of upper back • Flattening of lumbar lordosis BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE • WORKERS KIM Increase in forward head A. MD 1-20-09 .

MD degrees ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS 1-20-09 KIM . DECENA. HEIGHT • Allow good clearance while feet place on the floor • Knees maintained in 90-105 BVT: MEDICAL A.

HEIGHT Too low • Increase pressure in ischial tuberosity • Increase elbow flexion and wrist extension as worker reaches for the keyboard Too high • Forced to sit forward in chair without lumbar support BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. MD • Increase compressive forces 1-20-09 . DECENA.

SEAT DEPTH • Allow 1-4 inches between the popliteal fossa and the front of the seat Shorter • Require the buttocks and upper thigh to sustain excessive pressure Longer • Impede circulation behind knees BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. DECENA. MD 1-20-09 .

MD spine ERGONOMICS in FOR OFFICE 1-20-09 WORKERS KIM . BACK • ReduceREST fatigue (decreasing sustained contraction of the back muscle) • Deep to support the lumbar curve while maintaining the thoracic BVT: MEDICAL A. DECENA.

DECENA. • Handle object more than 10 lbs • Extended reach is required • Move between station • Occupation requiring BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS A. MD 1-20-09 KIM .

MD 1-20-09 .VY WORK IS COMPLETED IN THE LOWEST WORK HEIGH 75-90 cms for MEN 70-85 cms for WOMEN BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. DECENA.

DECENA. LIGHT WORK IS COMPLETED IN THE FOLLOWING LEVELS LIGHT 90-95cms for MEN 85-90cms for WOMEN Allow activities to be completed 5 cms below the waistline. MD 1-20-09 . BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A.

arm parallel with the floor BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. MD 1-20-09 . above waist line.ON WORK SHOULD BE BETWEEN THE FOLLOWING LEVE 100-110 cms for MEN 95-105 cms for WOMEN Allow work to be completed app. DECENA. 7-10 cms.

• Total body posture is important • Practice adjusting your work station to achieve neutral posture BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. DECENA. MD 1-20-09 .

MD 1-20-09 . • Avoid static positions • PROLONG SITTING Increase IV disc pressure Pooling of blood into the legs • Change position every 20-30 minutes to increase blood circulation • Alternating work task with 5 mins break/hr BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. DECENA.

• 90 DEGREE POSTURE • RECLINING POSTURE • FORWARD TILT POSTURE • STANDING POSTURE BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. MD 1-20-09 . DECENA.

DECENA. • Biomechanically correct BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. MD 1-20-09 . hips and knees bent at right angles and feet flat on the floor or on a footrest. 90 DEGREE POSTURE • Elbows.

20o into the chair's backrest feet out in front to open up the angle at hips and knees. RECLINING POSTURE • Lean back 10o . DECENA. MD 1-20-09 . • Leaning back too far result in awkward neck posture trying to keep head upright. BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. • Helps relax back muscles and promotes blood circulation.

MD 1-20-09 . • Contoured chair seat can help to hold you in place. DECENA. • Open up hip angle and allow to support some of weight using legs rather than having it all rest on hips and the backs of thighs. BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. • May not find this posture comfortable if you have knee or foot problems. FORWARD TILT POSTURE • Raise height of chair's seat a few inches and tilt the front of it downward about 8o.

• Prop one foot up on a low footrest occasionally to help shift your weight. MD 1-20-09 . DECENA. however. have a counter height chair at standing workstations. BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. good alternative to prolonged sitting • Fatiguing. STANDING POSTURE • Provide biggest change in posture. or use a height adjustable sit/stand workstation.

DECENA.BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. MD 1-20-09 .

MD 1-20-09 . NEGATIVE POSITIVE TILT TILT BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. DECENA.

WHEN POSITIONING THE CURSOR WITH A POINTING DEVICE BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. MD 1-20-09 . DECENA.

MD 1-20-09 . Place the pointing device close to the keyboard BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. DECENA.

MD 1-20-09 KIM . • Arm and hand are dropped onto the mouse as one • Drape hand over the mouse • Small circular motions • Click by mid section of the finger BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS A. DECENA.

DECENA. • FOCUSING REQUIRES MUSCLES OF EYES TO KEEP IMAGE SHARP • EYE SHIFT FROM DOCUMENT TO MONITOR REQUIRES REFOCUSING  EYE FATIGUE. EYESTRAIN OR HEADACHE BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. MD 1-20-09 .

DECENA. • Line of vision • Same distance or closer than the monitor • Look at document and monitor by moving eyes only • Next to monitor or between monitor and keyboard BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. MD 1-20-09 .

) breaks( microbreaks or recovery pause) given with usual breaks reduce discomfort • Change positions periodically can promote circulation BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. DECENA. more frequent (every 30-60 mins. MD 1-20-09 . • Shorter (1-3 mins).

