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Summary Ch 5.1-5.

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Trigonometry

Trigonometry

Trigonometry begins in the right
triangle, but it doesn’t have to be
restricted to triangles. The
trigonometric functions carry the
ideas of triangle trigonometry into a
©Carolyn C. Wheater, 2000

broader world of real-valued
functions and wave forms.

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Trigonometry Topics
 Radian Measure
 The Unit Circle
 Trigonometric Functions
 Larger Angles
 Graphs of the Trig Functions
©Carolyn C. Wheater, 2000

 Trigonometric Identities
 Solving Trig Equations

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called radian measure. 4 .  A radian is the measure of a central angle whose intercepted arc is equal in length to ©Carolyn C. Wheater. 2000 the radius of the circle. it is helpful to move to a different system of angle measure. Radian Measure  To talk about trigonometric functions.

2000 degrees radians = 360  2π 5 . Radian Measure  There are 2π radians in a full rotation -- once around the circle  There are 360° in a full rotation  To convert from degrees to radians or radians to degrees. Wheater. use the proportion ©Carolyn C.

Sample Problems  Find the degree  Find the radian measure equivalent measure equivalent 3π of radians. Wheater. 2000 d 3π 4 210 = r = 360  2π 360  2π 2πd = 270π 360r = 420π 420π 7π d = 135 r= = 6 360 6 . of 210° 4 degrees radians degrees radians = = 360  2π 360  2π ©Carolyn C.

with its center at the origin. and a radius of 1.  Choose a point on the ©Carolyn C. The Unit Circle  Imagine a circle on the coordinate plane. 7 . 2000 circle somewhere in quadrant I. Wheater.

The Unit Circle  Connect the origin to the point. 2000 triangle with hypotenuse of 1. Wheater. and from that point drop a perpendicular to the x-axis. 8 .  This creates a right ©Carolyn C.

Wheater.and y-coordinates of the chosen point. 2000 this triangle gives bg x cos θ = = x 1 y sin(θ ) = = y 1 9 . 1  Applying the definitions of y the trigonometric ratios to x ©Carolyn C. The Unit Circle θ is the  The length of its legs are angle of rotation the x.

The Unit Circle  The coordinates of the chosen point are the cosine and sine of the angle θ . Wheater. 2000 1 1  The other trigonometric functions can be defined from these.  This provides a way to define functions sin(θ ) and cos(θ ) for all real numbers θ . 10 . y sin(θ ) = = y bg x cos θ = = x ©Carolyn C.

Trigonometric Functions θ is the sin(θ ) = y bg csc θ = 1 y angle of rotation bg cos θ = x bg sec θ = 1 x 1 y x ©Carolyn C. Wheater. 2000 bg tan θ = y x bg cot θ = x y 11 .

2000 trigonometric functions still hold. Around the Circle  As that point moves around the unit circle into quadrants II. 12 . the new definitions of the ©Carolyn C. Wheater. and IV. III.

13 . Wheater. 2000  The acute angle which produces the same values is called the reference angle. ©Carolyn C. Reference Angles  The angles whose terminal sides fall in quadrants II. and IV will have values of sine. III. cosine and other trig functions which are identical (except for sign) to the values of angles in quadrant I.

Reference Angles  The reference angle is the angle between the terminal side and the nearest arm of the x-axis. 2000 dropping a perpendicular from the point on the unit circle to the x-axis. in the right triangle created by ©Carolyn C.  The reference angle is the angle. with vertex at the origin. 14 . Wheater.

θ . ©Carolyn C. the reference angle is π −θ  In quadrant II. Quadrant II Original angle  For an angle. Wheater. in quadrant II. 2000 Reference angle  sin(θ ) is positive  cos(θ ) is negative  tan(θ ) is negative 15 .

θ . in quadrant III. ©Carolyn C. the reference angle is θ -π  In quadrant III. Wheater. 2000  sin(θ ) is negative Reference angle  cos(θ ) is negative  tan(θ ) is positive 16 . Quadrant III Original angle  For an angle.

Wheater. in Reference angle quadrant IV. 2000  sin(θ ) is negative  cos(θ ) is positive Original angle  tan(θ ) is negative 17 . the reference angle is 2π −θ  In quadrant IV. ©Carolyn C. Quadrant IV  For an angle. θ .

All Star Trig Class  Use the phrase “All Star Trig Class” to remember the signs of the trig functions in different quadrants. 2000 Trig Class Tan is positive Cos is positive 18 . Wheater. Star All Sine is positive All functions are positive ©Carolyn C.

2000 19 . in a space of 2π . has the graph shown. y=sin(x). down to –1. Graphs of the Trig Functions  Sine  The most fundamental sine wave.  Itfluctuates from 0 to a high of 1. and back to 0. ©Carolyn C. Wheater.

2000  The period of the function is 2π  The two remaining numbers. tells the height of each peak and the depth of each trough.  The amplitude. a. h. tell the translation of the wave from the origin. ©Carolyn C. b. tells the number of full wave patterns that are completed in a space of 2π . 20 . a. Graphs of the Trig Functions  The graph of cb gh y = a sin b x − h +is k determined by four numbers. b. h and b k. Wheater.  The frequency. and k.

