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Selection of Appropriate Waterproofing Technique for Buildings

Guide: Ms. Anal Sheth
Efforts By: Nitin Jadav (5106)

School of Building Science & Technology CEPT University

INTRODUCTION TO THESIS OBJECTIVE AND NEED

INTRODUCTION
W a te rp ro o fi g i a tre a tm e n t w h i i u se d to n s ch s p ro te ct th e su rfa ce o r stru ctu re fro m th e w a te r. I cre a te s a w a te r re si n t b a rri r t sta e w hi ch i i p e rvi u s a n d p ro te cti s m o ve to th e su rfa ce b e l w . o  In old structures, due to aging there may be problems of leakages and dampness which causes unhygienic conditions.  Even in new construction due to poor quality of material or workmanship leakage and dampness problems starts in early days which generally affects the strength as well as the aesthetics and finally becomes non-servicable to the occupants.

to i e ts. W a te rp ro o fi g o f n n l n sw i m i g p o o l . i l a n d exte rn a l a re a s l ke ro o fs.INTRODUCTION  W h e n e ve r a n y b u id i g l n e l m e n t sta rts e sh o w i g th e d a m p n e ss o r l a ka g e i i n e t s i p o rta n t to i e n ti th e so u rce a n d a fte r m d fy i e n ti n g th e so u rce th e se l cti n o f th e d fyi e o a p p ro p ri te te ch n o l g y b e co m e s a m a j r a o o d e ci o n . b a se m e n ts e tc . a re l e G o o d q u a l ty o f w a te rp ro o fi g ca n i cre a se i n n . i co e re ta i i g w a l s & te rra ce s. te rra ce g a rd e n s. b a l n i s. si  W a te rp ro o fi g i typ i l y d o n e fo r I te rn a l n s ca l n a re a s l ke b a th ro o m s. su n ke n m n s sl b s e tc re q u i s m o re ski l a n d exp e ri n ce .

NEED FOR THE STUDY T h e re a re m a n y fa cto rs w h i ch a ffe ct th e stre n g th and se rvi a b i i o f b u i d i g s a n d ce l ty l n w a te r re l te d p ro b l m s a re a a e m a j r co n ce rn . o Fa st but poor q u a l ty i co n stru cti n a d d s to w a te r o re l te d i e s. p o o r i as q u a l ty i of w o rkm a n sh i . n T h e se m a y b e a re su l o f p o o r t q u a l ty o f m a te ri l . p . a ssu Le a ka g e a n d d a m p n e ss a re th e m a i sym p to m s o f p o o r n w a te rp ro o fi g .

n q . b u t ca re h a s to b e ta ke n i se l cti n n e o of th e co rre ct w a te rp ro o fi g te ch n i u e .NEED FOR THE STUDY M a n y w a te rp ro o fi g n te ch n i u e s a re a va i a b l q l e w hi ch m a y p ro te ct th e stru ctu re fro m n e g a ti ve e ffe cts o f w a te r. n q T h u s th e re i a n e e d to s stu d y va ri u s o w a te rp ro o fi g n te ch n i u e s q a va i a b l to fa ci i te th e l e l ta se l cti n e o o f a p p ro p ri te a w a te rp ro o fi g te ch n i u e .

OBJECTIVE .

SCOPE T h i th e si a d d re sse s: s s 1. W a te rp ro o fi g n m a te ri l as and te ch n i u e s q  B u i d i g s cu rre n tl l n y u n d e rg o i g n w a te rp ro o fi g n tre a tm e n t h a ve b e e n ta ke n u p as ca se stu d i s e fo r u n d e rsta n d i g th e a p p l ca ti n o f n i o th e te ch n i u e q fo r va ri u s o stru ctu ra le l m e n ts. e .

