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Chapter 3


 Plants have indeterminate growth because of the meristems  In stems, the cells produced by the meristems become erect aerial shoot system with branches and leaves.  In certain plants the shoot system may develop horizontally beneath or at the surface of the ground ( ferns or grasses)  In other plants, the stem may be short and inconspicuous.  In a number of plants, stems are modified in ways that allow specialized functions, such as climbing or the storage of food or water.

A Woody twig 
A woody twig consists of an axis with attached leaves  alternate arrangement  oppositely arranged  whorled.


scars. .Parts of a woody twig           node internode blade petiole axillary bud bud scales terminal bud bud scale scars stipules stipule scars.

 identify a woody plant in its winter .Deciduous trees and shrubs  those that lose all their leaves annually have  dormant axillary buds with leaf scars  tiny bundle scars which mark the location of the water conducting and food conducting  The shape and size of the leaf scars and the arrangement and numbers of the bundle scars are characteristic for each species.




.  The apical meristem in the embryonic stem of a seed is also dormant until the seed begins to germinate. The apical meristem is dormant before the growing season begins. apical meristem at the tip of each stem -an increase in the length of the stem.  protected by bud scales of the bud and leaf primordia the (tiny embryonic leaves that will develop into mature leaves after the bud scales drop off and growth begins).

the cuticle.two tissues composed of parenchyma cells ( Pith and cortex) .epidermis coated with a protodermthin.xylem cells and phloem cells  ground meristem .  procambium . cuticle. When a bud begins to expand or a seed germinates  the cells of the apical meristem primary meristems develop from it  the protoderm. waxy. protective layer.

particularly in woody plants.Pith  The parenchyma tissue in the center of the stem is the pith.  may be crushed as new tissues produced by other meristems add to the girth of the stem. . hollow area.  Pith cells are very large  break down shortly after they are formed leaving a cylindrical.

cortex.Cortex  The other tissue produced by the ground meristem is the cortex. .  The cortex may become more extensive than the pith  in woody plants it is crushed and replaced by new tissues produced from within. in manufacturing food.  The parenchyma of both the pith and the cortex function in storing food or if chloroplasts are present.

 As these primary tissues are produced. the leaf primordia and the bud primordia (embryonic buds in the axils of the leaf primordia) develop into mature leaves and buds       .Five tissues ² apical meristem epidermis primary xylem primary phloem pith Cortex arise while the stem is increasing in length and are called primary tissues. tissues.

. trace. a strand of xylem and phloem called a trace.Leaf trace  As each leaf and bud develops. branches off from the cylinder of xylem and phloem extending up and down the stem and enters the leaf or the bud.


each trace leaves a little thumbnail-shaped gap in thumbnailthe cylinder of vascular tissue. These gaps. called leaf gaps and bud gaps.Leaf bud and leaf gap  As the traces branch from the main cylinder of xylem and phloem. are filled with parenchyma tissue .

Secondary tissues 
Vascular cambium - Narrow band of cells between primary xylem and primary phloem  Vascular cambium divides indefinitely and produces secondary tissues which add to the girth of the plant.

towards the centre) Tracheids Vessel elements Fibers Secondary Phloem ( outside of meristem. towards the surface) Sieve tube members Companion cells . Vascular cambium producesproducesSecondary xylem ( inside of meristem.

Cork Cambium  Arises within the cortex or develops from the epidermis or phloem  Produces boxlike cork cells with suberin  Cork cells die shortly after they are formed .

 Cuts off water and food supplies to the epidermis  Gas exchange takes place through the stomata ( young stem) and lenticels ( woody stems) .Cork tissue  Makes up the outer bark of woody plants and functions in reducing water loss and in protecting the stem against mechanical injury.

primary xylem and primary phloem Eustelesare in vascular bundles. primary phloem. and the pith make up a central cylinder called the stele in most younger and a few older stems and roots. found in flowering plants .  Types of stele  Protostele ± phloem surrounds the xylem found in bryophytes  Siphonosteles ± are tubular with pith in centre. found in ferns  Eusteles.Primary xylem.Types of stele  Stele .

 Gymnopserms ± 8 cotyledons. Flowering plants Dicots ( two cotyledons) seed leaves Monocots ( one cotyledon  Cotyledons store food needed by the young seedling until its first true leaves can produce food themselves. .

Annuals  Annuals.Plants that die after going from Annualsseed to maturity within one growing season  Annuals have green herbaceous (non woody) stems  Monocots and dicots are annuals .

