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The Food Guide Pyramid is designed to help us follow most of the Dietary Guidesline for Americans. Developed by the USDA, it is a guide to the amounts and kinds of foods we should eat daily to maintain health and to reduce the risk of developing diet-related diseases.


Anatomy of MyPyramid One size doesn't fit all USDA's new MyPyramid symbolizes a personalized approach to healthy eating and physical activity. It has been developed to remind consumers to make healthy food choices and to be active every day. The symbol has been designed to be simple. as a reminder of the importance of daily physical activity. and the URL. The different parts of the symbol are described below. The narrower top area stands for foods containing more added sugars and solid fats. Personalization Personalization is shown by the person on the steps. the more of these foods can fit into your diet. Activity Activity is represented by the steps and the person climbing them. the slogan. The wider base stands for foods with little or no solid fats or added sugars. Find the kinds of amounts of food to eat each day at . These should be selected more often. Moderation Moderation is represented by the narrowing of each food group from bottom to top. The more active you are.

The widths suggest how much food a person should choose from each group. This illustrates that foods from all groups are needed each day for good health. The widths are just a general guide. It suggests that individuals can benefit from taking small steps to improve their diet and lifestyle each day.Proportionality Proportionality is shown by the different widths of the food group bands. . Gradual Improvement Gradual improvement is encouraged by the slogan. not exact proportions. Check the Web site for how much is right for you. Variety Variety is symbolized by the 6 color bands representing the 5 food groups of the Pyramid and oils.



Food Exchange List Food Exchange List System is a grouping of common foods that have practically the same amount of protein. therefore the foods included are simple and only those allowed in the diabetic diet list. Within the group one food item can be exchanged with another provided that specified serving portion is allowed. . The exchange lists are intended for planning diabetic diets. carbohydrates and fats.

broccoli. Fat-Free and Very Low-Fat Milk contain 90 calories per serving. zucchini. etc. One serving equals: 1 CMilk. artificially sweetened . One serving equals: ½ CCooked vegetables (carrots.Food Exchange List Vegetables contain 25 calories and 5 grams of carbohydrate. fat-free or 1% fat ¾ CYogurt. eat more fresh or steamed vegetables.) 1 CRaw vegetables or salad greens ½ CVegetable juice If you·re hungry. cabbage. plain nonfat or low-fat 1 CYogurt.

scrod. One serving equals: 1 ozTurkey breast or chicken breast. kidney. nonfat or low-fat 2Egg whites ¼ CEgg substitute1 ozFat-free cheese ½ CBeans. cooked (black beans. scallop. etc. shrimp) ¾ CCottage cheese.Food Exchange List Very Lean Protein choices have 35 calories and 1 gram of fat per serving. chick peas or lentils): count as 1 starch/bread and 1 very lean protein . sole. cod. lobster.) 1 ozCanned tuna in water 1 ozShellfish (clams. skin removed 1 ozFish fillet (flounder.

raspberries. skin removed1 ozTurkey³dark meat. orange. roast or lean chop*1 ozPork. One serving equals: 1 ozChicken³dark meat. skin removed1 ozSalmon. London broil.Fresh peach1Kiwi½Grapefruit½Mango1 C Fresh berries (strawberries. tenderloin or fresh ham*1 ozLow-fat cheese (with 3 g or less of fat per ounce)1 ozLow-fat luncheon meats (with 3 g or less of fat per ounce)¼ C4.Sardines* Limit to 1²2 times per week .5% cottage cheese2 med.Food Exchange List Fruits contain 15 grams of carbohydrate and 60 calories. or blueberries)1 C Fresh melon cubes1»8thHoneydew melon4 oz Unsweetened juice4 tspJelly or jam Lean Protein choices have 55 calories and 2²3 grams of fat per serving. One serving equals: 1 smallApple. tenderloin. nectarine1 med. herring1 ozLean beef (flank steak. banana. roast or lean chop*1 ozLamb. roast beef)*1 ozVeal. swordfish.