.SCOPE T h i th e si a d d re sse s: s s 2. E ffi e n cy o f w a te rp ro o fi g ci n te ch n i u e s q  B u i d i g s th a t h a ve u n d e rg o n e l n w a te rp ro o fi g tre a tm e n t 5 o r n m o re ye a rs p ri r h a ve b e e n o i ve sti a te d fo r th e sym p to m s n g and di stre sse s re su l n g d u e to ti i a d e q u a cy o r d e fi e n cy i th e n ci n tre a tm e n t.

SCOPE Fo r b o th m a j r o b j cti s. o e ve b u i d i g ca se stu d i s h a ve b e e n l n e ta ke n i n tw o d i re n t ffe e n vi n m e n ta lco n d i o n s: ro ti A . C a se stu d i s o f b u i d i g s i e l n n A hm edabad fo r hi h g te m p e ra tu re va ri ti n s a o B . C a se stu d i s o f b u i d i g s i e l n n M u m b a i fo r h e a vy ra i fa l a n d n l h i h w a te r ta b l co n d i o n s g e ti .

METHODOLOGY .

 CAUSES OF DEFECTS & ITS EFFECTS ON THE STRUCTURE .

Key building areas susceptible to water penetration (1) Defected Exterior Surface (2) Tile Joints Leakage (3) Rising Dampness (4) RCCLintel and Masonary wall joints (5) Parapet terrace floor joints (6) Improper Slope of terrace floor (7) Improper Roofing (8) Improper Plumbing (9) Underground Watertank (7) (6) (5) (8) (4) (1) (2) (9) (3) .

CAUSES OF LEAKAGE AND DAMPNESS A n y Le a ka g e o ccu rs d u e to o r D a m p n e ss m a i l n y Po o r Q u a l ty o f M a te ri l u se d i as  Poor Quality of Workmanship .

Element wise Dampness causes of Leakages and Basement Floor §Uplift Pressure of Water §Leakage of underground pipe §Improper slope of the floor Roofs / Slab §Improper joints Walls §Improper Slope §Poor Quality of Materials §Honeycombing §Poor Quality of Workmanship Concrete §Improper/ Defected Plumbing §Improper Joints §Rising Dampness in .

EFFECTS OF LEAKAGE AND DAMPNESS Aesthetical •Blistering of Paints •Swelling of Plaster •Paints peel off •Debonding of Tiles •Deterioration of the building façade .

EFFECTS OF LEAKAGE AND DAMPNESS Structural •Corrosion of metal •Loss of valuable space due to •Overloading conventional method repair by Others •Moisture or Dampness can cause short circuit of lighting and power points •Health problems due to dampness •Deterioration of property value •Damage to stored articles .

EFFECTS OF DEFECTS
Defects Structural Aes Stre Chang Chang Loss Det Stru thet ngth e in e in of erior ctur ic Prope Volum Functi atio al rties e on n syst em * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Material Con Mas Met Plas Pain cret onry als tere ted e d Surf Surf aces ace * * * * s * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Blister Rising Dampness Corrosion Cracking Deterioration Discoloration Efflorescence Flaking Fungal Growth Honeycombing Micro Cracking Mold Organic Growth Peeling Ponding Spalling

STUDY OF WATERPROOFING TECHNIQUES

CLASSIFICATION OF WATERPROOFING TECHNIQUES

INTEGRAL WATERPROOFING COMPOUND U se d w h i e co n stru cti n l o C a n b e m i d w i ce m e n t. r n . t C a n b e u se d i p l ste ri g . P C C n a n and RC C Fo r re p a i w o rk . B ox typ e w a te rp ro o fi g . D P C . D i u te d w i w a te r xe th l th a n d a d d e d i ce m e n t n I re d u ce s th e ch a n ce s o f p o re s. m a so n ry .

Box Type Waterproofing 550mm 20-25mm th 1:3 cement mortar top finish 20-25mm th kotah stone 10-15mm joints 20-25mm 1:3 cement mortar bedding RCC wall RCC slab .

Box Type Waterproofing +ve -ve Box type Treatment RCC wall .

BRICK BAT KOBA Joints 20-25mm th top finish Brickbats 20-25mm th cement mortar RCC Slab .

