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Lecture 1

Introduction to INFORMATION
COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
(ICT)

LECTURER: S.M. KAMARA

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

Lecture 1

INFORMATION SYSTEMS:
CONCEPTS AND MANAGEMENT

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

• The value of information is directly linked to how it helps
decision makers achieve the organization’s goals



• Discuss why it is important to study and understand
information Communication Technology
• Distinguish data from information and describe the
characteristics used to evaluate the quality of data

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 3

• Models, computers, and information systems are
constantly making it possible for organizations to
improve the way they conduct business




• Name the components of an information system and
describe several system characteristics
• Identify the basic types of models and explain how they
are used

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

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organizations that reach their goals.• Knowing the potential impact of information systems and having the ability to put this knowledge to work can result in a successful personal career. how they are used. and a society with a higher quality of life • • •  • List the components of a computer-based information system • Identify the basic types of business information systems and discuss who uses them. and what kinds of benefits they deliver INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 5 .

• System users. business managers. and information systems professionals must work together to build a successful information system • • • • • Identify the major steps of the systems development process and state the goal of each INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 6 .

business. and industry can reap their enormous benefits • • • • • Describe some of the threats to security and privacy that information systems and the Internet can pose • Discuss the expanding role and benefits of information systems in business and industry • INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 7 .• Information systems must be applied thoughtfully and carefully so that society.

. storing and managing. Introduction ICT: Computer based technology and procedure in data collection. manipulation. and data presentation. analyzing.

Why study ICT? vVital component of successful businesses vHelps businesses expand and complete vBusinesses use IS and IT -To improve efficiency and effectiveness of business processes -For managerial decision making -For work group collaboration - .

Planning Support Systems: Integrating Geographic Information System. Models and Visualization Tools. and transforming the policy-making process 1980s Discourse ‘Planning as communication’ Information technology and the content of planners technical analyses are seen as often less important than the ways in which planners transmit this information to others 1990s Intelligence ‘Planning as reasoning together’ Information technology seen as providing the information infrastructure that facilitates social interaction. California: ESRI Press . reinforcing existing structure of influence. Evolving Views of ICT 1960s System ‘Planning as applied sciences’ optimisation Information technology viewed as providing the information needed for a value-and politically neutral process of “rational” planning 1970s Politics ‘Planning as politics’ Information technology seen as inherently political. and debate that attempts to achieve collective goals and deal with common concerns Source: Brail R.K. interpersonal communication.E Klosterman (eds). hiding political choices. and R.

predictive and presciptive model.ICT AND GOOD URBAN GOVERNANCE • Sustainable development – to maintain comfort. convenience. accountability. automated data handling. flow of information. sharing information . efficiency and preserve natural environment  • Basic characteristics – equity. effectiveness. increase access to information. participation and security  • Role of ICT – improve storage.

analyzed. California: ESRI Press .E Klosterman (eds). to apply knowledge acquired from experience. and R. coded. and study” Primary concern of decision support systems (DSS) which facilitated semistructured decision making to support executive decision making 1990s Intelligence “Ability to deal with novel situations and new problems. experience. and summarized into a meaningful form” Primary concern of management information systems (MIS) which integrated diverse data sets to serve management needs 1980s Knowledge “Understanding based on information. and to use the power of reasoning effectively as a guide to behavior” Possible concern of planning support systems (PSS) which integrated diverse data sets to serve management needs Source: Brail R. Models and Visualization Tools. and stored in machine readable form” Primary concern of electronic data processing (EDP) which promoted efficient transaction processing to improve operational tasks 1970s Information “Data which has been organized.K. Planning Support Systems: Integrating Geographic Information System.Evolving Concerns of Information Technology 1960s Data “Observations which have been cleaned.

to reduce uncertainty . Introduction THE ROLE OF ICT • The cognitive function – to improve understanding by providing key factors and variables  • The descriptive function – to describe a situation  • The normative function – to improve actions.

Information system (IS) versus Information Technology (IT) • Information system (IS) • A set of interrelated components that collect. networking and data management  In theory IS could be paper based INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 14 . and disseminate data and information and provide feedback to meet an objective • Examples: ATMs. software. course reservation systems  Information Technology (IT) – is hardware. airline reservation systems. manipulate.

Information knowledge framework for business professionals Information systems .

technical. networks.What should a business professional know about IS? • Foundation Concepts: fundamental behavioral. business and managerial concepts • Information Technology: hardware. software. and internet based technology • Business Applications: major uses of the IS in the organization • Development processes: how to plan. develop and implement IS to meet business opportunities • Management Challenges: the challenges of effectively and ethically managing IT • INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 16 . data management.

BASIC CONCEPT DATA TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION KNOWLEDGE .