 Vascular cambium arises between primary xylem and primary phloem and adds secondary xylem and phloem to the vascular bundles.Herbaceous Dicotyledonous Stems  have vascular bundles composed of patches of xylem and phloem.  The vascular bundles are arranged in a cylinder or the xylem and the phloem are produced as continuous rings (cylinders) instead of in separate bundles. .

 Cambium is confined to the bundles or appears as a narrow ring .



as it is best known .  The most conspicuous differences involves the secondary xylem.Woody Dicotyledonous Stems  In woody plants differences begin to appear as soon as the vascular cambium and the cork cambium develop. or wood.


Spring Wood and Summer Wood  Spring wood When the vascular cambium of a tree first becomes active in the spring. and which has smaller or fewer vessel elements and larger numbers of tracheids . it produces relatively large vessel elements of secondary xylem.  Summer wood The xylem that is produced after the spring wood.

 In conifers the wood consists mostly of tracheids. however.  Annual rings are still visible. the result of this type of switch between the early spring and the summer growth is a series of alternating concentric rings of light and dark cells called an annual ring.Annual Rings  Over a period of years. since the first tracheids produced in the spring are considerably larger and lighter in color than those produced later in the growing season . with vessels and fibers being absent.

 The annual rings indicate the age of the tree (since normally only one is produced each year)  They can also tell something of the climate and other conditions that occurred during the tree¶s lifetime . walls than those of phloem cells. The vascular cambium produces more secondary xylem than it does phloem. The bulk of a tree trunk consists of annual rings of wood.  Xylem cells also have stronger.



botanists and foresters can employ an increment borer to find out how old a woody plant is.  Instead. which resembles a piece of pipe with a handle on one end.  This device. removes a plug of wood from the tree perpendicular to the axis.Increment borer  It is not necessary to cut down a tree to determine its age. .

. Phelloderm contains suberin.Phelloderm  The phelloderm is a single layer of cork cells to the inside of the phellogen (cork cambium). invasion by insects. a waxy material that seals the stem against loss of water. and infection by bacteria and fungal spores.


Vascular Rays  Vascular rays are lighter lines that can be seen radiating out from the center across the annual rings in a cross  consist of parenchyma cells  Their primary function is the lateral conduction of nutrients and water from the stele. to the cortex.  some cells also store food. through the xylem and phloem.  Any part of a ray within the xylem is called a xylem ray but its extension through the phloem is called a phloem ray .

called tyloses prevent further conduction of water and dissolved substances. the protoplasts of some of the parenchyma cells that surround the vessels and tracheids grow through the pits in the walls of these conducting cells and into the cavities.  Such protrusions. much of the cavity of the vessel or tracheid becomes filled. gums. along with pigments that darken .  resins.  As the protoplasm continues to expand.Tyloses  As a tree ages. and tannins begin to accumulate.

A tree may live and function perfectly well after the heartwood has rotted away and left the interior hollow  the lighter. .Heart Wood and Sap Wood  This older.  Sapwood forms at roughly the same rate as heartwood develops. still-functioning xylem closest to the stillcambium is called sapwood. Heart wood gives strength and support. darker wood at the center is called heart wood.




Soft wood have xylem that consists primarily of tracheids. no vessels are produced.Soft wood Hard wood  Pines and conifers are made up of soft wood. the wood tends to be softer  while the wood of woody dicot trees is called hardwood .

tissue and cork cambium. . consists of primary and secondary phloem.Bark  The term bark is applied to all the tissues outside the cambium.  the inner bark. including the phloem. consisting of cork (periderm).  The mature bark consist of alternating layers of crushed phloem and cork as the older layers become of phloem and cork become crushed and functionless.  the outer bark (periderm).

.  Latex is a thick fluid that is white. Of these. salts. and other substances. Unlike vessels. alkaloidal drugs.Laticifers  Specialized cells or ducts called laticifers are found in about 20 families of herbaceous and woody flowering plants. enzymes. yellow.  The laticifers. orange. however. proteins.  These cells are most common in the phloem but occur throughout all parts of the plants. form extensive branched networks of latex-secreting cells originating from rows of latexmeristematic cells. the cells remain living and may have many nuclei. sugars. which resemble vessels. Its function in the plant is it aids in closing wounds. oils. rubber is the most important. or red in color and consists of gums. Some forms of latex have considerable commercial value.