cooked1»3 CBarley or couscous. whole wheat. One serving equals: 1 sliceBread (white. brown or white. ground beef** 1 ozPork chop 1 Whole egg (medium)**1 ozMozzarella cheese ¼ CRicotta cheese 4 oz Tofu (note this is a heart healthy choice)** Choose these very infrequently Starches contain 15 grams of carbohydrate and 80 calories per serving. rye) 2 slicesReduced-calorie or "lite" bread¼ (1 oz)Bagel (varies)½English muffin½Hamburger bun ¾ CCold cereal 1»3 C Rice. cooked ½ CPasta. cooked ½ CBulgar. cooked ½ C Corn. corned beef. sweet potato. pumpernickel.Food Exchange List Medium-Fat Proteins have 75 calories and 5 grams of fat per serving. cooked 1»3 CLegumes (dried beans. peas or lentils). One serving equals: 1 ozBeef (any prime cut). hot air popped or microwave (80% light) . or green peas 3 oz Baked sweet or white potato¾ ozPretzels3 CPopcorn.

) 1 tsp Butter 1 tsp Stick margarine 1 tsp Mayonnaise 1 Tbsp Reduced-fat margarine or mayonnaise 1 Tbsp Salad dressing 1 Tbsp Cream cheese 2 Tbsp Lite cream cheese 1/8th Avocado8 largeBlack olives 10 largeStuffed green olives 1 sliceBacon .Food Exchange List Fats contain 45 calories and 5 grams of fat per serving. corn. canola. olive. etc. One serving equals: 1 tsp Oil (vegetable.


F O O D L A B E L .

The human body needs more than 40 different nutrients for good health.10 NUTRIENTAL GUIDE FOR FILIPINO 1. breast milk must be complemented with appropriate foods. give appropriate foods while continuing breast-feeding. Eat a variety of foods. Nonetheless. infants exclusively from birth to 4-6 months and then. health workers. No single food can provide all the nutrients in the amounts needed. The decision to breast-feed is made by the mother. neighbors. the husband and other family members. Nutritional requirements of an infant can be obtained solely from breast milk for the first 6 months of life. . community organizations. Eat a variety of foods everyday. 2. Breastfeeding is one of the most effective strategies to improve child survival. Breast-feed Infants and children up to 2 years of age are most vulnerable to malnutrition. to provide all the nutrients required in the proper amount and balance. but breast-feeding should be continued for up to 2 years of age or longer. After that time. officemates and employers must encourage her to breast-feed her infant.

poultry or dried beans. has good disposition. which are linked to heart disease. poultry without skin.10 NUTRIENTAL GUIDE FOR FILIPINO 3. Including fish. in contrast to fatty meats. A well-nourished child is healthy. and alert. he is lethargic and frequently ill because of low resistance to infection. Fish. are low in saturated fats. or dried beans in the daily meals will not only enhance the protein quality if the diet but also supply highly absorbable iron. A poorly nourished child exhibits sluggish if not permanently delayed physical and mental development. An adequate diet for an active child is one that promotes good health and normal growth. poultry. . Maintain children's normal growth through proper diet and monitor their growth regularly. and dried beans. 4. preformed vitamin A and zinc. In addition. Consume fish. Over nutrition on the other hand. lean meat. To improve the Filipino diet. lean meat. strong. and grows at a normal rate. not only should the total quantity of food be increased but the quality of the diet should also be improved by including animal products of substitutes. lean meat. may lead to obesity that may cause physical and emotional problems in childhood and later in life.