SURFACE TREATMENT Surface Preparation •Surface must be clean and free from dirt. • . •Concrete surface should be cleaned by harsh wire brush. oil. and loose particles. grease. rust.

SURFACE TREATMENT •S u rfa ce m u st b e w a sh e d by w a te r to re m o ve a ccu m u l te d d u st & d i to a rt a ch i ve g o o d b o n d i g e n • •Fo r cl a n i g o i & g re a se . d • •Before application of any treatment surface must be leveled. Surface must be done dry before application . any defects in substrate must be repaired and cracks must be filled and repaired. e n l d e g re a si g so l n ts su ch n ve a s tu rp e n ti e o r th i n e rs n n sh o u l b e u se d .

Wet Parapets. Concrete. STPs Parapets. Concrete. Swimming areas. Wet Masonry.COATINGS C o m p a ri n o f C o a ti g s so n Epoxy Base Solvent Primer Yes Required DFT (microns) 200 No of coats 2 Coverage area 3 sqmt/kg Drying Time 8-10 Hours Appearance Black UV Resistance No Crack Bridging Surface Cracks Capacity Application areas Acrylic polymer Water Yes 100-150 2 4-5 sqmt/kg 4-6 Hours Grey Yes Up to 1mm Cementitious Water No 150 2 1 sqmt/kg 6-8 Hours Grey No Up to 1mm Water Repellent water No 100-150 2 5-7 sqmt/Ltr 24 Hours Transparent Yes Surface Cracks Foundations. areas. Swimming Plastered pools pools Surface Not required 5 Years Not required 5 Years Required 2-3 Years Use of Required Protective Equip Expected Life 5-7 Years . Bathroom. Bathroom.

.o n M e m b ra n e s Application of Primer 1 coat of oil base brush applied primer at 100 micron thickness Laying the Membranes Starting with lower side of the surface one by one membranes are laid by keeping 75 mm overlapping length.MEMBRANES To rch .

. Joints are treated properly and finished with trowels.Torch-on Membranes Torching of Membranes Torching the membranes at one side by LPG gas.

Bituminous Membranes Application of Primer 1 coat of water base brush applied primer at 100 micron thickness Application of Hot Bitumen Hot bitumen is laid over the primer surface by the use of handmade tool Handmade tool laying the bitumen for hot .

2nd layer is laid over the joint of the previous layer . Each layer is laid over the hot bitumen.Bituminous Membranes Application of Membranes First all the membrane rolls are laid over the primer surface perfectly. Then membrane is rolled again to half the length and hot bitumen is laid over the primer surface and at the same time membrane is unrolled and pressed so that it can stick with the surface. For 1mm thick membranes two layers are required.

Hot Bitumen Application A coat of hot bitumen is applied 1.2 kg/ sqmt over the primed surface by the use of the on site made tool. Tar felt Application Tar felt layer is then applied over the bituminous surface when it is hot so that tar felt sticks with the bituminous base. aggregates are spread over the bituminous surface to protect the treatment and to provide bonding for other protective layer. .2 kg/ sqmt over the primed surface by the use of the on site made tool.Tar felts Protective Coat When bitumen is hot. Primer Application Oil base primer is applied over the surface at 100 micron thickness and kept for drying for 6-8 hours. Hot Bitumen Application A coat of hot bitumen is applied 1.

Bitumen Yes 3mm Hot Applied Bitumen Black 1 -2 1m x 10m. 1m x 50m 75-100 mm Terraces. 1m x 20m. 1m x 20m 75-100 mm Terraces. Roofs Required Required Bituminous Polyester core.COMPARISON OF MEMBRANES Composition Primer Thickness of Sheetof Type Application Color No of Layers Size Overlapping Length Application Areas Protective coating Protective Equipment while Application Torch-on Polyester core. Bitumen Yes 1-4mm Torching Black As required 1m x 10m. Roofs Required Required . 1m x 20m 75 mm Terraces. Bitumen Yes 1-4mm Hot Applied Bitumen Black As required 1m x 10m. Roofs Required Required Tar felt Hessian.

