A Presentation On

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Lalit Singh
B.Tech (CH-3rd yr.) (CH0700451026 F.E.T.R.B.S. College, Agra

Ethyl alcohol at 180-190 proof was the specified fuel. gasoline was not available. or any combination of the two.Introduction There is nothing new in the use of alcohol as a motor fuel. alcohol. The reason alcohol fuel has not been fully exploited is that. up until now. This is a very important 5 or 10% because it can be renewed each year. in particular. Alcohols in general and ethanol. when Nikolaus Otto invented the internal combustion engine. . and easy to produce. make excellent motor fuels. available. gasoline has been cheap. The model "T" Ford was designed to run on the available crude gasolines. and each gallon of alcohol produced will save a gallon of oil. In 1872.

History of Ethanol Production Ethanol s first use was to power an engine in 1826. but its use curtailed when it was taxed as liquor to help pay for the Civil War. the inventor of the modern fourfourcycle internal combustion engine. and in 1876. The first ethanol blended with gasoline for use as an octane booster occurred in the 1920s and 1930s. . used ethanol to power an early engine. Nicolas Otto. and fueled Henry Ford s Model T in 1908. and was in high demand during World War II because of fuel shortages. Ethanol use as a fuel continued after the tax was repealed. Ethanol also was used as a lighting fuel in the 1850s.

.Today s ethanol industry began in the 1970s when petroleum-based fuel became expensive and environmental concerns involving leaded gasoline created a need for an octane. Corn became the predominant feedstock for ethanol production because of its abundance and ease of transformation into alcohol. Federal and state subsidies for ethanol helped keep the fuel in production when ethanol prices fell with crude oil and gasoline prices in the early 1980s.

in which farmers began producing ethanol to add value to their corn (Bevel.‡ This also helped spawn the ³Minnesota Model´ for ethanol production. ‡ Ethanol¶s use as an oxygenate to control carbon monoxide emissions. 2008). encouraged increased production of the fuel through the decade and into the 1990s. ‡ Minnesota Model was an agreement between local public and private parties who work to keep profits in the community by providing jobs (and the economic benefits associated with population) and adding value to agricultural products while strengthening rural communities. .

Catalytic hydration of ethylene b.Method Of Production Fermentation a. From Waste Sulfite Substrate Of Paper Mills c. Oxidation of Petroleum . From Starch Substrate Petroleum Processing a. From Sucrose Substrate b. Etherification and hydrolysis of ethylene c.

5ton Process Water 1.5kg Coal 1.6 ton Sulfuric Acid 27kg Ammonium Sulfate 2.2ton Cooling Water 50ton Electricity 35KWH Plant Capacity 1010-100 Ton/day .Quantitative Requirement Basis: 1Ton Of 100% Alcohol And 90% Yield From Total Sugar Molasses(50Molasses(50-55% Total Sugar) 5.

.Physical Properties Ethanol is a colorless liquid with a pleasant smell.79. ‡ Melting Point -1150C ‡ Boiling Point 780C ‡ Specific Gravity 0. It is completely miscible with water and organic solvents and is very hydroscopic.

(i. [O] CH3CHO ==> CH3COOH Ethanol Ethnic Acid The oxidizing agent usually used for this reaction is a mixture of sodium dichromate or potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid which react together to provide oxygen atoms as follows.Chemical Properties Combustion of Ethanol Ethanol burns with a pale blue. non luminous flame to form carbon dioxide and steam. K2Cr2O7. to form ethanol. acetic acid) if the oxidizing agent is in excess. or with acidified potassium permanganate. or with acidified Sodium Dichromate. acetaldehyde). C2H5OH + 3O2 ==> 2CO2 + 3H2O Ethanol Oxidation of Ethanol Ethanol is oxidized with acidified Potassium Dichromate. [O] C2H5OH ==> CH3CHO + H2O Ethanol The ethanol is further oxidized to ethnic acid (i. Na2Cr2O7 + 4 H2SO4 ==> Na2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)3 + 4H2O + 3[O] .e. Na2Cr2O7.e. KMnO4.

diethyl ether distils over (two moles of ethanol loses one mole of water) . ethylene is formed. H2SO4 2 C2H5OH ==> C2H5OC2H5 + H2O 140 deg . (One mole of ethanol loses one mole of water) H2SO4 C2H5OH ==> C2H4 + H2O 170 degC When ethanol is mixed with concentrated sulphuric acid with the alcohol in excess and heated to 140 degC.Dehydration of Ethanol When ethanol is mixed with concentrated sulphuric acid with the acid in excess and heated to 170 degC.

Reaction of Ethanol with Sodium Sodium reacts with ethanol at room temp to liberate hydrogen. C2H5OH + Na ==> C2H5ONa + (H2( Apart from this reaction. ethanol and the other alcohols show no acidic properties. The hydrogen atom of the hydroxyl group is replaced by a sodium atom. . forming sodium ethoxide.

C2H5OH. H(+) C2H5OH + CH3COOH ==> CH3COOC2H5 + H2O . reacts with organic acids to form esters.Esterification of Ethanol Ethanol.

Uses of Ethanol In the manufacture of alcoholic drinks.. and In preserving biological specimens. . acetic acid). As a fuel (e. In the manufacture of ethanol.e.e. etc.g. acetaldehyde). Vodka. As the fluid in thermometers. varnish and drugs. e.g. and ethnic acid. (i. (i. As a widely used solvent for paint. in Gasohol).

a 10 percent ethanol blend with gasoline and a 15 percent ethanol blend with diesel are being considered for use in vehicles in at least one state.ETHANOL WORLDWIDE Brazil and Sweden are using large quantities of ethanol as a fuel. Based on experiments by the Indian Institute of Petroleum. . Pure ethanol (100% ethanol) is used in approximately 40 percent of the cars in Brazil. Brazil introduced a program to produce ethanol for use in automobiles in order to reduce oil imports. ethanol is produced from grapes that are of insufficient quality for wine production. Prompted by the increase in oil prices in the 1970s. India is initiating the use of ethanol as an automotive fuel. In France. Brazilian ethanol is made mainly from sugar cane.

impacting in a big way. The prices are in the range of US$ 50-70 50per barrel.1600 billion per year. the country's foreign exchange reserves.Ethanol in India India imports nearly 70% of its annual crude petroleum requirement. and the expenditure on crude purchase is in the range of Rs. which is approximately 110 million tons. .

20 211.99 9.472.00 6.56 91.S.019.000.21 56.00 733.30 52.Annual Fuel Ethanol Production by Country (2007 2009) Top 10 countries/regional blocks (Millions of U.30 486.52 541.00 570.40 17.00 79.29 6.498.89 1.577.67 83.20 290.40 13.335.30 26.90 889.534.80 247.80 74.00 79.750.00 6.80 237. liquid gallons per year) World Rank Country/Regio n 2009 2008 2007 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 United State Brazil European Union China Thailand Canada India Colombia Australia Other World Total 10.60 5.60 501.55 435.70 66.70 .90 26.039.27 19.101.

edu.wikipedia.com  www.in .Refrences  www.google.alcohalfuel.com  www.

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