Filipinos use very little oil in their cooking. fruits and root crops. The excessive use of saturated fats and oils. the total fat and oil consumption in a Filipino diet is low. 6. To ensure adequate fat intake. Eat foods cooked in edible/cooking oil daily. contributing to chronic energy deficiency. vitamin C-rich fruits and root crops are low in the Filipino diet. however.10 NUTRIENTAL GUIDE FOR FILIPINO 5. fruits and root crops. This will guard against chronic energy deficiency and help to lower the risk of vitamin A deficiency. Results of food consumption surveys conducted by the FNRI show that the average consumption of green leafy vegetables. Filipinos should be encouraged to stir-fry foods in vegetable oil or to add fats and oils whenever possible in food preparation. Fats and oils are concentrated sources of energy. A low fat intake may be one of the causes of vitamin A deficiency among Filipinos. . A low fat and oil consumption results in a diet low in energy value. most people do not eat enough vegetables. Fats and oils are also essential for absorption and utilization of fat-soluble vitamins. In general. Eat more vegetables. The consumption of more vegetables. The proper choice of fats and oils therefore is essential. In general. fruits and root crops is encouraged to help correct the micronutrient deficiencies consistently noted in national nutrition surveys. Boiling is the most common method of food preparation. Eating root crops will add dietary energy to the meal. may increase the risk of heart disease. Hence. such as vitamin A.

vitamin A and other nutrients. On the other hand. Avoiding too much table salt and overly salty foods may help in the prevention and control of these conditions. The regular use of iodized salt in the table and in cooking in addition to taking iodine-rich foods. . causing physical and mental retardation in children. milk products and other calcium-rich foods such as small fish and dark green leafy vegetables everyday. Goiter and Iodine Deficiency Disorders are rampant in many areas of the Philippines. Nutrition surveys indicate a consistent failure of Filipinos to meet dietary recommendations for calcium. 8. Milk and milk products provide highly absorbable calcium besides being good sources of protein. An adequate amount of calcium in the diet starting from childhood all through adulthood will help prevent osteoporosis in later life. Consume milk. excessive intake of salt and salty foods particularly in susceptible individuals increases the risk of hypertension and hence of heart disease. Milk and other calcium-rich foods are valuable additions to our rice/plant-based diets. which are not only poor sources of calcium but also contain calcium-inhibiting substances.10 NUTRIENTAL GUIDE FOR FILIPINO 7. Use iodized salt. but avoid excessive intake of salty foods. will greatly help in eradicating this preventable disease.

Published by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI). regular exercise. Revised Edition 2000. In addition. Sharing in the efforts to improve environmental hygiene and sanitation in the community will greatly contribute to food safety in the home. It is important to buy foods that are safe. do not smoke and avoid drinking alcoholic beverages. abstinence from smoking and moderate alcohol intake are key components of a healthy lifestyle. Source: Nutritional Guidelines for Filipinos. Eat clean and safe food. viruses. Purchase food only from reliable sources. With the changing lifestyle of Filipinos. Department of Science and Technology (DOST) .10 NUTRIENTAL GUIDE FOR FILIPINO 9. 10. fOod and water are essential to life but they may also carry disease-causing organisms like bacteria. care must be taken when preparing and serving meals to prevent foodborne diseases. exercise regularly. fungi and parasites. Healthy diets. chronic degenerative diseases are becoming significant public health problems. or harmful chemical substances. For a healthy lifestyle and good nutrition.


This not only minimizes the amount of a particular potentially hazardous substance but also ensures that a range of essential nutrients are consumed. arsenic and solanine but in the amounts in which potatoes are normally eaten these natural substances are not hazardous. 'unprocessed'.TOXICITIES OF FOOD. as in some faddist diets. but to consume a wide variety of foods. or a contaminant. often in very small amounts. 'no added chemicals' when applied to food suggest that the food is safe or more nutritious than its conventional counterpart but this is not necessarily true. fat. deliberately added. whether it is natural. In addition to well-known nutrients such as carbohydrate. For example. All food is made up entirely of chemicals. . The terms 'health'. protein and water. There is nothing special about natural chemicals in food and no distinction should be made between natural and other substances when deciding if a food is likely to be hazardous. For this reason it is important not to consume large amounts of a small number of foods. The notion that 'natural' food may be harmful is not widely appreciated. 'natural'. µorganic'. food contains many other substances. Any substance in food may have a degree of toxicity or 'poisonousness'. a potato contains a number of poisonous substances such as nitrate.