• 3mm thick Torch-on membranes are widely used due to ease of application. • If hot bituminous applied 1mm thick membranes are used. • Tar felt is 5 or7 layers treatment which includes application of hot bitumen between layers and tar felt applied surface will not be usable after treatment so now membranes have taken place of tar felts. • Torch on membranes are applied by torching below the membrane layer so that is sticks with the primed surface below and it is better than the hot applied bitumen which is laid over the hot bitumen surface and it requires a good skill KEY NOTES ON MEMBRANE TYPE WATERPROOFING . 2 layers of membranes are required for proper waterproofing.

Material Application Crystalline Material comes in powder form which is mixed with water in 1:3 proportions where 1 part is powder and 3 part is water by volume. surface. Properly mixed material is then applied by brush over the wet R. . It is done for 2 days and material application is started over the wet surface. Spraying and ponding of water opens the pores and water get accumulated in the pores.C.C.PENETRANTS Crystalline Coating Surface Preparation After cleaning the surface water is sprayed by jet spray on the walls and for floors ponding is done.

 Sprinkling or ponding of water for 2 day before application is required so that water gets accumulated and fills the pores and cracks. Then crystalline coating is applied so that material penetrates deep in the surface where sprayed water is reached and so that cracks and pored are filled by crystallization. For crystalline coatings. It can be applied on both +ve and –ve side of the surface. surface must be wet before application. Water gets absorbed and material remains there which makes concrete waterproof.Crystalline Coating Material penetrates up to 1 m deep in the applied surface and fills the pores. .

.18 (1nanometer=10⁻⁹meter i. The size of the water molecule is 0.e. Therefore.00018 microns). range from 5 to 200 ηm.Nanotechnology Waterproofing Most of the building materials are very porous and attract water because of the hydrophilic nature and similarity with the structure of water. most of the building material easily wet and absorb water in the pores. ηm The size of the pores in most of the building materials. .

It comes in liquid form which is diluted with water. Waterproof Sand . Dilution proportion for horizontal Surfaces 1:10 and for vertical surfaces 1:20 by volume. The product becomes part of the building material and makes it highly water repellent.Nanotechnology Waterproofing It is an organosilicon product. Properly mixed material is then applied by brush over both +ve and –ve surfaces. which forms a particle size of 4-6 ηm in water and penetrates deep into the building material pores 3-5 mm.

6 kg/sqmt Nanotechnology Waterproofing Zycosil Organosilane Transparent 4-6 nm (0. No Required . Masonry.60-80 sqmt/kg Concrete. Plaster 20+ Years No No Application Areas Concrete only Expected Life 7-10 Years Protective Coating No Protective Equipment Req.005 micron) Water Horizontal Surfaces 1:10 Vertical Surfaces 1:20 Micro Cracks 3-5 mm Horizontal-30-40 sqmt/kg Vertical.4-1.COMPARISON OF PENETRANTS Material Name Base Color Molecule Size Diluent Mixing Ratio with water Crack Bridging Penetrates Up to Coverage Area Crystalline Penetrants Penetron Cement White 200 nm Water 1:3 Micro Cracks 1 m (1000 mm) 1.

 Crystalline material can be used only over the concrete surfaces but organosilane can be used over concrete. where organosilanecan fill the surface cracks only. Crystalline penetrants are water based penetratns which penetrates deep up to 1 m in depth where nanotechnology waterproofing penetrants penetrates up to 3-5 mm in surface. Crystalline penetrants fills the pores and cracks by forming the crystalline gel in the capillaries. masonry or plastered surface. .Penetrants are the only waterproofing material which penetrates into the structure and fill the pores.

