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Bistiat alemu Woldesemayiat
What did Jane Goodall witness when the polio epidemic hit chimpanzees ?
A group of healthy chimpanzees isolated and did not help the stricken animal reach the feeding area .
Ethno medicine .
The study of cross-cultural health systems .
What does a health system encompass? .
prevention measures . religious. classifications of health problems.Perceptions.healingsubstances .diagnosis. and healing(magical.scientifc.
How has ethno medicine changed ? .
It has expanded its focus to include topics such as perceptions of the body .culture and disability and change in indigenous or traditional healing systems as a result of globalization .
What was ethno medicine synonymous with in the 1960’s .
It was synonymous with primitive medicine .
Western biomed .
A healing approach based on modern western science that emphasizes technology for diagnosing and treating health problems related to the human body .
Why does Japan have much lower rate of organ transplants and surgery .
Because of gotai .
What is “gotai” .
.Japanese concept that refers to the ideal of maintaining bodily intactness in life and death .to the extent of not piercing your ears .
Who was Naruhaito ? .
He was the crowned prince in Japan and one of his stipulations for a wife was that she not have pierced ears .
What does an intact body ensure for the Japanese .
it ensures rebirth .
What was the ultimate form of killing for Japanese warrior? .
To behead their victim because it violated the integrity of the body and prevented the enemy’s rebirth .
What is considered more primitive in north eastern Brazil by women
Why is it considered primitive
Because it is seen as painful abs destructive to a woman's sexuality .
What did one doctor say that the vulva and vagina are becoming for Brazilian females .
becoming organs of sexuality and not parturition .
What do doctor usually recommend in Brazil ? (caesarian or natural ) .
practical and causes no esthetic damage .They recommend caesarian because they say it is safe.
What do Euro-Americans believe about that mind and body that is in contrast to other cultures .
That there is a separation of the mind and body and that is why a category in western med. Called mental illness exists. .
What about the brain based definition does western medicine accept ? .
That a person can be declared dead while the heart is still beating so long as the brain is seen as dead .
What Brazil has the most extreme______? .
Economic and social inequity's .
Brazil has ___states is the _____ and most _____country in Latin America .
Brazil has 26 states is the LARGEST and most POPULOUS country in Latin America
Refers to the biological health problem that is objective and universal , such as bacterial or viral infection or a broken arm
Refers to the culturally specific perception and experinceon helath .
What are the bases for labeling and classfying a helath problem .
mosquito). vector ( the means of transmission i. symptoms.Cause .e. or combo of these . affected body part.
Describe the study of the Subanun? .
e. All the people there have substantial knowledge of health problems of there 186 labels for health problems some terms can be expanded on by using adjectives. splotchy itch ) skin disease is common there thus has several degrees of specificity . in the Philippines. ( i.the subanun were horticulturist living in the 1950’s in the highlands of Mindanao .
Some facts about the Philippines .
Comprised of over 7000 islands of which 700 are occupied over 170 languages are spoken although English and Filipino are the main ones .
What is the ( ICD) .
International Classification of Diseases .
A major source for coding health problems according to western biomedical standards but is somewhat inadequate for example it would have been useless in classifying cause of death of those who perished during 9/11
Culture specific syndrome
A health problem with a set of symptoms associated with particular culture
What are the usual underlying cause of culture specific shock .
Fear stress or shock .
refers to the process through which the body absorbs social stress and manifests symptoms of suffering .Also known as embodiment.
Selective cultural specific syndrome look on chapter 7 pg 167 .
Ethno etiologies .
Culturally specific casual explanations for health problems and suffering .
Structural suffering .
Human health helath problems caused by economic and political situations as war .
Culturally specific casual explanations for health problems and suffering .
what are they ? .Among the urban poor of northeastern Brazil people consider several casual possibilities ..
socioeconomic.or supernatural .Natural .psychological.
what are they and give an example ..The people of feira de Santana believe in several levels of causality .
In the case of stomach ache they migh blame a quarrel ( unerlying casue) which prompted the aggrieved party to cast a spell (immediate cause). which led to the resulting illness .