. and other substances. oils. alkaloidal drugs. yellow. enzymes. proteins.  Its functions in the plant is it aids in closing wounds. or red in color and consists of gums. orange.Latex  Latex is a thick fluid that is white. salts.  rubber is the most important form of latex. sugars.

g.  a bundle¶s xylem usually contains two large . has xylem which is closer to the center of the stem and its phloem is closer to the surface.. lilies) are herbaceous plants that do not attain great size.  the surfaces of the stems are covered by an epidermis.  The stems have neither a vascular cambium nor a cork cambium and thus produce no secondary vascular tissues or cork.  the xylem and phloem tissues produced by the procambium appear in cross section as vascular bundles scattered throughout the stem instead of being arranged in a ring.Monocot Stem  Most monocots (e. grasses.  Each bundle.


 an irregularly shaped air space toward the base of the bundle  The phloem consists entirely of sieve tubes and companion cells  the entire bundle is surrounded by a sheath of thick-walled sclerenchyma cells. . thick The parenchyma tissue between the vascular bundles is not separated into cortex and pith in monocots.

and parenchyma cells in the area develop thicker walls as the stem matures.Corn stem  In a corn stem. combined with the band of sclerenchyma cells beneath the epidermis and the thicker-walled parenchyma cells.  a band of sclerenchyma cells. there are more bundles just beneath the surface than there are toward the center.  The concentration of bundles. all give thickerthe stem the capacity to withstand stresses resulting from summer storms and the weight of the leaves and the ears of corn as they mature. usually two or three cells thick. develops immediately beneath the epidermis. .

oats.  growth is columnar (i. . like the apical meristem. and other grasses. there is an intercalary meristem at the base of each internode.e. there is little difference in diameter between the top and the bottom) because there is no vascular cambium producing tissues that would add to the girth of the stems. barley. In wheat. it contributes to increasing stem length. rice. rye..

.  as a result of their parenchyma cells continuing to divide and enlarge without a true cambium developing.Palm trees  Palm trees. which differ from most monocots in that they often grow quite large.  this secondary meristem produces only parenchyma cells to the outside and secondary vascular bundles to the inside.

and internodes. axillary buds  these features distinguish them from roots and leaves. .SPECIALIZED STFMS  specialized stems may differ markedly from that of the stems discussed so far. but all stems have nodes. internodes. which do not have them.

 Adventitious roots are produced all along the rhizome.Rhizomes  Rhizomes are horizontal stems that grow below organ. foodfood.  A rhizome may be a relatively thick. mainly on the lower surface. but have  scale like leaves  axillary buds at each node  short to long internodes in between. as in ginger .  They resemble roots. often near the surface of the soil. fleshy.


.  Several runners may radiate out from the parent plant. which can be separated and grown independently. generally along the surface.  Adventitious buds appear at alternate nodes along the runners and develop into new strawberry plants. and within a few weeks may grow up to 1 meter (3 feet) or more long.Runners  Runners are horizontal stems that differ from rhizomes in that  they grow above ground.  they also have long internodes.

 In Irish potato plants. .Stolons  Stolons are similar to runners  are produced beneath the surface of the ground  grow in different directions but usually not horizontally. tubers are produced at the tips of stolons.


Tubers  In Irish or white potato plants. .  The ³eyes´ of the potato are actually nodes formed in the modified stem.  the small ridges seen on mature tubers are leaf scars.  Each eye consists of an axillary bud in the axil of a scale like leaf. several internodes at the tips of stolons become tubers as they swell from the accumulation of food. although this leaf is visible only in very young tubers.  The mature tuber becomes isolated after the stolon to which it was attached dies.


Bulbs  Bulbs are large buds surrounded by numerous fleshy leaves. green.  In onions.  Adventitious roots grow from the bottom of the stem. which stores food. aboveaboveground leaves. the fleshy leaves comprise the bulk of the bulb tissue. the fleshy leaves usually are surrounded by long. with a small stem at the lower end. .

scalelike leaves sparsely covering the outside  Adventitious roots are produced at the base. . except for the few papery.Corms  Corms resemble bulbs but differ from them in  being composed almost entirely of stem tissue.  corms. store food.  The crocus is an example of plants that produce corms.


Cladophylls  The stems of butcher¶s broom plants are flattened and appear leaflike.  Such flattened stems are called cladophylls  There is a node bearing very small. . scalelike leaves with axillary buds in the center of each butcher¶s broom cladophyll.

 Stems may be modified in the form of thorns.  Climbing plants have stems modified in various ways that adapt them for their manner of growth.Other Specialized Stems  The stems of many cacti are stout and fleshy. . thorns. Such stems are adapted for storage of water and food. They produce tendrils These are specialized stems in the grapes. but all thorn like objects are not necessarily modified stems.