largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama. beliefs and practices. commonly known as the Buddha .Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions.

"the Teaching of the Elders" or "the Ancient Teaching" .Two major branches of Buddhism Theravada .

The vehicle of a bodhisattva seeking buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings .Mah y na ("Great Vehicle") was originally an honorary synonym for Bodhisattvay na ("Bodhisattva Vehicle").

both geographically and culturally. the Buddha was born in Lumbini. an astrologer visited the young prince's father King uddhodana and prophesied that Siddhartha would either become a great king or renounce the material world to become a holy man. and raised in Kapilavastu. of the northeastern Indian subcontinent in the 5th century BCE According to the Theravada Tipitaka scriptures (meaning "three baskets").Life of the Buddha  The evidence of the early texts suggests that the Buddha was born in a community that was on the periphery. both in modern-day Nepal shortly after the birth of young prince Siddhartha Gautama.   . depending on whether he saw what life was like outside the palace walls. around the year 563 BCE.

But he found that they did not provide a permanent end to suffering. India. At the age of 35. an ascetic holy man. so he continued his quest. thereby liberating himself from the cycle of suffering and rebirth. and mastered the meditative attainments they taught. as the Buddha. finally. Gautama first went to study with famous religious teachers of the day. apparently content and at peace with the world. which was a religious pursuit common among the Shramanas. he finally destroyed the fetters of his mind. After many days. a sick man.[] and died at the age of 80 (483 BCE) in Kushinagar. India. traveling throughout the northeastern part of the Indian subcontinent. Siddhartha ventured beyond the palace several times. a corpse and. and arose as a fully enlightened being Soon thereafter.    . Gautama was now determined to complete his spiritual quest. and vowed not to rise before achieving enlightenment. But at age 29. he famously sat in meditation under a sacred fig tree known as the Bodhi tree in the town of Bodh Gaya. despite his father's efforts. a religious culture distinct from the Vedic one. encountering an old man. Now. uddhodana was determined to see his son become a king so he prevented him from leaving the palace grounds. He next attempted an extreme asceticism. he spent the rest of his life teaching the path of awakening he discovered. In a series of encounters known in Buddhist literature as the four sights he learned of the suffering of ordinary people. he attracted a band of followers and instituted a monastic order.


Buddhist concepts Life and the world .

Karma is the concept of "action" or "deed". understood as that which causes the entire cycle of cause and effect .

.refers to a process whereby beings go through a succession of lifetimes as one of many possible forms of sentient life.Rebirth . each running from conception to death.

not recognized by Therav da (Mahavihara) tradition as a separate realm Devas including Brahmas: variously translated as gods. but invisible to most people. spirits. an important variety is the hungry ghost Animals: sharing space with humans. demons. 5. deities. or left untranslated . 3. 6. antigods. titans. angels. Naraka beings: those who live in one of many Narakas (Hells) Preta: sometimes sharing some space with humans. but considered another type of life Human beings: one of the realms of rebirth in which attaining Nirvana is possible Asuras: variously translated as lowly deities.6 realms according to Theravadins 1. 2. 4.

and produce the causes and conditions of the next rebirth after death . In being controlled by these attitudes.Sa s ra Sentient beings crave pleasure and are averse to pain from birth to death. they perpetuate the cycle of conditioned existence and suffering (sa s ra).

Reaching this liberated state is achieved by following the path laid out by the Buddha. thereby reaching a liberated state of Enlightenment (bodhi). Craving also has its negative aspect. Suffering ends when craving ends. This is often expressed as a deluded clinging to a certain sense of existence. one craves that a certain state of affairs not exist. 4. i. This is achieved by eliminating delusion. . Life as we know it ultimately is or leads to suffering/uneasiness (dukkha) in one way or another. Suffering is caused by craving. 2. or to the things or phenomena that we consider the cause of happiness or unhappiness. 3.e. to selfhood.The Four Noble Truths 1.

2 group € € Suffering and causes of suffering Cessation and the paths towards liberation from suffering. 4. -according to the Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism they are "The noble truth that is suffering" "The noble truth that is the arising of suffering" "The noble truth that is the end of suffering" "The noble truth that is the way leading to the end of suffering" 1. 2. . 3.

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