FLEXURAL AND SHEAR STRENGTH OF HOLLOW CONCRETE BLOCK MASONRY PRISMS UNDER NORMAL STRESS

BY HEMANTH KUMAR M.N UNDER GUIDANCE OF Smt MANGALA KESHAVA Asst. Professor, Dept of civil Engineering, BMSCE

INTRODUCTION
• Masonry may be defined as an assemblage of masonry units

along with mortar laid in a predetermined orientatation..

• Concrete block masonry is the versatile material of today’s • thermal properties • compressive strength • resistance to chemical attack • Earthquake resistance •

construction industry because Concrete blocks having good

durability bearing walls.

• Concrete masonry units are used for load-bearing and Non-load

IMPORTANT FEATURES OF BLOCK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION
It ensures rapid construction Fewer

joints are constructed and hence saves

mortar
The true plane surface does not require plastering It can be used for both load bearing and non load

bearing walls

Classification of concrete blocks as per IS-2185-partI(1979)
 Mainly 2 classifications.  Hollow ( Open or Closed Cavity Concrete Blocks)  have core area greater than 25%, but not greater than 40%.  Sub classification of Hollow blocks  Grade A- min. block density-1500 kg/m3 , compr .strength of 3.5,4.5,5.5,7.0 N/mm2 @ 28 D
Grade B- block density- 1000-1500 kg/m3 , compr .strength of 2.0,3.0,5.0 N/mm2 @ 28 D Grade C- block density- 1000-1500 kg/m3 , compr .strength of 1.5 N/mm2 @ 28 D.  Grade D- block density not less than 1800 kg/m3 compr .strength of 4.0,5.0 N/mm2 @ 28 D.

APPLICATIONS
Masonry is commonly used for the

walls of buildings, retaining walls Garden walls Chimney Piers

TYPES OF MASONRY
STONE MASONRY BRICK MASONRY BLOCK MASONRY REINFORCED MASONRY

STONE AND BRICK MASONRY STRUCTURES

CONCRETE BLOCK MASONRY STRUCTURES

HOLLOW CONCRETE BLOCK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

EARLIER STUDIES ON MASONRY

Raghunath etal (2003) reported the flexural

strength of TMB was in the range of 0.36 MPa to 0.53 MPa .Also the flexural bond strength of TMB prisms with cement mortar 1:6 was 0.088Mpa Atul kumar(2009) conducted the flexure tests on SCB prisms under normal stress It was concluded that with increase in normal stress the flexural strength also increased The shear test was conducted on SCB triplet specimens under normal stress It was concluded that their was increase an shear strength with increase in normal stress

OBJECTIVE OF PRESENT INVESTIGATION
TO EVALUATE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF

HOLLOW BLOCK MASONRY PRISMS

 TO EVALUATE

THE FLEXURAL STRENGTH AND SHEAR STRENGTH OF HOLLOW BLOCK MASONRY UNDER VARYING NORMAL STRESS.

PRELIMINARY TESTS
Hollow concrete blocks

 Dimensionality test  Dry density test  Water absorption test  Initial rate of absorption test  Compressive strength  Modulus of Elasticity
Mortar

 Compressive strength of mortar

.

DIMENSIONALITY TEST
Twenty hollow concrete blocks were selected at random from the samples as per IS: 2185-(part-I) 1979 . The overall length, breadth, height of blocks were measured with steel tape Sl. No 1. 2. 3. Total measure in mm 8050 3000 3980 Average measure in mm 402.500 150.000 199.000

The avg dimensions of block were 402*150*199mm.

DIMENSIONALITY TEST

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF BLOCK
IS: 2185-(part-I) 1979 gives the compressive strength of concrete blocks both to be used for load bearing and nonload bearing walls. As per IS:2185-(part-I)1979 value of compressive strength of hollow blocks ranges from 2-7 Mpa. Compressive = Failure Load . Strength Area of Sample

The Average compressive strength of block is 6.10N/mm2.

DRY DENSITY
 The test was carried out as per IS:2185-1979(part-I).
Formula= Dry Weight Volume of Block

The average dry density of hollow concrete block is 1.155 g/cc.

WATER ABSORPTION
 Water absorption test was conducted on the concrete

block samples as per the IS: 2185 (part I) - 1979, appendix D. the water absorption of any unit shall not be more than 10 percent by mass Water Absorption = Wet Weight – Oven Dry Weight . X 100 Oven Dry Weight
 The average water absorption of block is 5.33%.

