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Chapter

5
Hardware: Input & Output
5.1 Input & Output 5.2 Input Hardware 5.3 Output Hardware 5.4 I/O Quality of Life: Health & Ergonomics 5.5 Future of Input & Output

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights rese

Input & Output
Input Hardware
 Devices

that translate data into a form the computer can

process  Translates words, numbers, sounds, and pictures into binary
Output Hardware
 Devices

that translate information processed by the computer into a form humans can understand  Translates binary into words, numbers, sounds, and pictures
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htm  Even touch typists must watch their fingers when they travel to Internet Cafes in foreign countries! 5-4 . and characters into electrical signals  English keyboards differ from foreign language keyboards  Follow this link to see what a Russian Cyrillic keyboard layout looks like  http://www.html  Even  languages that are close to ours like German have different keyboard layouts.microsoft.com/fontboard/cyrillic.Input Hardware  Keyboards: convert letters.com/globaldev/keyboards/kbdgr. numbers.geocities. such as can be seen on Microsoft’s web site http://www.

y) character map for the language on the keyboard’s ROM chip  A character is stored in 16-byte keyboard memory buffer  Then sent to PC as a data stream via wire or wireless connection  OS interprets its own operating-system-specific commands and sends the others to the application for interpretation 5-5 .Input Hardware  How keyboards work:  You press a key  This interrupts the current flowing through the circuits  Processor determines where the break occurs  It compares the location of the break with the (x.

Input Hardware Keyboard types  104 – 108 keys desktop standard  85 keys for laptops  Wired  Connect to CPU via a serial or USB port  Wireless  IR use either (infrared) technology  Radio Frequency (RF) technology  Require line of sight to connect  Virtual keyboard used with PDAs and smartphones 5-6 .

and memory  Can perform some local functions  Internet Terminals  Powers directly up into a browser Web terminal displays web pages on a TV set  Network computer is a stripped-down PC to connect people to networks  Online game player connects to internet for online gaming  PC/TV merges a full-blown PC with a TV  PDA is a handheld computer with a tiny keyboard   a. keyboard.k. 5-7 .a.Input Hardware Terminal Types  Dumb Terminals Video Display Terminal (VDT)  Has display screen and keyboard  Can do input and output only – no data processing  Intelligent Terminals  Has screen.

Input Hardware PDA Keyboards  Problem: Make them too small and they are unusable  Problem: Make them too big and the PDA is too big  Solutions:  Some PDAs use a stylus  Some PDAs use a foldable keyboard  Some PDAs use a 20-key mini-keyboard 5-8 .

Input Hardware Pointing Devices  Control the position of the cursor or pointer in the screen and allow the user to select options displayed on the screen  Mouse is the principal pointing tool  Rolls around on a mouse pad or desktop and directs a pointer on the computer’s display screen Ball inside the mouse touches the desktop and rolls around  Two internal rollers touch the ball  One roller picks up motion in x (up). the other in y (down)  The rollers turn a shaft that spins a disk that breaks an LED signal into light pulses that are seen by an infrared sensor  Processor chip in mouse reads the pulses and turns it into binary  Discussion Question: What is the difference between “cursor” and “curser”? 5-9 .

Input Hardware Pointing Devices Trackball A movable ball mounted on top of a stationary device  Good for locations where a mouse couldn’t move enough  Requires more frequent cleaning to remove finger oils Touchpad  To use: slide your finger over this small flat surface  Click by tapping you finger on the surface  May require more practice to use than a mouse Pointing Stick  Looks like a pencil eraser in the lower center of a laptop keyboard 5-10 .

Input Hardware Pointing Devices Touch Screens A video display screen sensitized to receive input from a finger  Cruder than a mouse. because fingers are big  Problems: touch screens that show a display that is not precisely aligned with the input Pen input  Use a pen-like stylus for input rather than typing on a keyboard  Use handwriting recognition to translate cursive writing into data 5-11 .