COMPARISON OF THE PARTICLE SIZES Film Former Penetrants Category Acrylic Cementitious Epoxy Coating Solvant Base Water Base Particle Size 500-800 (ηm) 700-1000 700-1000 4-6 4-6 .

cement and bricks with workmanship are the main factors Cannot be repaired 5-7 years Required Non Destructive Simple application with Simple Application but minimum chance of proper care required for human errors treating the joints Defected area can be repaired easily Defected area can be repaired easily Repairing Defected area can be repaired easily . PENETRANTS AND BRICKBAT KOBA Membranes 1mm-3mm Considerable Required Penetrants 4-6 nm Negligible Required Brickbat koba 150mm Considerable Required Cast at site Specified Procedure +ve side Nil Can be mixed or Ready to use system diluted before used Diluted with water Type of Application Brush/roller/spray Application +ve/-ve Both side Crack bridging Good/Excellent Nil capacity Depends on coating type Weather resistance Good Good Expected life 3-5 years Protection required Required System Quality factors Non Destructive Torch/Adhesive/Bitume Brush.Spray n +ve Both Excellent Excellent 10+years Not required Destructive Simple Application Poor 5-7 years Not Required Destructive Quality of sand. MEMBRANES.Coatings Thickness 150-300 microns Loading Negligible Surface preparation Required Mixing COMPARISON OF COATINGS.

KEY INFERENCES BASED ON THE COMPARISON Due to ease of application and less time consuming treatment film formers are widely spread nowadays. which will not allow them to penetrate inside the pores of the building materials but form a film covering and preventing the surface from water absorption.  These films are hydrophobic but they need to be continuous and defect-free and also must be UV resistant. which leads to failure of treatment.  It is found that during application ensuring continuous film on rough surface is not easy which leads to weak points for film former. These film formers have particle size greater than 100 ηm. All the typical films tend to break down under UV leading to cracking of the films in 2-5 years. .

Poor workmanship shows blisters in the membranes and tar felts surface which gives way to water . Same thing is applicable to tar felts also.  It is flexible material but becomes hard and shows cracks due to exposure in sun and UV rays in 4-5 years.  Due to extreme heat tar felts starts loosing strengths and stops working.KEY INFERENCES BASED ON THE COMPARISON Membranes are applied over the roofs and terraces for protection of the substrates but even membranes requires protection from UV rays.  If joints are not treated properly it gets open and starts leaking from that point. Major problem in membrane treatment is treating the joints.

. Coatings or membranes are better option than the brickbat koba which is highly destructive and no repairable.  Penetrants provides the long expected life of 10 to 20 years which no other waterproofing treatment give.KEY INFERENCES BASED ON THE COMPARISON Penetrants are the only waterproofing materials which penetrates deep in the capillaries and fills the pores specially crystalline materials.

DEFECTS IN WATERPROOFING TREATMENTS WP Treatments Defects Coatings Coal Epoxy Tar + Fibre Epo Resin xy Membranes Penetrants Others Acry Cem Wat Torch on Bitumi Tarf Crystal Nanote Inject Bri Boxtyp lic entiti er Membra nous elt line chnolo ion ckb e Poly us repe nes Memb coating gy Grout at Waterpr mer llent ranes waterpr ing Ko oofing oofing ba Voids/Air Pockets Fungal Growth Blistering Peeling Puncture Cracking Impact Damage Leakage through Joints Effect of temperature variation Protection to treatment required * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Protection while application * required Not Repairable Not usable after application * * * * * * * .

 Protective coating and a protective barrier like cover flooring is required to protect the membranes if it is to be put in use for foot traffic which is generally not required in other treatments.KEY OBSERVATIONS RELATED TO DEFECTS These defects generally occur during application of treatment like blistering and air pockets in membranes appear due to faulty workmanship during application and peeling and cracking occur after the application in coatings.  Membranes do not have the puncture resistance. it can get punctured and if the joints are not treated properly it will be a passage for water get in the substrate. which is applicable to coatings and brickbat koba also.  Tarfelt cannot resist the high temperature variations and looses elasticity and shows cracks. .

