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‡ Christensen, Chapter 5

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± number of photons in beam

1, 2, 3, ...
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~
~ ~
~

©      ‡ .

2 @ 32     . ± energy distribution of photons in beam 1 @ 27 keV.

2 at 39 keV.. . ~ ~           ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .. keV.

©      ‡   ± weighted product of number and energy of photons ± depends on 324 mR » quantity » quality ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .

©    ‡ !  .

 "#$ "#"   ! !  ‡ %#" ""  " "  #"  "  " !  324 mR - ~ + .

r    |" ‡ Radioisotope ± Not x-ray beam ‡ all photons in beam have same energy ‡ attenuation results in ± Change in beam quantity ± no change in beam quality » # of photons & total energy of beam changes by same fraction .

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"" ##   ‡ Parameter indicating fraction of radiation attenuated by a given absorber  .

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‡ Attenuation Coefficient is function of ± absorber ± photon energy .

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"" #& ‡ Why called linear? ± distance expressed in linear dimension ³x´ ‡ Formula N = No e -×x where N = number of incident photons o N = number of transmitted photons e = base of natural logarithm (2. property of o energy material x = absorber thickness (cm) x .718«) N N × = linear attenuation coefficient (1/cm).

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"" #& Larger Coefficient = More Attenuation ‡ Units: 1 / cm ( or 1 / distance) N = No e .718«) » ~63% reduction » 37% of original intensity remaining ± as photon beam energy increases » penetration increases / attenuation decreases » attenuating distance increases » linear attenuation coefficient decreases ‡ Note: Same equation as used for radioactive decay .× x ‡ Properties ± reciprocal of absorber thickness that reduces beam intensity by e (~2.

  '({ .

/ density} J)  ‡ absorber ‡ absorber thickness(x) thickness(x) ± linear ± mass  )  Xlinear distance X density} N = No e -×x . Coef. coef."" ##   ‡ coefficient ‡ coefficient (×) (×) ± Mass atten.  ) Xlinear atten. Coef. ± Linear atten.

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"" #& ‡ r.

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attenuation coefficient = linear attenuation coefficient divided by density ± normalizes for density ± expresses attenuation of a material   "#    ‡ Notes ± references often give mass attenuation coef. ± linear may be more useful in radiology .

attenuator thickness . r    |" ‡ Let¶s graph the attenuation of a monochromatic x-ray beam vs.

001 1 2 3 4 5 Attenuator Thickness . (""  " |" ‡ Yields straight line on semi-log graph 1 Fraction .01 Remaining or Transmitted .1 (also fraction of energy) .

"  " |" ‡ X-Ray beam contains spectrum of photon energies ± highest energy = peak kilovoltage applied to tube ±    J) * J) "# + » depends on filtration .

†*| © { .

   ." ‡ reduction in beam Lower Energy Higher Energy intensity by ± absorption (photoelectric) ± deflection (scattering) ‡ Attenuation alters beam ± quantity ± quality » higher fraction of low energy photons removed » © .

.#%.

  -.% . N = No e -×x ‡ absorber thickness that reduces beam intensity by exactly half ‡ Units of thickness ‡ value of ³x´ which makes N equal to No / 2 HVL = .693 / × .

.#%.

  -.% . ‡ Indication of beam quality ‡ Valid concept for all beam types ± Mono-energetic ± Poly-energetic ‡ Higher HVL means ± more penetrating beam ± lower attenuation coefficient .

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or electrons per gram    attenuation ." ‡ Energy of radiation / beam quality ± higher energy » more penetration »   attenuation ‡ Matter ± density ± atomic number ± electrons per gram ± higher density. atomic number.

"  " { .

" ‡ Yields curved line on semi-log graph ± line straightens with increasing attenuation ± slope approaches that of monochromatic beam at the peak energy ‡ mean energy increases with attenuation 1 ± beam hardening Fraction .1 Transmitted Polychromatic .01 Monochromatic .001 Attenuator Thickness .

""    /&" " ‡ Fractional contribution of each determined by ± photon energy ± atomic number of absorber ‡ Equation × = ×coherent + ×PE + ×Compton Small .

""    /&" " × 6 ×  ×  × .

 ‡ As photon energy increases ± Both PE & Compton decrease Interaction Probability ± PE decreases faster » Fraction of × that is Compton increases Compton » Fraction of × that is PE decreases Photoelectric Photon Energy .

""    /&" " × 6 ×  ×  × .