Input Hardware Light Pen A light-sensitive pen-like device that uses a wired connection to a computer terminal  Bring the pen to the desired point on the display screen and press a button to identify the screen location  Used in situations that require gloves  Less crude than a touch screen Digitizer  Uses an electronic pen or puck to convert drawings and photos to digital data  Digitizing tablets are used in architecture 5-12 .

measured in dots per inch (dpi)  Flatbed scanners work like photocopiers – the image is placed on the glass surface. drawings. and photos into digital form  Image scanners are used in electronic imaging  Resolution refers to the image sharpness. drum. and pen scanners 5-13 .Scanning & Reading Devices Source Data Entry devices create machine-readable Input Hardware data and feed it directly into the computer  Scanners  Use light-sensing equipment to translate images of text. then scanned  Other types are sheet-fed. hand-held.

hard rubber.Input Hardware Bar-Code Readers  Photoelectric (optical) scanners that translate bar code symbols into digital code The digital code is then sent to a computer  The computer looks up the item and displays its name and pricing info   Bar  code types 1D holds up to 16 ASCII characters  2D can hold 1.000 ASCII characters  3D is “bumpy” code that differentiates by symbol height  Can be used on metal. other tough surfaces 5-14 .000 to 2.

Mark Recognition Readers Bar code readers  MICR Input Hardware – Magnetic-ink character recognition  Uses special magnetized inks  Must be read by a special scanner that reads this ink  OMR – Optical mark recognition  Uses a special scanner that reads bubble marks  Used in standardized tests like the ACT and SAT  OCR – Optical character recognition  Converts scanned text from images (pictures of the text) to an editable text format  You use this to read in non-computer documents where you don’t have the source files 5-15 .

then faxing it  5-16 . which prints out the image on paper  Dedicated  Is fax machine a stand-alone unit that only sends and receives faxed documents  Fax  Is modem a circuit board installed in the PC  Is a modem that can send and receive faxes Can send documents directly from your word processor to a fax machine  Saves you printing out the document.Input Hardware Fax Machines Facsimile Transmission Machines – scan an image and send it as electronic signals over telephone lines to a receiving fax.

and plays it back to speakers or amp  MIDI Board  Stands for Musical Instrument Digital Exchange  Uses a standard for the interchange between musical instruments. synthesizers. and PCs 5-17 .Input Hardware Audio Input Devices Records analog sound and translates it into digital files for storage and processing Two ways to digitize audio  Sound  An Board add-on board in a PC that converts analog sound to digital sound. stores it.

Webcams and Video-input Cards Webcams  Video Input Hardware cameras attached to a computer to record live moving images then post them to a website in real time  Require special software. usually included with the camera Frame-grabber video card  Can capture and digitize 1 frame at a time Full-motion video card  Can convert analog to digital signals at rates up to 30 frames per second  Looks like a motion picture Discussion Question: Why might it be unwise to install a webcam on your PC? 5-18 .

Input Hardware Digital Cameras Use a light-sensitive processor chip to capture photographic images in digital form and store them on a small diskette in the camera or on flash memory cards  Most can be connected to a PC by USB or FireWire  Can allow you to take more pictures and decide which ones to print and save  But pictures are subject to loss by diskette or flash memory failure or computer virus if you store them on the PC 5-19 .

etc Discussion Question: Why do you suppose cellphones are now banned on secure U. then instantly email or message them to someone else  Can provide instant record of traffic accidents. military bases? Where else besides military bases might they pose a security problem? 5-20 .Input Hardware Camera Phones Digital cameras are now on cellphones  Convenience of being able to take photos.S.

car radios. stock exchange trades  Helpful for people with visual or physical disabilities that prevent them from using other input devices  Still not easy enough to use to substitute for the mouse/keyboard for fast document processing  ScanSoft’s Open Speech Dialog  Apple Speech Recognition  ScanSoft’s Navigon MobileNavigator 5 5-21 .000 or so stored patterns. Input Hardware Converts a person’s speech into digital signals by comparing against 200.  Used in places where people need their hands free – warehouses.Speech-Recognition Systems Uses a microphone or telephone as an input device.