INITIAL RATE OF ABSORPTION
In a plastic tray, distilled water was filled up to a depth of 2.5cm from the bottom of tray. IRA = Wet Weight – Dry Weight X 1min. Area of Sample

The average IR of block is1.75 kg/m2/min

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
Modulus of elasticity of any material is the

ratio of linear stress to linear strain within elastic limit. It is also known as “Young’s modulus” and represented by “E” and its unit is N/mm2
MOE=5898Mpa

NORMALIZED STRESS V/S STRAIN CURVE FOR HOLLOW CONCRETE BLOCK MASONRY

FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF HOLLOW

BLOCK
The flexural strength of the concrete block was computed as given by “Dayarathnam P. in ‘Brick and Brick Masonry Structures’ (1987)”. This test gives the strength of the hollow concrete block against the bending load. [ Flexural strength= (3PL) / (2bd2) ] The average flexural strength of block is 1.87N/mm2

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MORTAR
 28 days compression strength of 70.6X70.6X70.6mm size mortar

cubes of 1:6 cement sand ratio with a W/C ratio of 1.2.
 The average compressive strength

of mortar was obtained after testing 6 cubes (IS:2250-1980)
 The average compressive strength of

Mortar is 10.13MPa

EXPERIMENT PROGRAMME
COMPRESSION TEST ON HOLLOW

CONCRETE BLOCK PRISMS

The main objective was to evaluate the basic properties like : Compressive strength Elastic modulus Stress- Strain relation ship Masonry efficiency

CASTING OF PRISMS

From this experiment the compression strength was obtained. The specimen was cast with a CM of 1:6 & W/C ratio 1.2 Four hollow concrete block prisms of dimension (400*150*673)mm The loads were applied using hydraulic jack Digital dial gauge was fixed on the prisms for taking strain measurements

PRESENT EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS

LOADING FRAME DETAILS
The prism specimens were constructed on the loading platform of the loading frame of 2000KN capacity having a clear dimension of 3.0Mts x1.75 Mts. As shown in figure.

Accessories for loading
•Hydraulic jack •Hydraulic pump •Proving ring 50T Capacity (LC=0.9206kN) •Digital dial gauge with stand(LC=0.001mm)

OBSERVATIONS OF THE PRISMS DURING TEST
Vertical cracks propogated from top to bottom course , Bond failure.

observed Failure pattern (vertical cracks front side)

Observed Failure pattern (vertical cracks- side side)

OBSERVATION AND TABULATION
• Wet Compressive Strength =Failure load(P) / (Area of specimen in mm2) • Corrected compressive strength= wet compressive strength correction factor(from IS-1905-1987-TABLE-12) • Stress= Load(P) / (Area of specimen in mm2) • Strain= Difference in length (mm) / original length (mm). •Masonry efficiency (%) = Compressive strength of prism/compressive strength of unit x

Compressive strength of prisms
specimen Maximum Wet failure load in compressive Dimension in kN strength in mm MPa 400x150x673 400x150x673 400x150x673 400x150x673 240 230 230 220 4.00 3.83 3.83 3.67 h/t ratio Correction factor Corrected compressive strength in MPa 4.48 4.48 4.48 4.48 1.33 1.33 1.33 1.33 5.32 5.10 5.10 4.88

1 2 3 4

Average compressive strength = 5.1MPa

(REF IS:1905-1987)

Results of Modulus elasticity and Masonry efficiency of prisms
Specimen Corrected compressive strength(MPa ) 5.32 5.10 5.10 4.88 Mean compressive strength = 5.1 Modulus of Elasticity (MPa) 6868 6855 6515 6047 Normalized value= 6535 Masonry Efficiency (%)

1 2 3 4

87 83 83 80 Overall efficiency =83.25

NORMALIZED STRESS V/S STRAIN CURVE OF HCB MASONRY

TEST ON HOLLOW CONCRETE BLOCK PRISMS FOR FLEXURE AND SHEAR UNDER NORMAL STRESS

TEST DETAILS FOR FLEXURE
 Flexural

strength

of

a

masonry

is

its

capacity

to

restrain

the

transverse/lateral loads.
 Nine

hollow

concrete

block

prism

specimens

of

dimension

400mm*150mm*673mm were cast for the experiment
 End condition - hinged  loading arrangement – 2 point loading  The loads were applied using screw jacks  The normal stress applied on prisms were 0.125, 0.20, 0.40, (MPa).

EQUIPMENTS USED
Fabricated hinge (2 no’s) Props (1 no’s) Screw jack (2 no’s) Proving ring of 10T & 50T capacity Two-point loading arrangement Steel plate and wooden supports

TEST SET UP
JACK1

PR1 JACK2 , PR2

Hinge

Two point loading

Arrangement for normal loading

Arrangement for lateral loading

Prism failure normal to bed joint Prism failure normal bed to joint

Prism failure normal to bed joint Prism failure normal to bed joint

Beam-column equation
The maximum B.M for beam-column, at mid span is

Where, W = Lateral load in N
K= P = Normal load in N

a=
L = effective length(c/c of hinge) in mm

Ultimate flexure strength
Sl No. Normal Stress (N/mm2) Proving Ring Normal Lateral Load (P) Load (w) N N K=√P/EI Moment Flexure (M) N-mm Strengt h (N/mm2)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0.125 0.125 0.125 0.200 0.200 0.200 0.400 0.400 0.400