What is sufriendo del agua .
Siffering from water . cooking or washing. The insecurity of not having water makes these women very anxious . In poor valley in Mexico shows that is a common health problem amongst women in Mexico the cause is the lack of water for drinking.
What does the lack of water in these poor valleys show ? .
1/3 of the pop. has inadequate access to water .Structural disorder /cause because the wealthier urban neighborhoods have a supply of water for irrigation and industrial projects.
What is awas? .
A common childhood illness .People say that the events that happen to the mother during pregnancy cause this.like she had been denied food or been pressured to eat when she did not want to. To prevent this Maya people are very considerate of pregnant women .. symptoms :lumps under skin . or albinism . marks on skin .
What did the anthropologist in Northern Thailand discover? .
People thought that it was because of a widow ghost roam about searching men to take as their “husbands "and with whom they have sexual intercourse with. . Based off of reports of deaths of unexplained deaths of Singapore workmen ..He/she learned about health protection practice carved wooden phalluses throughout the village b/c in 1990 fear of an attack by a widow ghost spread throughout the area.
What are “phii” .
These are the spirits .
What is the distinction between private healing and community healing .
Africa emphasize the mobilization of community energy as a key element in the cure : the idea num ( spiritual energy ) .Private healing addresses bodily ailments in social isolation/community healing encompasses the social context as crucial to healing non western use community healing an example is Ju/’honasi foragers of the Kalahari desert in S.
Does community healing work? .
the dance of the Johansi creates a support system and may act to strengthen the ill .Yes. on both levels of ethnic and western terms .
What is humoral healing based on the philosophy of balance among certain elements within the body and within the persons environment.
What does heating and cooling mean in these systems
The effects on the body by different things like food or drugs. When there is an imbalance of too much heating or cooling then that is the disease
Where has humoral healing been practiced in what countries/cultures? .
Middle East . and much of Asia . the Mediterranean.
. or Chinese humorless. Islamic.How does the ideas of hotness and coolness in the Orang Asli indigenous culture differs how from the Indian.
but too much coolness I not good either new mothers will sleep near the fire and use warm leaves as sashes .C culture death is the result of too much coolness but Orang Asi believe it is because of excessive heat In their view heat comes from the suna nd is associated with shit. Heat cause .For example in I.periods.I. disease and death. Coolness is vital to health. staying in the forest avoid the sun not doing agricultural work. violent emotional and drunkenness .blood. misfortune.
Male or female healer .
Healing thru the use of plants .
Criteria for being a healer .
Look on page 172 .
How is midwifery endangered? .
now midwives cant support themselves and abandoning there profession . Costa Rica recently the govt promoted hospital births . Promotion of hospital births has destroyed a positive element of community based midwifery . Achieved a 98% success rate..Ex. However ..
CULTRAMA!!! Who are the tsimane .
. skin fold thickness and stature and height. A study was conducted to so correlation betwn mothers knowledge of botany and child helath did three tests C-reactive protein test . In contrast those who had formal schooling had little to none knowledge of Childs health .results showed strong correlation between mothers knowledge and Childs health . important when taking into consideration herbal remedies.They are foraging horticultural society of Bolivia in the northeastern Amazon region.
Bolivia is the _____country in South America .
Healing through the use of plants .
What is Mate? .
A medicinal beverage used for different things like asthma .
Ecological and epidemiological approach .
usually quantities and etic .Examines how aspects of the natural environment interact with culture to cause health problems and to influence their spread throughout the population .
Example of use of approach in the book .
Hookworms is common in china but with epidemiological research we learn that rice cultivators have the highest rate because hookworms can spread thru night soil ( feces) which is used in the fields .
what did the study of the two groups of Turkana men in NW Kenya show .
Pastorlist Turkena ate mostly milk bread and blood did rigorous activity and live in large families the settled Turkana men ate mainly maize an beans . less activity and exercise and had more health problems ( eye infections. chest infections. backaches and colds/coughs) .One is mobile other is not.