from the mouth to the small intestine . Our saliva contains an enzyme called amylase that starts breaking down the more complex carbs into simpler types. our digestion system . This metabolism of carbohydrates is achieved through the secretion of a number of digestive enzymes into the gastrointestinal tract (especially in the duodenum) where they attack carbohydrates and gradually convert them into simple sugars like glucose so they can be absorbed into the designed to break down disaccharides and polysaccharides into monosaccharides. In the Stomach Enzyme activity continues in the stomach. ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM How We Digest Carbohydrate In simple terms. .they chop long starch molecules into simpler ones.CARBOHYDRATES DEGISTION. Digestive enzymes are like biological scissors . In the Mouth The process of digesting carbohydrates begins in the mouth. but slows down significantly as digestive acids are released into the stomach by the glands.

where it is stored or distributed to cells throughout the body for energy. glucagon can trigger the formation of glucose from some amino acids (protein) or glycerol (fats) . the glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream and taken to the liver. This cuts down carbohydrates into simple sugars . in the duodenum and jejunum of the small intestine. lactose and sucrose into smaller bits. Glucose Metabolism By The Liver After carbohydrates are duly broken down into glucose. ABOSORPTION AND METABOLISM In the Small Intestine Another version of amylase is secreted by the pancreas into the duodenum (first section of small intestine). Likewise. which are eventually converted to glucose and absorbed through the intestinal walls into the bloodstream. In this way.CARBOHYDRATES DEGISTION.a process called gluconeogenesis . As the carbohydrate passes further into the intestine. (eg. more easily absorbed. lactase and sucrase chop maltose. excess glucose (a cause of hyperglycemia) is converted in the liver to glycogen (glycogenolysis) in response to the hormone insulin. if blood sugar levels fall. between meals). the liver regulates blood glucose levels to provide sufficient energy for the body. to prevent hypoglycemia. If glycogen levels are exhausted. the enzymes maltase. and stored. For example.maltose. lactose and sucrose. the glycogen is re-converted to glucose (glycogenolysis) in response to messages conveyed by the hormone glucagon.

Provides energy. prominent in the plant kingdom. in the form of (sacharides) or chain of Sugars.CARBOHYDRATES ² Are organic compounds. . fiber and naturally occuring sweeteners (sucrose and fructose). Carbohydrates supply energy in the most efficient from for the use in the human body.

fruits Milk and milk products Germinating grains Blood Sugar Fruit Sugar --Fruit. syrups. Part of lactose. sweeteners Fruit. sugar beefs. honey.Source of CHO Dietary Carbohydrates Sources Simple Monosaccharides Glucose Fructose vegetables Galactose Disaccharides Sucrose (glucose + fructose) Lactose (glucose + galactose) Maltose (glucose + glucose) Table sugar Milk sugar Malt sugar Sugar cane. found in milk Common Names Naturally Occuring Food .

vegetables Fiber (strings of monosaccharides) Roughage . potatoes Legumes.Source of CHO Complex Polysaccharides Starches (strings of glucose) Complex carbohydrates Grains. whole grains. legumes. fruit.

5. 7. Storage form of energy as glycogen. Chief source of energy Cheap and main energy food.Function of CHO 1. . 3. 4. Regulator of fat metabolism Sole energy source for the brain and nerve tissues. 2. 6. Regulator of intestinal peristalsis and provider of bulk. Protein sparer.

Unlike starch.FIBER ² like starch. . consist of strings of simple sugars. however human digestive enzymes cannot breakdown fiber.

leafy green vegetables such as broccoli. such as pectin and gums. whole wheat pasta. brown rice. vegetables. such as cellulose and hemicellulose. whole wheat flour. Lignin Food Sources of insoluble fiber Whole grains. wheat bran seeds popcorn. Soluble Fibers Pectin Mucilage Guar and other gums . Classification of fibers Insoluble Fibers Hemicellulose. Water-insoluble fibers. peanut butter. nuts. are most effective in aiding laxation but may also limit absorption of minerals and possibly vitamins. have little effect on stool weight and hence are not appropriate treatment for patients with constipation.Role of fibers Water-soluble fibers. buckwheat groats. oatmeal unrefined cereals.

apples. corn. pears. chick peas (garbanzo beans). soybeans. grapes. carrots. oat bran. navy beans. white potatoes. citrus fruits (oranges and grapefruit). barley. oatmeal. bananas.Food sources of soluble fiber Kidney beans split peas. lentils. .