+ve side -ve side +ve side -ve side Blistering in Membranes M em brane M embrane Blister M embrane Layer Substrate Blister M embrane 1st Layer 2nd Layer Substrate .

TREATMENT APPLICATION SURFACES Coatings Coal Epox Acry Cem Tar y + lic ent Epox Fibr Poly iti y e mer us Resi n Membranes Wate Torc Bitum Tar r h on inous fel repe Memb Membr t llen rane anes t s Penetrants Others Crys Nanot tall echno ine logy coat water ing proof ing Inj Bri ect ckb ion at Gro Kob uti a ng Boxty pe Water proof ing WP Treatments Application Surfaces Concrete Masonry Plaster Old treatment * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * .

EFFECTS OF WATERPROOFING TREATMENTS Efflorescence in Transparent Water repellent Effects of Brickbat Waterproofing in sunken slab Rising Dampness Transparent Water repellent .

EFFECTS OF WATERPROOFING TREATMENTS Cracks in China mosaic over the membranes Opened vatta of Tarfelts Blistering in Tarfelts .

EFFECTS OF WATERPROOFING TREATMENTS Surface Deterioration in Injection Grouting Leakage and Efflorescence in Injection Grouting .

COMBINATION OF DIFFERENT WATERPROOFING TREATMENTS Sand Filling Geotextile Fabric Draincell Brickbat waterproofing Cementetious Coating D ra i ce l + G e o texti e W a te rp ro o fi g n l l n .

Brickbat waterproofing 3mm th Membranes RCC Slab M e m b ra n e + B ri ckb a t W a te rp ro o fi g n .

Sand Filling Geotextile Fabric Draincell Brickbat waterproofing 3mm Membrane RCC Te rra ce G a rd e n W a te rp ro o fi g n .

Selection Methodology: BASEMENT Walls Description +ve side Preferable Treatment Coatings Membranes Penetrants Injection Grouting Box Type Treatment Injection Grouting Penetrants Loading on Structure Description Preferable Negligible Loading Coatings Treatment Penetrants Considerable Membranes Tar felts Loading Brickbat coba -ve side Description Exposed Plastered Type of Walls Preferable Transparent water Treatment Coatings repellent Membranes Penetrants Injection Grouting Box Type Treatment Weather Effect Description High temp Variations Preferable Membranes Treatment Penetrants .

.Installation Time Description Speedy Time Consuming Preferable Coatings Treatment Penetrants Membranes Tar felts Brickbat coba Crack Bridging Capasity Description Poor Good Excellent Preferable Membranes Treatment Acrylic Polymer Tar felts Penetrants Sub Surface Condition Description Dry Wet Preferable Treatment Coatings Membranes Box type Treatment Brickbat coba Crystalline Penetrant Ease of Repair Description Defected portion can be repaired Entire to be redone Preferable Coatings Treatment Torch on Penetrants Membranes Brickbat coba Tar felts Note: Brickbat coba and Tar felts can be done only on floors.

Selection Methodology: WALL Walls Description +ve side -ve side Preferable Treatment Coatings Membranes Penetrants Injection Grouting Injection Grouting Penetrants Loading on Structure Description Preferable Negligible Loading Coatings Treatment Penetrants Considerable Torch on Loading Membranes Type of wall Description Exposed Plastered Preferable Treatment Transparent water Coatings repellent Torch on Membranes Penetrants Injection Grouting Weather Effect Description High temp Variations Preferable Treatment Membranes Penetrants .

Installation Time Description Speedy Time Consuming Preferable Treatment Coatings Penetrants Membranes Description Poor Good Excellent Crack Bridging Capacity Preferable Membranes Treatment Acrylic Polymer Penetrants Sub Surface Condition Description Dry Wet Preferable Treatment Coatings Membranes Crystalline Penetrant Ease of Repair Description Defected portion can be repaired Entire to be redone Preferable Coatings Treatment Torch on Penetrants Membranes - .

