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only 0.water sculpts the earth . .moderates climate and dilutes pollutants .014% is available fresh water .needed for all life on the planet.a   71% of the earth is covered with water .

can dissolve a variety of compounds. . .can store large amounts of heat. .|    a   exists as a liquid over a wide ranges of temperatures.strong attractive forces between molecules cause high surface tension and high wetting ability.unlike most liquids. . water expands when it freezes.water can break down into H+ and OH-. . .

      a  * aater carries Nutrients * Provides Habitat * Flood Plains provide most productive farmland * Hydrological cycle recycles water to provide fresh water .

. aater demand already exceeds supply in many parts of the world and as the world population continues to rise. fresh water is steadily decreasing. so too does the water demand.  a  Fresh water is a renewable resource. yet the world·s supply of clean.

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 a  1. .Disadvantages (i) water evaporates (ii)runs off or drains below the root zone.less expensive . with 15-35% o irrigation withdrawals being unsustainable They are of two types: (a) less efficient. AGRICULTURE: 69% of worldwide water use is for irrigation.

drainage and evaporation.advantages (i) greater potential to minimize the run off. .more expensive .(b) more efficient.

(iii) Manufacturing plants which use water as a solvent.m. . Major industrial users include: (i) Power Plants which use water for cooling.INDUSTRIAL: mm% worldwide water use is industrial. (ii) Ore and Oil refineries which use water in chemical process.

cooking.3. nature and enthusiasts and swimmer. bathing. 4. HOUSEHOLD: 8% of worldwide water use is for household purposes. . RECREATIONAL: Recreational water use is usually a very small but growing percentage of total water use. Recreational water use is mostly tied to reservoirs. water skeins. These include drinking water. Release of water from a few reservoirs is also timed to enhance boating. sanitation and gardening.

M ENVIRONMETAL ACTIVITIES: Environmental water use is also very small but growing percentage of total water use. and water releases from reservoirs timed to help fish spawn. . fish ladders. Environmental water usage includes artificial lakes intended to create wildlife habitat.

GROUND aATER: Ground water. . Its also water that is flowing within aquifers below the water table. lake or fresh water wetland.  a  1. m. SURFACE aATER: Surface water is water in a river. The natural input is seepage from surface water the natural output is springs and seepage to the oceans. is fresh water located in the pore space of soil and rocks.

FROZEN aATER: Several schemes have been proposed to make use of iceberg as a water sources.3. 4. . DESALINATION: It is an artificial process by which saline water is converted to fresh water. The most common desalination process are distillation and reverse osmosis. Glaciers runoff is considered to be surface water.

Below 1000 cubic meters.a  It applies to the situation where there is not enough water for all uses. . industrial or domestic. water scarcity begins to hamper economic development and human health and well being. whether agricultural.

. POPULATION GROaTH: aater demand will increase unless there are corresponding increases in water conservation and recycling of this vital resource.REASONS FOR aATER CRISIS 1.

EXPANSION OF BUSINESS ACTIVITY: Business activity ranging from industrialization to services such as tourism and entertainment continues to expand rapidly.m. which can lead to more pressure on water resources and natural ecosystem. This expansion requires increased water services including both supply and sanitation. .

4. .3.RAPID URBANISATION: The trend towards urbanization is accelerating. CLIMATE CHANGE: Climate change could have significant impacts on water resources around the world because of the close connections between the climate and hydrological cycle. Urbanization requires significant investment in water infrastructure in order to deliver water to individuals.

POPULATION AND aATER PROTECTION: water pollution is one of the main concern of the world today.5. sewage. . chemical wastes and even toxic pollutants are all dumped into water.DEPUTATION OF AQUIFERS:D ue to the expanding human population. competition for water is growing such that many of the worlds major aquifers are becoming depleted. This is due to both for direct human consumption as well as agricultural irrigation by ground water. garbage. Many pollutants threatens water supplies. sludge. 6.



reduction in storage capacity > 50% .         Result of survey of 114 reservoirs indicates: ‡ More than m5% reduction in useful capacity in 47 reservoirs ‡ In some cases.

  a |    ‡Concentration of dark & overexploited blocks in Rajasthan. Punjab. Tamilnadu. Haryana & Gujarat .

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  Reverie Length (km) High Pollution 6086 Moderate Pollution 8691 Relatively clean 30m4m .

ground water: 65-70% ‡ Scope for further improvement -surface water: 60% -.|   ‡Efficiency of irrigation system relatively very low ‡Present level of efficiency -surface water: 35-40% -.Ground water: 75% .

oR    . |    a  oTo go for rain water harvesting oTo introduce micro irrigation with fertigation in a larger scale oTo introduce high tech farming with post harvest techniques oTo ensure protection of farm produce till it reaches the consumers.



Pressure irrigation and flow irrigation using pipes oIncrease the storage condition of aquifer by providing farm ponds and rejuvenation of wells etc oUsing cropping practices.oThis has to be reduced by adopting conveyance efficient techniques. tilling practices. to reduce water consumption oIncreasing the yield per ha by using less water. oLike Micro irrigation. .

       O Low application rate O Uniformity of application rate O Precision placement of water O efficient fertilizer and che- mical application O Better control of root zone environment O Crop yield enhancement O quality improvement of produce O improved disease control O discouraged weed growth O effective saving of irrigation water O lesser use of power O reduce labour cost O suitable for difficult land terrain O ideal for marginal lands O Maintains soil health OSuitable for inferior quality water .

this ensures less pumping hours and thus reduction in consumption in electricity -m00 wells are suggested at Rs.Raising the bund height across the slope .000 / well . 40 lakhs @ Rs.Provide farm pit / check dam to store water near well .Allow surface run off to enter the well through field channel to enter the well from the filter pit -Renovation of side walls if they are badly damaged -Boring in wells horizontal or vertical holes to tap the water from the weathered zone to improve the water level . m0.    a OIncreases ground water potential Oaater available for pumping for more number of days OImproves the aquifers of near by wells also OThe works are: .

000 hectares * Large dams in the world (>15m high ) -.   a   * The first known dams were constructed about eight thousand yrs ago in Mesopotamia . * Dams built in Jordan and Egypt 1100 BC * Dujiang irrigation project in China 300 BC ² 800.In 1949 some 5000 existed -. there were 45.By m000 .000 .

    * Irrigation * Electrical Energy * Municipal aater Supply * Supplement Navigation * Flood Control * Recreation .

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      * Frequently Contains Many Toxic Materials . .

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 * General Purpose * aater Supply * Energy Generation * Large Area Inundated * Change In Fish .

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* Flood Control * Great Environmental Change Accepted as Positive .

OChanges of Habitat. ODisplaced People. OChanges in River Regime. |    OInundated Lands. OPredicted Benefits not Achievedº . ODam Safety Concerns.