. the disaccharides naturally found in many fruits. is also called sugar.SUGAR ² may refer to simple carbohydrates (monosacharides and disaccharides). Sucrose.

it's 3 teaspoons (12 grams) a day. for adult men. They occur naturally in fruits and berries.Recommended Sugar Intake According to the guidelines. it·s 9 teaspoons (36 grams) daily. . and for children. and Xylitol are the most commonly use sugar alcohol. Sugar Substitutes Sugar alcohols . of the AHA (American heart Association) The recommended sugar intake for adult women is 5 teaspoons (20 grams) of sugar per day. Sorbitol Mannitol.are also called sugar replacers to avoid confusion with non ² carbohydrate alcohol are nutritive sweeteners because they provide 2 to 3 kcalories per gram but lessthan the 4kcalories per gram of carbohydrates.

aspartame is digested and absorbed as two separate amino acds. To make for this it is often used in combination with other alternative sweeteners.Alternative sweeteners ² are non-nutriative substances produced to be sweet tasting. kcalories. much less aspartame is needed to get the same sweet taste because it is 180 ² 200 times sweeter than sucrose. 300 to 700 times as sweet as sucrose. Aspartame ² aspartame is formed by the bonding of the amino acids phenylalanine and aspartic acid. saccharin has a bitter aftertast. if any. . they provide no nutrients and few. however. When consumed. Although aspartame contains the same kcalories as sucrose. Saccharin ² compared with other alternatinve sweeteners. Saccharin is still valuable because it is extremely sweet.

candies. Made from chemically altered sucrose . Sucralose ² was approved by the FDA in april 1998 for use in dessert. . sucralose provides no energy but is 600 times sweeter than sucrose. it tastes 200 times sweeter than sucrose. and tabletop sweetener.Acesulfame K ² Synthetically produced. but it is not digestible by the human and therefore provide no kcalories. nonalcoholic beverages.

Fats (LIPIDS) ² Fats are the densest form of energy available in foods and stored energy in our bodies. Fats. It is the fats in certain food that make them taste so appealing. having role in the production of hormones and providing padding to protect body organs. or lipids. such as functioning as component of all cell structure. Essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins ADEK are found in food lipids. . serve other purposes.

They are organic.Fatty acids are acids produced when fats are broken down. and function. polyunsaturated. or in other words. .µ These acids are not highly soluble in water. They may be monounsaturated. They aid cell membrane development. They are an important part of a healthy diet. and they are necessary for strong organs and tissue. They are considered ´good fats. strength. they contain both carbon and hydrogen molecules. and they can be used for energy by most types of cells. Fatty acids are found in oils and other fats that make up different foods. or saturated. because the body needs them for several purposes. Fatty acids help move oxygen through the bloodstream to all parts of the body.

A fat. most often of animal origin. such as coconut and palm oils (tropical oils). An excess of these fats in the diet is thought to raise the cholesterol level in the bloodstream. Saturated Fat sources: Saturated fat is found mostly in meat and dairy products. Butter is high in saturated fat. that is solid at room temperature and whose fatty acid chains cannot incorporate additional hydrogen atoms. as well as some vegetable oils.Saturated. while margarine tends to have more unsaturated fat. .

and canola oils. especially fish. . sunflower. Includes polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat. Monounsaturated fat is found in high content in olive. Both types are predominantly found in plant products. fish and corn oils.Unsaturated . that is liquid at room temperature. Examples of polyunsaturated fat food sources include soybean. peanut. Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids are suggested to lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.A fat derived from plant and some animal sources. Intake of foods containing more unsaturated fats than saturated fats may contribute to reduced blood cholesterol levels.

are compounds consisting of three fatty acids and one glycerol molecules. Phospholipids are similar to triglocerides except they have only 2 fatty acids. but it is a small part compared with the fatty acids that may be alike or different from each other. rendering the latter more water soluble. Ex. The glycerol portion is derived from carbohydrate.Triglycerides the largest class of lipids found in food and body fats. Lecithin. . the third spot contains a phosphate group. lipids compound that form part of cell walls and act as a fat emulsifier.