Selection Methodology: FLOOR Loading on Structure Description Negligible Loading Considerable Loading Preferable Coatings Treatment Penetrants Brickbat coba Crack Bridging Capacity Description Poor Good Excellent Preferable Coatings Treatment Acrylic Polymer Penetrants Installation Time Description Speedy Preferable Coatings Treatment Penetrants Time Consuming Brickbat coba Ease of Repair Description Defected portion can be repaired Entire to be redone Preferable Coatings Treatment Penetrants - Note: It includes bathroom. toilet floors and sunken slabs .

Type of Roof Selection Methodology: ROOF Loading on Structure Description Negligible Loading Considerable Loading Preferable Treatment Coatings Penetrants Membranes Tar felts Brickbat coba Description Preferable Treatment RCC Flat Coatings Tar felts roof Membranes Penetrants Brickbat coba Sloping Roof Coatings Membranes Tar felts Penetrants Roofing Membranes Tar felts Sheet Coatings Weather Effect Description UV rays High temp Variations Heavy Rainfall Preferable Treatment Penetrants Acrylic Polymers Membranes Membranes Penetrants Coatings Brickbat coba Penetrants Usage Description Accessible Roof Non Accessible Roof Preferable Treatment Acrylic Polymer Membranes Epoxy Tar felts .

Installation Time Description Speedy Time Consuming Preferable Coatings Treatment Penetrants Membranes Tar felts Brickbat coba Description Poor Good Excellent Crack Bridging Capacity Preferable Membranes Treatment Acrylic Polymer Tar felts Penetrants Sub Surface Condition Description Dry Wet Preferable Coatings Treatment Membranes Tar felts Crystalline Penetrant Ease of Repair Description Defected portion can be repaired Entire to be redone Preferable Coatings Treatment Torch on Penetrants Membranes Brickbat coba Tar felts .

S u rfa ce sp e ci l y fl o rs o r ro o fs. n . i re q u i s a p ro p e r ti o t re su rfa ce tre a tm e n t b e fo re a p p l ca ti n o f a n y i o w a te rp ro o fi g tre a tm e n t fo r g o o d re su l o f n ts w a te rp ro o fi g . ti ti D u e to hi h g te m p e ra tu re va ri ti n s a o tre a tm e n t sh o w s th e cra cks a n d i h e a vy n ra i fa l w a te rp ro o fi g fa i s w h e n exp o se d i n l n l n n a tu re . w h e n n o t i al o n g o o d co n d i o n o r sl p e .CONCLUSION A fte r stu d y a n d a n a l n g th e va ri u s yzi o w a te rp ro o fi g te ch n i u e s i i se e n th a t n q t s se l cti n e o o f a p p ro p ri te a w a te rp ro o fi g n te ch n i u e i re l te d to th e e n vi n m e n ta l q s a ro co n d i o n s a n d su rfa ce co n d i o n s.

c Pe n e tra n ts a re th e b e st w a te rp ro o fi g a s i n t p e n e tra te s d e e p a n d fi l th e p o re s w i ls th n e g lg i l i b e l adi g o n e a sy a p p l ca ti n i o p ro ce d u re a n d h a vi g l n g exp e cte d l fe n o i b u t i re q u i s a p ro p e r su rfa ce p re p a ra ti n t re o al . n I l a d o n th e stru ctu re i n e g l g i l a n d ts o s i b e e a sy a p p l ca ti n g i s sp e e d i a p p l ca ti n i o ve n i o ti e . a n d ta e n p ro vi e s g o o d p ro te cti n a g a i st w a te r b u t d o n i re q u i s a p ro te cti co a ti g i i i to b e t re ve n f t s u se d fo r fo o t tra ffi . so CONCLUSION .C o a ti g s n a re th e e a si st e w ay of w a te rp ro o fi g . m M e m b ra n e s a re su i b l fo r ro o fi g .