. M.. A TAXONOMY OF INFORMATION SYSTEM INFORMATION NON-SPATIAL SPATIAL GEO. SYSTEM CAD/ CAM OTHER GIS (LIS) SOCIO-ECONOMIC CENSUS . NON-PARCEL BASED PARCEL BASED DeMers. Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems.. John Wiley . 1997. MANAGEMENT NON- SYSTEM SYSTEM GEOGRAPHIC (GIS) LAND INFO. INFORM.N.

The elements of ICT Human Software Data Hardware Procedure & Analysis .

and transactions that are recorded. figures. Information Concepts: Data Versus Information • Data: refers to an elementary description of things. activities. classified and stored but are not organized to convey any specific meaning. images etc. Numbers. events. Eg. • Information: collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the facts themselves INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 20 .

1: Types of Data INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 21 . Table 1.

Figure 1.1: Defining and Organizing Relationships Among Data Creates Information INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 22 .

2: The Process of Transforming Data into Information INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 23 . Figure 1.

2: Characteristics of Valuable Data INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 24 .Table 1.

2: Characteristics of Valuable Data (continued) 25 .Table 1.

System and Modeling Concepts • System: a set of elements or components that interact to accomplish goals • Components of a system • Input • Processing • Output • Feedback INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 26 .

3: Components of a System INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 27 .Figure 1.

.e. open or closed. stable or dynamic. adaptive or nonadaptive. the environment) • Configuration: the way system elements are organized or arranged • Systems can be classified as simple or complex. and permanent or temporary INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 28 . System Components and Concepts • System boundary: defines the system and distinguishes it from everything else (i.

Table 1.3: Systems Classifications and Their Primary Characteristics INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 29 .

System Performance and Standards • Efficiency: a measure of what is produced divided by what is consumed • Effectiveness: extent to which system attains its goals • System performance standard: a specific objective of a system INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 30 .

g.. the cost of a raw material) INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 31 . System Variables and Parameters • System variable: quantity or item controlled by the decision maker • System parameter: value or quantity that cannot be controlled (e.

Modeling a System • Model: an abstraction that is used to represent reality • Four major types of models: narrative (based on words). physical (tangible). schematic (graphic representation). mathematical (arithmetic representation) INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 32 .

6: Four Types of Models INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 33 .Figure 1.

Figure 1.7: The Components of an Information System INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 34 .

Input. usually in form of documents and reports • Feedback: output used to make changes to input or processing activities INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 35 . Feedback • Input: activity of gathering and capturing raw data • Processing: converting or transforming data into useful outputs • Output: production of useful information. Output. Processing.

Systems Development • Systems development: the activity of creating or modifying existing business systems • Systems investigation: gaining a clear understanding of the problem to be solved or opportunity to be addressed • Systems analysis: defines the problems and opportunities of the existing system INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 36 .

Figure 1.17: An Overview of Systems Development INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 37 .

and putting new system into operation • Systems maintenance and review: check and modify system so that it continues to meet changing business needs INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 38 . assembling them. Systems Development (continued) • Systems design: determines how new system will work to meet business needs defined during systems analysis • Systems implementation: creating or acquiring the various system components defined in design step.

and Industry • Information systems must be implemented thoughtfully and carefully • Information systems face a variety of threats from unethical people INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 39 . Information Systems in Society. Business.

Computer and Information Systems Literacy • Computer literacy: knowledge of computer systems and equipment and the ways they function • Information systems literacy: knowledge of how data and information are used 40 .

perform audits) • Sales and marketing (e. analyze investments. process orders... product analysis. forecast revenues and business activity.Information Systems in the Functional Areas of Business • Finance and accounting (e. develop schedules. promotion analysis.g. control inventory) • 41 . price analysis) • Manufacturing (e..g.g.

schedule trucks and trains) • Publishing companies (e. online check payment) • Transportation industry (e..g..g...g.g. Information Systems in Industry • Airline industry (e.. analyze stocks and bonds) • Banks (e.g. Internet auction sites) • Investment firms (e. analyze markets) 42 .

. process customer orders) • Power management and utility companies (e... Information Systems in Industry (continued) • Healthcare organizations (e.g. track patient records) • Retail companies (e.g. provide information on products and services to its consultants) 43 ..g.g. monitor and control power generation and usage) • Professional services (e.

output. Summary • Data: raw facts • Information: collection of facts organized in such a way that they have value beyond the facts themselves • System: a set of elements that interact to accomplish a goal • Components of a system: input. and feedback • A model is an abstraction that is used to represent reality 44 . processing.

Summary (continued) • Systems development: the activity of creating or modifying existing business systems 45 .