Sterols are high molecular weight alcohols occuring in the fats of plants and animals. Only food source of cholesterol are animal and dairy products. the liver will produce the amount of required for body function. . For example if dietary cholesterol is not consumed. Sterols are synthesized by the body and are not essential nutrients. plants foods do not contain cholesterol.

6. . 5. 4. 2.Function of Fats 1. Concentrated source of energy. Structural components Sparer of protein. Storage form of energy. Carrier of fat soluble vitamins. 3. thiamin and niacin. Supplier of Essential Fatty Acids.

The highest source of cholesterol are egg yolks and organ meats (liver and kidney). dairy products contain cholesterol. eggs. . fish. thus all foods from animal sources. poultry. such as meat.Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance found in all tissue in human and other animals. A high level of cholesterol in the blood is risk factor for CAD.

Fat Digestion and Absorption and Metabolism Mouth ² mechanical digestion breaks food smaller pieces. the rest pass through unchanged. chemical digestion by enzymes hydrolyzes fatty acids. existing in feces. Stomach ² peristalisis continues. Large intestine ² some fats are partially digested. Small intestine ² chemical digestion continues as CCK is release in response to fats entering deudenum then to pancreas and bile salts from the liver for fats digestion. .

mackerel. Monounsaturated Fats . corn Wheat germ. herrings). These fats help to reduce blood clotting. Vegetable oils such as safflower. naturally present in fish Seeds and most nuts Omega-3 fats are a type of polyunsaturated fat found mainly in oily fish (eg salmon. peanut oil and peanut butter Olive oil.Source of Fats Polyunsaturated Fats . canola oil.lowers blood cholesterol and encourages heart health Good food sources are. sardines. blood pressure and blood fat levels. wholegrain cereals and breads Polyunsaturated margarines Fish oils. not raise blood cholesterol and encourages heart health Good food source are. flaxseed oil (linseed oil) and walnut oil. sunflower. olives and olive oil-based margarines Canola oil and monounsaturated table spread Almond and hazelnuts . Avocados. soy bean.

lamb. poultry Processed meat. These fats may be found listed in the food ingredients on packaged foods as vegetable fat. cultured butter. cream cheese. . clarified butter. luncheon. tinned corned beef. butter/margarine mix Milk homogenised or full cream Hard cheeses. salami. most sausages. crackers. ice cream and cream Meat fats such as lard. baking margarine and vegetable shortening. biscuits. '.Source of Fats Saturated Fats . palm oil and kremelta Trans Fats are the other type of fat that can raise your cholesterol level just like saturated fats Trans fats can be formed when vegetable fats are processed in certain ways.raise blood cholesterol and promote heart disease These are the ones to reduce or avoid Major food sources are. mutton. e. sour cream. coconut cream. dripping. beef tallow and chefade White visible fat on beef. Foods containing this fat include pastries. commercial cakes and muffins.g. Dairy fats such as butter. muesli bars. pork. fatty mince pies and pates Tropical oils such as coconut. suet.

10 to 20 pounds can make a big difference. . Lose weight if you are overweight -. rather than large meals. legumes and fruit. Exercise regularly (especially aerobic activity such as cycling. Combine smaller food portions with exercise.Guidelines in Reducing Dietary FATS Eat 3-6 small meals per day. Quit smoking. Each should consist of at least 2 food groups. jogging.000 steps using a pedometer. swimming or walking for a minimum of 30 minutes. or 10. Control blood glucose (sugar) levels if you have diabetes. Eat more fiber-rich foods such as vegetables. gelatin and pudding. whole grains. Sugar-free products: Diet sodas and other diet beverages. Avoid deep-fried foods. 5 days per week.

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