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BY
NANCY KADHIWALA

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  ww  à A g  is a misalignment of teeth and/or incorrect relation between the teeth of the two dental arches. which refers to the manner in which opposing teeth meet."as a derivative of ¬ ¬. . the "father of modern orthodontics. The term was coined by Edward Angle.

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9Ê  .g ë It includes variations in individual tooth position and malocclusions affecting a group of teeth within an arch.

g ë It comprises of malrelation of dental archs to one another upon skeletal bony bases. 9p   .

g ë It involves the underlying bony bases. .

w w  ww   9Angle·s system of classification 9Simon·s classification 9Bennet·s classification 9Ackreman-profitt system of classification 9ë ëëp.

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It also helps in visualizing and understanding the problem associated with malocclusion.ëppÊÊëÊ I. . It helps in diagnosis and treatment planning of the patient. II.

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à It is based on g   .introduced a system of classifying malocclusion in year 1899.

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à According to Angle.maxillary first permenant molar is the key to occlusion. . à Based on the relation of  .

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these patients exhibit normal skeletal relation and normal muscle function . à The patient may exhibit dental irregularities such as crowding.  w  à Angle·s class 1 malocclusion is characterized by presence of normal inter-arche molar relation. à The mesio-bucal cusp of the maxillary first permanent molar occludes in the bucal groove of mandibular first permanent molar.spacing.rotation missing tooth etc.

They are divided in 3 divisionsë 1. Division 2 3.  w  à It characterized by class II molar relation where the disto-bucal cusp of upper first permanent molar occludes in the bucal groove of the mower 1st permenant molar. . Division 1 2. Subdivision cont...

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with a resultant increase in overjet. The lower lip cushions the palatal aspect of upper teeth. This feature is reffered as ´u. à It is characterized bey proclined upper incisors. à Characterstic featureë the presence abnormal muscle activity à the upper lip is usually hyptonic short and fails to lip seal.

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à Patient exhibits a deeper anterior over bite.ÊÊ  à Characteristic feature is presence of retroclined upper central incisors and proclined upper lateral incisors over lapping the central incisors. à  . à Squarish apperance of arche seen.

ÊÊ à When class II molar realtion exists on one side and class I molar relation on the other side.subdivision . it is referred to as class II.

Pseudo class III 3.  w  à It is characterized by class III molar relation with mesio- buccal cusp of maxillary 1st permenant molar accluding in tnterdental space between the mandibular 1st and 2nd molars à Classified into 3 types as underë 1. True class III 2. Class III subdivision cont« .

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ÊÊÊë à This is skeletal class III malocclusion of genetic origin à Causesë à Exclusively large mandible à Forwardly placed mandible à Smaller than normal manilla à Retropositioned manilla à Lower incisors tend to be lingually inclined. à Y .

 ÊÊÊë à This type of malocclusion is produced by forward movement of mandible during jaw closure.thus it is also called as  .

or   class III.the child tends to move the mandible forward. à A child with enlarged adenoids.tends to move the mandible forward à  . à Causesë à In case of premature loss of decidous posterious.

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ë à It is a condition charaterized by class III molar relation on one side and class I relation on other side .

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à  .Ê à class I malocclusion with crowded anterior teeth.

à  .ë à Class I with protnesiue maxillary incisors.

ë à Class I malocclusion with anterior crossbite à  .

 à Class I molar relation with posterior crossbite. à  .

.! à The permanent molar has drifted mesially due to early extraction of second decidous molar or second premolar.

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But when the arches are made to occlude the patient shows on edge to edge incisors alignment.ë à The upper & lower dental arches when viewed seperately are in normal alignment. suggestive of forward moved mandibular dental arche. à  .

à  .ë à The mandibular incisors are crowded and are in lingual relation to the maxillary incisors.

ë à The maxillary incisors are crowded and are in crossbite in relation to the mandibular anteriors. .

w  w  w w à   ë à Synonyms with angle·s class I malocclusion. à    à Transposition of two teeth. à ë ë à Abnormal axial inclination of tooth. à   ë à Rotation of tooth around its long axis. à Ê  à When tooth or a group of teeth have erupted to normal level. à ë à Lingual placement of tooth or group of teeth. à p ë à When tooth or a group of teeth have erupted beyond normal level. à ë à Synonym with angle class II malocclusion à „ ë à Synonym with angle·s class III malocclusion à ë à Buccal placement of tooth or group of teeth. à „   à „esial to normal position. à   à Distal to normal postion. .

.e à Frankfort horizontal plane à The orbital plane à „id sagittal plane contd. .  w w à This system of classification uses three anthropometric planes i.

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à  . to the upper margin of the auditory meatus (the notch above the tragus of the ear).  ë à It is determined by drawing a straight line through the margin of the bony orbit directly under the pupil of the eye. This plane is used to determine deviations in the height of the dental arches and teeth in relation to the face and cranium.

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ë à It is a perpendicular at right angles to the frankfort plane at the margin of the bony orbit directly under the pupil of the eye. à „. This plane is used to determine sagital deviations of the dental arches and the axial inclination of the teeth to the face and the cranium.

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 à it is used to describe malocclusion in the transverse direction. . à When a part or a whole arche is closer from mid sagittal plane it is called·contraction·. à When a part or a whole arche is away from mid sagittal plane it is called·distraction·.

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introduced a classification of abnormalities of occlusion which was based on their etiology. Briefly the classification is as followsë à  .

à  .Êë à Abnormal position of one or more teeth due to local causes.

ÊÊ à Abnormal formation of a part or whole of either arch due to developmental defects of bone. à  .

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à Abnormal relationship between upper and lower arches. and between either arch and facial contour and correlated abnormal formation of either arch. .

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  w w à Ackreman&profitt in 1960 proposed a diagramatic classification of malocculation as belowë .

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à p .it is classified as ideal/crowded/spaced." g # à It involves assesment of alignment & symmetric of the dental arch.

"  # à It involves the consideration of the profile. The profile is described as conves/straight/concave. à p .

à p . Bucal and palatal crossbites if any are voted." # à The transverse skelatal and dental relationship is evaluated.

It is classified as angle·s I/II/III malocclusion. " # à This involves the assesment of the sagittal realtionship. à p .

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  # à „alocclusion in vertical plane are noted. .

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