Input Hardware RFID Tags Radio-frequency ID tags are based on an identifying tag with a microchip containing specific code numbers  Scanners use radio waves to read them and match the codes to a database  Enables items to be tracked without physical contact  Drivers put RFID tags in cars to automatically pay tolls  FDA is tagging certain drugs with RFID to avoid counterfeits  Carmakers are using it for car electronic keyless entry  RFID tags are implanted under skin of pets to aid in recovery and identification when they get lost 5-22 .

precisebiometrics.identix. or facial characteristic  Becoming a big business as more companies become concerned about security  Makes identity theft much more difficult when records are identified by biometrics as well as passwords  For more information see  http://www.html  http://www. eye.xtec. hand.com/  http://www.com/home. then using them to identify a person through a fingerprint.Input Hardware Biometrics The science of measuring individual body characteristics.com/ 5-23 .

exists electronically  Output that is ephemeral in nature Hardcopy  Printed and film output  Output that is more permanent in nature 5-24 .Output Hardware Softcopy  Data that is shown on a display screen or is in audio or voice form.

the crisper the image  Get .Output Hardware Display Screens  Making a good choice when choosing a display  Dot  pitch (dp) is the amount of space between adjacent pixels (picture elements) on screen The closer the pixels.25 dp or better  Resolution  refers to the image sharpness The more pixels the better the resolution  Expressed in dots per inch (dpi)  Color  depth or bit depth is the number of bits stored in a dot The higher the number the more true the colors  24-bit color depth is better than 8-bit color depth  Refresh rate is the number of times per second the pixels are recharged – a higher rate gives less flicker 5-25 .

Output Hardware Monitors Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube used in a computer or terminal display screen  Watch the PC ads to make sure your monitor is included Flat panel displays are made of 2 plates of glass separated by a layer of liquid crystals that line up to transmit or block light  Preferable to CRTs because they take up less room on the desktop  Latency problems make them less desirable for online games players 5-26 .

Output Hardware Monitors  Video Standard  SVGA  XGA  SXGA  UXGA  QXGA  Principal resolution (pixels)  800 x 600  1024 x 768  1280 x 1024  1600 x 1200  2048 x 1536 5-27 .

inexpensive color printers  Often less precise than laser printers   Low to medium resolution printers that use thermal paper that darkens in time 5-28 . professional pages   Spray ink from 4 nozzles at high speed  Thermal Printers Quiet.Output Hardware Printers  Impact Printers  Form characters or images by striking a print hammer or wheel against an ink ribbon  Dot matrix printers  Laser Printers  Use drums and toner like in photocopiers  Inkjet Printers Page Description Language (PDL)  PostScript and PCL are PDL types  Produce crisp.

Output Hardware Plotters A specialized output device designed to produce large high-quality graphics in a variety of colors  The earliest output device that could produce graphics  Pen plotters use one or more colored pens  Electrostatic plotters lie partially flat on a table and use toner like photocopiers  Large-format plotters are large-scale inkjet printers used by graphic artists 5-29 .

Output Hardware Mixed Output Sound output  You need a sound card and sound software  Good equipment can produce very high-quality 3-D sound Voice Output  TTS systems (text to speech) are becoming popular  Requires a sound card and speakers with TTS software Video Output  Requires a powerful processor and a video card  Video files are large. 5-30 . so a lot of storage is needed too.

and double vision caused by improper use of computer display screens 5-31 . repetitive motions  May effect data-entry operators who average 15.000 keystrokes an hour  May effect PC users whose monitor. headaches. caused by short repetitive movement  Computer vision syndrome is eyestrain.I/O Quality of Life: Health & Ergonomics PCs impact health  Overuse  Result injuries and repetitive stress injuries when muscle groups are forced through fast. and workstation are not arranged for comfort  Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by pressure on the median nerve in the wrist. keyboard.

I/O Quality of Life: Health & Ergonomics Ergonomics is the methodology of designing a workplace to make working conditions and equipment safer and more efficient  Keyboards must be placed at the correct height depending on each worker’s size  Monitor refresh rates must be fast enough to avoid eyestrain  Monitor heights must be correct for comfortable viewing  Sound-muffling should be used for loud printers to reduce workplace noise  Wrist rests may help avoid carpal tunnel syndrome 5-32 .

including  Intelligent sensors  More data input from remote locations  More source data automation  Input help for the disabled  More sophisticated touch devices  Better speech recognition  Improved digital cameras  Gesture recognition 5-33 .Future of Input and Output This is a fruitful area for research.

Future of Input and Output This is a fruitful area for research. including  Pattern-recognition  Brainwave and biometric devices devices  Better and cheaper display screens  Improved video on PCs  3-Dimensional output  Miniaturization for improved data transfer speeds to I/O devices 5-34 .