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Channel Allocation in Cellular System

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Channel Allocation Strategies
 The

way the channels are assigned inside a cell affects the performance of the system – especially when a change of BSs occurs

 Fixed

Channel Allocation (FCA)  Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA)  Hybrid Channel Allocation (HCA)

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Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA)
10 Channels 10 Channels – channels are divided in sets according to some reuse – allocated to a group of cells & reassigned to other groups, pattern BS1 channels (i.e. signal BS2 of the – Different considerations are taken before the assignment quality, distance between BSs, traffic per BS) assigned to it) – they are fixed (i.e. a cell can not use channels that are not 10 Channels is designed & does not 10 Channels – assignment of frequency sets to cells when the system change unless restructured in that – Any call attempt within the cell can only be served by the BSunused channels BS4 cell 3 – If all the channels in that cell are busy, the service is blocked – simple method but does not adapt to changing traffic conditions – introduction of new BSs supposes frequency reassignment for the complete system

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Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA)
– Channels are placed in a pool interference ratio (CIR) and other – assigned to new calls depending on the carrier to criteria. BS1 BS2 – Each time a call is made the serving base station requests a channel from the RNC 40 following an algorithm that Channels – The switch then allocates a channel to the requested cell takes into account the likelihood of future blocking within the cell
the frequency of use of the candidate channel  the reuse distance of the channel, and other cost functions.

– The RNC only allocates a given frequency if that frequency is BS3 not presently in BS4 use in the cell or any other cell which falls within the minimum restricted distance of frequency reuse to avoid interference – reduces the likelihood of blocking, which increases the trunking capacity of the system, since all the available channels in a market are accessible to all of the cells

5 Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA)    Require the RNC to collect real-time data on – channel occupancy – traffic distribution – radio signal strength indications (RSSI) of all channels on a continuous basis This increases the storage and computational load on the system but provides the advantage of increased channel utilisation and decreased probability of a blocked call Allocation of channels is more complex since additional information is needed.e. non-uniform traffic). but is also more flexible to traffic changes (i. .

6 Hybrid Channel Allocation (HCA)       a combination of both FCA and DCA some channels are pre-assigned others are shared dynamically One of these approaches is based on the principal of borrowing channels from a neighbouring cell when its own channels are occupied Known as the borrowing strategy RNC supervises such borrowing procedures & ensures that the borrowing of a channel does not disrupt or interfere with any of the calls in progress in the donor cell .

which is more efficient. DCA the same channel can be used if interference does not occur.7 Allocation Comparison       FCA better for high uniform traffic loads – Max reusability of channels is always achieved DCA performs better for non-uniform traffic loads – allocation of channels is flexible FCA schemes behave like a no. . of small groups of servers DCA provides a way of making these small groups of servers behave like a larger server. FCA call must always be handed off into another channel – same channel is not available in adjacent cells.

DCA techniques perform better in microcells Implementation complexity of DCA is higher than FCA.e. . – FCA:each cell has a number of channels and the channel selection is made independently – DCA: the knowledge of occupied channels in other cells is necessary (i. heavy signalling load). – A great deal of processing power to determine optimal allocations is also required.8 Allocation Comparison    variations in traffic that are typical of microcells are not well handled in FCA.

FCA is suitable for a centralised control system. In a mobile control system the mobile chooses the channel based in its local CIR measurements (i.  DCA is applicable to a centralised or decentralised control system  .  Updated by exchanging data between BSs.e.9 Allocation Control Centralised fashion – channels are assigned by a central controller. usually the RNC  Distributed fashion – Channels are selected either by the local BS or by the mobile   BS control: BSs keep info about current available channels in its vicinity. lower complexity but less efficiency).

Multiple Access Protocols Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) .

Frequency Division Multiple Access 11 (FDMA) Code Channel N Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel 1 Frequency Time .

(Hz) . TV Host 1 Host 2 Host 3 AM 500-1700 KHz FM 88-108 MHz Satellite GHz range Freq.Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) 12 • Divide spectrum into frequency bins • Each host sends in a pre-determined frequency bin • • • Out-of-band reservation mechanism (FCC) Also called Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) Example: AM/FM radio.

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Code Channel N Ti m eS lo ts 13 Channel 3 Channel 2 Channel 1 Frequency Time .

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) • Divide time into multiple slots • • • Each host sends in a pre-determined slot Out-of-band reservation mechanism Compare to Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) 1 Host 1 1 3 Host 2 2 Not Eth. 2 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 2 Router/ Mux 1 2 3 … 14 … Host 3 .

615 ms and it can consist of 64 1/64 time slots of length 72 16 1/16 time slots of length 288 Downlink Uplink 72µ s 288µ s Switching point between uplink and downlink .15 TDMA  Several TDMA schemes have been studied for the third generation air interface  The frame length is 4.

Otherwise.16 An example of TDM   Ethernet uses a protocol called CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection When a node wants to broadcast. A node broadcasts when no other node is broadcasting. it tries later at a random interval.  . it checks whether any other node is broadcasting (senses the carrier).

   . Full duplex radios are extremely expensive. nodes can only listen or send.17 CSMA Problems in Wireless Medium  Collision detection is easy in wired networks but difficult in wireless medium. With only one antenna. CSMA gives rise to hidden terminal and exposed terminal problems.

A B C Collision at B . it may not be free near the intended receiver.18 Hidden Terminal Problem  Wireless transmission is usually short range. Even if the medium is free near the transmitter.

.19 Exposed Terminal Problem  Even if the medium is busy near the transmitter. it may be free near the intended receiver. A B C D C cannot transmit because B is transmitting.

retransmission wastes a lot of energy.   . The other alternative is to use a reservation based TDM protocol.20 Message Loss due to Collision  Using CSMA in wireless medium results in message loss and requires retransmission of lost messages. Hence. A node spends much more energy while receiving or transmitting messages.

protocols are widely used in satellite communication and increasingly being used in wireless networking.21 Demand Assignment Multiple Access (DAMA)  In a DAMA protocol.  Each  DAMA . nodes first reserve slots which they intend to use for broadcasting. round of broadcast is preceded by a reservation round.

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Code 22 Power Control MAI (Multi-access Interference) Cancellation Macro diversity Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Frequency Channel N Time .

11b.Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) 23 • Use multiple orthogonal codes to partition a range of spectrum • Each host sends using a pre-determined code • Two forms spread spectrum: • • Also called “spread spectrum” Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum– DSSS • Chipping sequences spread the signal’s spectrum • CDMA is often used as synonym for DSSS • Examples: 802. but not as efficient • . cell Frequency-hopping spread spectrum– FHSS • Example: Bluetooth • Advantage: simple.

F2. F4. each host is on a different frequency . F3. F1. Host 3’s Code: 4123 Note that all 3 codes are orthogonal: at each instant in time.Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) (2) • Frequency hopping example Freq (Hz) F1 F2 F3 F4 Host 1 Possible F2 F3 F4 hopping F1 sequence F1. F4. F2. Host 2’s Code: 3214. … …. F3. 24 Host 2 Bluetooth Host 3 Host 1’s Code: 1342.

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