1 ©Carolyn C.1 −2  (B) y = 2sin(4x) −3  (C) y = 2sin(2x) . 2000 −4 −5  (D) y = 4sin(2x) .1  (E) y = 3sin(4x) 21 . Sample Problem 5 4  Which of the following 3 2 equations best describes 1 the graph shown? −2π −1π 1π 2π −1  (A) y = 3sin(2x) . Wheater.

−1  Find height of each peak. −2 −3  Amplitude is 3 ©Carolyn C. Wheater. 2000 −4  Count number of waves in 2π −5  Frequency is 2 y = 3sin(2x) . Sample Problem 5 4  Find the baseline between the 3 high and low points.1 22 . 2 1  Graph is translated -1 −2π −1π 1π 2π vertically.

2000 to 0. down to –1. π units to 2 the left. back to 0 and up to 1.  It fluctuates from 1 ©Carolyn C. in a space of 2π . Graphs of the Trig Functions  Cosine  The graph of y=cos(x) resembles the graph of y=sin(x) but is shifted. or translated. Wheater. 23 .

Graphs of the Trig Functions  The values of a. k Horizontal and vertical shift 24 . b. cb gh y = a cos b x − h + k Amplitude a Height of each peak ©Carolyn C. Wheater. 2000 Frequency b Number of full wave patterns Period 2π /b Space required to complete wave Translation h. h. and k change the shape and location of the wave as for the sine.

Wheater. Sample Problem  Which of the following 8 equations best describes 6 the graph? 4  (A) y = 3cos(5x) + 4 2  (B) y = 3cos(4x) + 5 ©Carolyn C. 2000 −2π −1π 1π 2π  (C) y = 4cos(3x) + 5  (D) y = 5cos(3x) +4  (E) y = 5sin(4x) +3 25 .

Wheater. 2000 −2π −1π 1π 2π 2π  Frequency =3 y = 5cos(3x) + 4 26 . Sample Problem  Find the baseline 8  Vertical translation + 4 6  Find the height of peak 4  Amplitude = 5 2  Number of waves in ©Carolyn C.

cotangent is discontinuous. 27 . Wheater. Graphs of the Trig Functions  Tangent  The tangent function has a discontinuous graph. 2000  Like the tangent. • Discontinuities of the cotangent are π of those for units left2 tangent. repeating in a period of π .  Cotangent ©Carolyn C.

Graphs of the Trig Functions  Secant and Cosecant  The secant and cosecant functions are the reciprocals of the cosine and sine functions respectively. Wheater. ©Carolyn C.  Imagine each graph is balancing on the peaks and troughs of its reciprocal function. 2000 28 y=sec(x) .

Wheater. 29 . ©Carolyn C.  There are many trig identities that are useful in changing the appearance of an expression. Trigonometric Identities  An identity is an equation which is true for all values of the variable. 2000  The most important ones should be committed to memory.

Wheater. Trigonometric Identities  Reciprocal Identities  Quotient Identities 1 sin x = sin x csc x tan x = cos x 1 cos x = sec x cos x ©Carolyn C. 2000 cot x = sin x 1 tan x = cot x 30 .

sin x = cos(90 − x )  ©Carolyn C. Wheater. Trigonometric Identities  Cofunction Identities  The function of an angle = the cofunction of its complement. 2000 sec x = csc(90 − x )  tan x = cot(90 − x )  31 .

2000  Divide the first by cos x 2 tan x + 1 = sec x 2 2 32 . Wheater. Trigonometric Identities  Pythagorean Identities  The fundamental Pythagorean identity sin 2 x + cos2 x = 1  Divide the first by sin x 2 1 + cot x = csc x 2 2 ©Carolyn C.

Solving Trig Equations  Solve trigonometric equations by following these steps:  Ifthere is more than one trig function. 2000  Solve the equation for this new variable  Reinsert the trig function  Determine the argument which will produce the desired value 33 . Wheater. use identities to simplify  Let a variable represent the remaining function ©Carolyn C.

2000  Reinsert the trig function  Determine the argument 34 . Solving Trig Equations  To solving trig equations:  Use identities to simplify  Let variable = trig function  Solve for new variable ©Carolyn C. Wheater.

Wheater. Sample Problem  Solve 3 − 3 sin x − 2 cos2 x = 0  Use the Pythagorean identity 3 − 3 sin x − 2 cos2 x=0 • (cos2x = 1 . 2000 1 − 3 sin x + 2 sin 2 x = 0  Order terms 2 sin 2 x − 3 sin x + 1 = 0 35 .sin2x)  Distribute c h 3 − 3 sin x − 2 1 − sin 2 x = 0 3 − 3 sin x − 2 + 2 sin 2 x = 0  Combine like terms ©Carolyn C.

Sample Problem  Solve 3 − 3 sin x − 2 cos2 x = 0  Let t = sin x 2 sin 2 x − 3 sin x + 1 = 0 2t 2 − 3t + 1 = 0  Factor and solve. Wheater. 2000 2t = 1 t =1 1 t= 2 36 . (2t − 1)(t − 1) = 0 2t − 1 = 0 t − 1 = 0 ©Carolyn C.

. Wheater. π 5π t = sin(x) = ½ when x = or 6 6 π  t = sin(x) = 1 when x= 2 ©Carolyn C. 6 6 2 37 . 2000 π 5π π  So the solutions are x= . Sample Problem  Solve 3 − 3 sin x − 2 cos2 x = 0  Replace t = sin x.