OFFICE ERGONOMICS •WORKS/SEATED UTER COMPUTER WORKS/SEATED WORK CAUSE A NUMBER OF WORK PROBLEM DUE TO: CK OF WHOLE BODY MOVEMENT CAUSE A WKWARD POSTURE NUMBER PETITIVE MOTION OFUPPER OF JOINT OF PROBLEM BODY DUE TO: TCHING AND EXERCISE PROGRAM USEFUL IN INCREASING LACK OF WHOLE BODY MOVEMENT OVEMENT AND CIRCULATION AWKWARD POSTURE REPETITIVE MOTION OF JOINT OF UPPER BODY • STRETCHING • EXERCISE PROGRAM .INCREASING MOVEMENT AND CIRCULATION BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS A. MD 1-20-09 KIM . DECENA.

•Relax. •Gently hold elbow with opposite hand. •Hold for 15 seconds. •Pull elbow toward the back of your head and reach hand toward the middle of back until you feel a gentle stretch. MD 1-20-09 . keeping your arm close to your ear. DECENA. OFFICE ERGONOMICS •Reach behind head and place hand on upper back. and repeat on the other side BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A.

OFFICE ERGONOMICS

ess hands away from body to stretch arms and shoulders.
ce fingers together and turn palms facing out.
raighten arms in front of you.
ld for 15 seconds.
lax and repeat.
BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM
A. DECENA, MD 1-20-09

OFFICE ERGONOMICS

es the muscles of your chest, upper back and the back of neck.
gers together behind the head, bringing elbows back as far as p
eeply and lean back until feel muscles stretching.
20 seconds.
relax and repeat.
BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM
A. DECENA, MD 1-20-09

OFFICE ERGONOMICS

•Tilt head toward one
side, gently pushing ear
toward your shoulder.
•Hold for 15 seconds.
•Lift your head into a
normal, upright position.
•Relax, and repeat three
times on each side

BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM
A. DECENA, MD 1-20-09

DECENA. BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. •Hold for three seconds. Be sure to keep shoulders straight ahead. OFFICE ERGONOMICS •Slowly turn head and look to one side until chin is parallel with shoulder. •Repeat the same steps on the other side. MD 1-20-09 . •Repeat all steps five times. •Drop your chin gently to your chest before returning to the upright starting position.

OFFICE ERGONOMICS •Start facing straight ahead. •Keeping back straight. return to BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM your A. MD 1-20-09 . •Relax. •Hold for 10 to 15 seconds. starting DECENA. pull chin toward chest until you feel a stretch along the back of your neck.

roll shoulders back and down. OFFICE ERGONOMICS •Slowly bring shoulders up toward your ears. •Hold for three seconds. •Relax and repeat five to 10 times BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. DECENA. •Then. MD 1-20-09 .

BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. Don't force the turn — go just until you feel a nice stretch in your back. Hold for eight to 10 seconds. •Put left hand on right knee. •Face forward and cross your right leg over left. DECENA. •Relax and repeat on the other side. MD 1-20-09 . OFFICE ERGONOMICS •Sit forward in chair so that there's a little room between back and the back of the chair. and gently pull toward left side •while slowly turning head and shoulders to the right. • Keep turning until you see the wall behind your right shoulder.

DECENA. BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. letting the head fall back as well (this opens up the front of the neck). OFFICE ERGONOMICS •Move to the front of the chair •Interlace your fingers behind the back and feel the palms touching each other •Stretch feeling felt in front of the chest and shoulders •An easier alternative is to clasp the hands together using just the fingers and not the palms •Take a deep breath in and let the shoulders move even further backwards. MD 1-20-09 .

BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. MD 1-20-09 . DECENA. feeling the front of your body open up as you extend backwards •Hold this position for a few deep breaths •SLOWLY bring your head back up to ensure that you do not strain your neck. OFFICE ERGONOMICS •Exhale all the air.

MD 1-20-09 . DECENA. OFFICE ERGONOMICS BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A.

flv BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A.com. MD 1-20-09 . OFFICE ERGONOMICS Video Lower back stretches and hip stretches for the office . DECENA.MayoClinic.

MD 1-20-09 .com. OFFICE ERGONOMICS Video Lower back stretches. for the office . DECENA.flv BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A.MayoClinic. standing.

com.MayoClinic. MD 1-20-09 .flv BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A. OFFICE ERGONOMICS Video Neck stretches for the office . DECENA.

MD 1-20-09 . OFFICE ERGONOMICS Video Shoulder stretches and upper back stretches for the office .flv BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM A.com.MayoClinic. DECENA.

BVT: MEDICAL ERGONOMICS FOR OFFICE WORKERS KIM .