What is historical trauma ? .
Refers to intergenerational transfer of emotional and psychological effects of colonialism from parents to children .
What does cultural medical anthropology focus on ? .
On structural factors such as global political economy. global media and social in equity .
What is medicalization ? .
Labeling a particular issue or problem as medical and requing medical attetnion such as pill or injections when it is structural .
What does evidence show about poverty .
It is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in both industralized and developed countries .
Technological model of birth .
The model treats the body as machine ex. Western to delivering apporach .
What is Davis –Flyods research points to the reasons why doctors accept the model .
and dehumanization . cognitive retrogression.Physical hazing.
What heappened in the 1980’s intersm of new infectious disease .
Disease of development .
A health problems caused or increased by economic development ex. In crease construction of dams and irrigation system in the tropical world increased schistosomiasis .
What is schistosomiasis .
eggs and mature in the slow –moving water such as lakes and rivers. When they mature they can penterate in to human skin breed in the veins and baldder and bowel and then fertilize eggs through urine and feces into the environment .
What is Kyasanur Forest Disease .
fever.) Diarrhea and gastrointestional bleeding then in bad cases in can become paralysis . headaches(etc.First identified in 1957 in India marekd by a sudden chills . encephalitis and meningtis .
How did this disease transmit .
Becasue of the cleared land the ticks had more hosts .It affected agricultural workers b/c it was the cleared forest that affected the workers b/c of th e ticks .
Medical plurism .
Refers to the presence of multiple health system within a society .
The Shera Nepal have an unusal example of a culture in which they have both tradtional healing systems and biomedical (western).. Give the 3 categories .
which include Lamsa who Khumbu people consult for prevention and cure thru their blessing and amchis . who practice Tibetin med.Orthodox Buddhist practioners .a humoral healing system .
Unorthdax religious or shamanic practioners who perform divintion ceremonies for diagnosis .
Biomedical practitioners who work in a clinc was establishedfo tourist but now Sherpa slectiviely use it .
Why hasn’t this society been completely taken over by western biomedical ideals? .
including trekking knowledge .High mountain tourism does not require does not require large scale capital investment/ the sherpa maintain control of their productive resources .
Give an example of conflicting explanatory model .
The families persepective was 1st . Children are moderately lierate but parents don’t spek english . They were also confused about the use of the word “sugar”. Doctor say that the cultural difference was the main problem . Child ws stricken with diabetes after irregular visits father was charge with causin mary’s death .They did not consult one doctor but several then they saw a child die while Mary was in the ICU. And the 12 yr old child assisteed her sister with the injections b/c by that age your not a child .The “f family” immigrants from american samoa living in Hawii. There experince in the hosptial was bad. Each time Mray came back she developed blindness and catracts after they had missed three appts.
Appiled medical anth .
The application of anth knowledge to further goals of health care providersby applying ethnomedical knowledge and on sny of the 3 theortical approaches .
What is reducing lead poisoning among mexican american children anexample of ? .
Appiled anthropolog .
What are the most 3 common sources of lead posioning .
the dust has high lead content and eating from pottery made with an imporperly treated lead glaze .
What was the fourth discvoered reason .
which contains lead to treat a culture specfic syndrome called empacho .Tradtional healing method called azaron .
What is empacho? .
Empacho is comob indigestion and constipation believed to casued by food or sticking to the abodminal wall .
What cauranderos? .
They are tradtional healers .
Who is trotter? .
public health service he discovered the problem and made other recommendations for remedies and found cultrally specfic ways to advertise it.down by the U. .S.
What methods are used by anthroplogist to better help health edcuator to deveop better messages .
considerate of all local illnesses and conventions . identifying subgroups that may be responsive to the messages or incentives. and exposing and removing victim blaming from health message .Addressing local health beliefs and health concerns.adopting local styles of communication. monitoring the response of conities .
What do those who oppose tradtional med say ? .
soul.and social settings .med say that bio-med ignores mind .They say that it has no effect on ifectious diseases like cholerabut t.