155 150 140 230 210 200 280 275 270

7500 7500 7500 12000 12000 12000 24000 24000 24000

3801.37 3678.75 3433.50 5640.75 5150.25 4905.00 6867.00 6744.37 6621.75

1.010x10-4 929472.08 0.619 1.010x10-4 899492.30 0.600 1.010x10-4 839521.76 0.550 1.278x10-4 1380697.7 3 1.278x10-4 1260639.2 8 1.278x10-4 1200605.0 6 1.807x10-4 1681072.4 0 1.807x10-4 1651056.3 3 1621030.2 0.920 0.840 0.800 1.120 1.100 1.080

Comparison of Flexural strength v/s Normal stress of prisms

An attempt was made to compare the test results of hollow concrete block masonry with brick masonry & solid concrete block masonry studied by earlier investigations.
Normal Flexure strength of Flexure strength Flexure strength Flexure strength stress(MPa) half brick thick of one brick thick of thick SCB of thick HCB prisms(MPa) prisms(MPa) prisms(MPa) prisms(MPa) Applied (Chandrasekhar200 (Vidya sagar ( Atul Kumar (Present study) 9) 2009) 2009)

0.025 0.125 0.2 0.4 0.5

0.14 0.210 0.281 0.45 0.53

0.40 0.481 0.88 1.16

0.505 0.613 1.013 1.321

0.589 0.853 1.10 -

GRAPH OF FLEXURAL STRENGTH V/S NORMAL STRESS

TEST ON HOLLOW CONCRETE BLOCK MASONRY TRIPLET UNDER SHEAR

TEST DETAILS FOR SHEAR SPECIMENS
 Shear strength of a masonry is its capacity to restrain the shear loads.  The dimension of triplet specimens of height 412mm, width 624mm and thickness 150mm were constructed and cured for 15 days  loading arrangement,the loads were applied using screw jacks  The normal stress applied on The triplet specimens were 0.125 (Mpa).

Setup for testing

Schematic diagram showing details of Test setup for Shear

TABULATION AND CALCULATIONS

Capacity of jack used for normal loading(J1)

=

12 tons

Capacity of proving ring used for normal loading (PR1) = 50 tons Capacity of jack used for shear loading (J2) = 30 tons

Capacity of proving ring used for lateral loading (PR2) = 05 tons

OBSERVATIONS OF THE TRIPLETS TESTED UNDER SHEAR

Triplet failure pattern

ULTIMATE SHEAR STRENGTH
Sl No. Normal Stress (N/mm2) No of Shear Load Shearing Shear Divisions in (N) Area Strength Proving Ring (mm2) (N/mm2)

1 2 3 4

0.125 0.125 0.125 0.125

460 475 585 470

22563.00 120000 23298.75 120000 28694.25 120000 23053.50 120000

0.188 0.194 0.240 0.192

Comparison of Shear strength v/s Normal stress of Triplets

SHEAR STRENGTH(MPa) Normal stress(MPa) Applied 0.025 0.125 0.2 0.4 0.5 Shear strength Shear strength of Shear strength of half brick thick SCB Triplets HBM Triplets Triplets (Atul kumar (Present study ) (Karthik 2009) 2009) 0.06255 0.09037 0.1548 0.286 0.391 _ 0.2825 0.665 0.98 1.192
_

0.2035 _ _ _

CONCLUSION
 It can be concluded that there is an increase in flexural

strength for hollow concrete block prisms, when compared to solid concrete block masonry & brick masonry
It can be concluded that there is a decrease in shear

strength for hollow concrete block triplet, when compared to solid concrete block but a higher value when compared to brick triplets.(needs further investigation)

FURTHER SCOPE OF RESEAECH
Evaluation of compressive strength and modulus

of elasticity of reinforced masonry prisms with large number of samples is required to completely understand the behavior of hollow block masonry
A comparison can be made between strength of

unreinforced &reinforced hollow concrete block masonry
Further study can be carried out with varying

values of normal stress

•IS: 2185(part-I)-1979, ‘‘Code of specification for concrete masonry units-Hollow and solid concrete blocks”. Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi. •Dayaratham.p (1987). ‘‘Brick and Reinforced Brick masonry structures” Oxford IBH Publishing Co.Pvt Ltd.New Delhi. •Sp-20(1991) ‘‘Handbook on masonry design and construction”, Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi. •Atul Kumar (2009) ‘‘A study on behavior of solid concrete block masonry under flexure and shear loading conditions”. M-Tech Thesis Submitted to Department of Civil Engineering, BMSCE, and Bangalore. •Avinash.A.C (2006) ‘‘A Comprehensive study on masonry Units” MTech thesis submitted to Department of Civil Engineering, BMSCE, and Bangalore. •Siddangouda.patil (2007) ‘‘Compressive strength and Modulus of Elasticity of a Full Scale Concrete Block Masonry Wall Subjected to Axial Loading”. M-Tech Thesis Submitted to Department of Civil Engineering, BMSCE, and Bangalore. •Chandrasekhar (2009) ‘‘Effect of normal stress on Flexural strength of brick masonry”. M-Tech Thesis Submitted to Department of Civil Engineering, BMSCE, and Bangalore.

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