 ‡ As atomic # increases ± Fraction of × that is PE increases ± Fraction of × that is Compton decreases .

  " "!! Photoelectric Atomic Pair Number of Production Absorber Compton Photon Energy ‡ PE dominates for very low energies .

  " "!! Photoelectric Atomic Pair Number of Production Absorber Compton Photon Energy ‡ For lower atomic numbers ± Compton dominates for high energies .

  " "!! Photoelectric Atomic Pair Number of Production Absorber Compton Photon Energy ‡ For high atomic # absorbers ± PE dominates throughout diagnostic energy range .

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"'0  ‡ Attenuation proportional to density ± difference in tissue densities accounts for much of optical density difference seen radiographs ‡ # of Compton interactions depends on electrons / unit path ± which depends on » electrons per gram » density .

water. | "  ‡ Density generally increases with atomic # ± different states = different density » ice. electrons / gram decreases slightly . electrons / gram ± hydrogen ~ 2X electrons / gram as most other substances ± as atomic # increases. steam ‡ no relationship between density and electrons per gram ‡ atomic # vs.

{  " ‡ As photon energy increases ± subject (and image) contrast decreases ± differential absorption decreases » at 20 keV bone¶s linear attenuation coefficient † water¶s » at 100 keV bone¶s linear attenuation coefficient J& †water¶s J      1"  2   J + % J+ .

{  " Photo- electric Pair Production Compton ‡ At low x-ray energies ± attenuation differences between bone & soft tissue primarily caused by ""     ##  » related to atomic number & density .

{  " Photo- electric Pair Production Compton ‡ At high x-ray energies ± attenuation differences between bone & soft tissue primarily because of " "  » related entirely to density .

{  " ‡ Difference between water & fat only visible at low energies ± effective atomic # of water slightly higher » yields photoelectric difference ± electrons / cm almost equal » No Compton difference ± Photoelectric dominates at low energy .

U*  ‡ Each electron shell has threshold for PE effect Photon energy must be >= binding energy of electron shell ‡ For photon energy > K-shell binding energy ± k-shell electrons are candidates for PE ± PE interactions increase as photon energy exceeds k-shell binding energy .

U*  ‡ step increase in attenuation at k-edge energy ± K-shell electrons become available for interaction ‡ exception to rule of decreasing attenuation with increasing energy Linear Attenuation Coefficient Energy .

U*    #  ‡ K-edge energy insignificantly low for low Z materials ‡ k-edge energy in diagnostic range for high Z materials ‡ higher attenuation above k-edge useful in ± contrast agents ± rare earth screens ± Mammography beam filters .

º  |" ‡ NO Socially Redeeming Qualities ± no useful information on image ± detracts from film quality ± exposes personnel. public ‡ represents 50-90% of photons exiting patient .

{!""" ‡ ~1% of incident photons on adult abdomen reach film ‡ fate of the other 99% ± mostly scatter » most do not reach film ± absorption .

º   "  ‡ Factors affecting scatter ± field size ± thickness of body part ± kVp An increase in any of above increases scatter. .

º  ' º3 ‡ Reducing field size causes significant reduction in scatter radiation ÑÑ ÑÑ       .

 º3 'º  ‡ Field Size & thickness determine volume of irradiated tissue ‡ Scatter increase with increasing field size ± initially large increase in scatter with increasing field size ± saturation reached (at ~ 12 X 12 inch field) » further field size increase does not increase scatter reaching film » scatter shielded within patient .

 + 'º  ‡ Increasing patient thickness leads to increased scatter but ‡ saturation point reached ± scatter photons produced far from film ± shielded within body .

+% 'º  ‡ kVp has less effect on scatter than than ± field size ± thickness ‡ Increasing kVp ± increases scatter ± more photons scatter in forward direction .

º  (   ‡ Reduce scatter by minimizing ± field size » within limits of exam ± thickness » mammography compression ± kVp » but low kVp increases patient dose » in practice we maximize kVp .

º  " " 4.

5 6  ‡ directional filter for photons ‡ Increases patient dose .

{  "#   ‡ angle over which scattered radiation   primary field ‡ escape angle larger for » small fields » larger distances from film Larger Angle of Escape X X Film Film .

º  " " 4.

5 { 6 ‡ Gap intentionally left between patient & image receptor ‡ Natural result of magnification radiography Patient ‡ Grid not used Air ‡ (covered in detail in Patient Gap chapter 8) Grid Film Cassette .