E ve n w h i e a p p l ca ti n o f l i o b ri ckb a t i m a y d a m a g e th e su b stra te d u e t to p o o r w o rkm a n sh i . ln n te g i i a p re fe ra b l m e th o d fo r co n cre te t s e su rfa ce s a s i g i s l n g ti e p ro te cti n . t ve o m o N a n o te ch n o l g y W a te rp ro o fi g i su i b l fo r o n s ta e m o st o f th e su rfa ce s a n d i i tra n sp a re n t i t s n n a tu re so ca n b e u se d i p l ce o f w a te r n a re p e l a n ts l . p C rysta l i e p e n e tra n ts i sp i o f h i h e r co st.CONCLUSION B ri ckb a t ko b a i w i e l u se d w a te rp ro o fi g s d y n tre a tm e n t b u t i ca n n o t w o rk w h e re th e re t a re h e a vy te m p e ra tu re va ri ti n s b e ca u se a o i sh o w s cra cks a n d i i n o n re p a i b l t t s ra e tre a tm e n t.

y so co m b i a ti n n o of tre a tm e n ts ca n p ro vi e d b e tte r w a te rp ro o fi g to th e stru ctu re s. fyi a . n  U se o f g o o d q u a l ty m a te ri l a n d g o o d i a w o rkm a n sh i ca n re d u ce s th e ch a n ce s o f p w a te r re l te d p ro b l m s a n d p re ve n ti a e ve a cti n a t e a rl e r sta g e i ve ry i p o rta n t o i s m th a n re cti n g th e d e fe cts a t l te r sta g e .CONCLUSION S o m e ti e s o n l o n e tre a tm e n t ca n n o t m y w o rk p ro p e rl .

d ri d . d y e e fre e fro m a n y fo re i n m a te ri l a n d cra cks g a e tc b e fo re a p p l ca ti n o f tre a tm e n t. e S u rfa ce sh o u l b e p ro p e rl cl a n e d . cu a re o rst E n su re p ro p e r sl p e a n d u se w a te rp ro o f ti e o l g ro u t fo r ti e j i ts i to i e t a n d b a th ro o m l on n l . p re ca u ti n s. i o B e fo re a p p l ca ti n o f co a ti g s a n y cra cks o r i o n d e fe cts to th e su b stra te sh o u l b e re m o ve d d fo r b e tte r a p p l ca ti n s a n d re su l . i o ts Fo r co a ti g s. a n d a g o o d o w o rkm a n sh i p sh o u l d b e a p p le d w h ie i l co n stru cti n to re d u ce th e w a te r re l te d o a p ro b l m s. a p p l n y se co n d co a t o n p e rp e n d i l r d i cti n to th e fi co a t.SUGGESTIONS Pro p e r ca re .

o i . l n D o n o t u se b ri ckb a t ko b a tre a tm e n t. i i p l e s t m i u n n e ce ssa ry l a d to th e stru ctu re a n d i i o t s n o n re p a i b l .SUGGESTIONS R e -sl p e exte ri r g ra d i g w i so i to p ro vi e o o n th l d n a tu ra l d ra i a g e o f w a te r a w a y fro m th e n b u id i g . ra e n n A l a ys p ro vi e w a te rp ro o fi g tre a tm e n t to th e w d n p o si ve si e . fro m ti d w h e re w a te r sta rts a ffe cti g th e b u i d i g e l m e n t. n l n e R o o f o r te rra ce w a te rp ro o fi g tre a tm e n t sh o u l n d b e co ve re d b y ch i a m o sa i fo r b e tte r re su l n c ts a n d l n g l fe o f th e tre a tm e n t. U se co a ti g s i ste a d .

n e n l . n a l n N e w a rri l o f m e m b ra n e s l ke d i p l d va i m e m e m b ra n e . e tc and n a n o te ch n o l g y o w a te rp ro o fi g ca n b e stu d i d i d e ta i .FUTURE SCOPE OF STUDY A si i a r re se a rch ca n b e ca rri d o u t fo r m l e i d u stri lb u i d i g s.

 THANK YOU .