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Chapter 2 Stress and Strain -- Axial Loading

Statics ± deals with undeformable bodies (Rigid bodies) Mechanics of Materials ± deals with deformable bodies
-- Need to know the deformation of a boy under various stress/strain state -- Allowing us to computer forces for statically indeterminate problems.

The following subjects will be discussed: y Stress-Strain Diagrams y Modulus of Elasticity y Brittle vs Ductile Fracture y Elastic vs Plastic Deformation y Bulk Modulus and Modulus of Rigidity y Isotropic vs Orthotropic Properties y Stress Concentrations y Residual Stresses

2.2 Normal Strain under Axial Loading

H I ! normal strain ! L
For variable cross-sectional area A, strain at Point Q is:

I

(H lim ( x p 0 (x

dH dx

The normal Strain is dimensionless.

2.3 Stress-Strain Diagram

Ductile Fracture Brittle Fracture .

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Percent Elongation 9. Ultimate Strength. -. Elastic Modulus 2. Necking 6. Proportional Limit . Toughness ± the area under the W-I curve 8.S.Some Important Concepts and Terminology: 1. Wut 4.2% Yield Strength 3. Yield Strength ± lower and upper Y. Breaking Strength or Fracture Strength 5. Reduction in Area 7.Wy 0.

3 Stress-Strain Diagram  o Percent elongation = 100% B o A0  AB Percent reduction in area = 100% Ao .2.

4 True Stress and True Strain Eng. Stress = P/Ao Ao = original area True Stress = P/A A = instantaneous area Eng.2. Strain = H Lo True Strain = It 7(I 7 (( / ) Lo = original length L = instantaneous length dL L It ! ´ ! ln Lo L Lo L (2.3) .

composites .2.: wood. E.5 Hooke's Law: Modulus of Elasticity W EI (2. E.: metals Anisotropic = material properties vary with direction or orientation.4) Where E = modulus of elasticity or Young¶s modulus Isotropic = material properties do not vary with direction or orientation.g.g.

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6 Elastic Versus Plastic Behavior of a Material 2 .2.

Recoverable Strain 2.Some Important Concepts: 1. Bauschinger Effect: the early yielding behavior in the compressive loading . Permanent Strain ± Plastic Strain 3. Creep 4.

.2.7 Repeated Loadings: Fatigue Fatigue failure generally occurs at a stress level that is much lower than Wy The W -N curve = stress vs life curve The Endurance Limit = the stress for which fatigue failure does not occur.

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5) H H H (2.8 Deformations of Members under Axial Loading W I EI W IL PL A (2.6) (For Homogeneous rods) § i Pi Li Ai i (For various-section rods) dH P I dx Pdx A (For variable cross-section rods) .4) P A (2.2.

9) H B/ A PL ! HB  HA ! AE (2.H ! ´ L o Pdx A (2.10) .

The number of unknowns > the number of equations -.Problems that can be solved by Statics.Must involve ³deformation´ Example 2. Statically Indeterminate Problems: -. Statically Determinate Problems: -. i.9 Statically Indeterminate Problems A.e. 7F = 0 and 7M = 0 & the FBD B.Problems that cannot be solved by Statics -.02: .2.

Example 2.02 H1 ! H 2 .

Remove the support from the structure & treat it as an unknown load.04 . Superpose the displacement Example 2. Designate one support as redundant support 2.Superposition Method for Statically Indeterminate Problems 1. 3.

04 .Example 2.

H ! HL  HR ! 0 .

2.21) = coefficient of thermal expansion HT + HP = 0 IT ! E T HT ! E ( T )L HP PL AE PL H ! HT  H P ! E ( T )L  !0 AE .10 Problems Involving Temperature Changes H T ! E ( T )L 2(.

Therefore: P !  AEE ( T ) P W ! !  EE ( T ) A .

2.11 Poisson 's Ratio Ix !Wx / E lateral strai Y ! Poisso ' s atio !  axial strain Iy Iz Y!  !  Ix Ix W I ! E x X YW I !I !  E y z X .

2. The deformation is small and does not change the overall condition of the body. .12 Multiaxial Loading: Generalized Hooke's Law y Cubic p rectangular parallelepiped y Principle of Superposition: -.The combined effect = 7 (individual effect) Binding assumptions: 1. Each effect is linear 2.

28) Homogeneous Material -.2.material properties do not vary with direction or orientation.12 Multiaxial Loading: Generalized Hooke's Law Generalized Hooke¶s Law W x YW y YW z   Ix !  E E E YW x W y YW z   Iy !  E E E YW x YW y W z   Iz !  E E E (2.has identical properties at all points. . Isotropic Material -.

Wy. Wz The new volume = Y ! (1  I x )(1  I y )(1  I z ) Neglecting the high order terms yields: Y ! 1 Ix  I y  Iz e ! the hange of olume ! Y  1 ! 1  I x  I y  I z  1 @e ! I x  I y  Iz ( 2.30) .13 Dilation: Bulk Modulus Original volume = 1 x 1 x 1 = 1 Under the multiaxial stress: Wx.2.

Wx. Wy.e = dilation = volume strain = change in volume/unit volume Eq.28) p Eq. (2. (2-30) W X  Wy  Wz 2Y ( X  W y  W z) W e !  E E (2. Wz = p e!  3(1  2Y ) p E (2.33) E Define: O ! 3(1  2Y ) (2.31) 1  2Y e! (W X  W y  W z ) E Special case: hydrostatic pressure -.33) p e!  O O = bulk modulus = modulus of compression + .

Perfectly incompressible materials .Since O = positive.2Y) > 0 Therefore. 0 < Y < ½ Y= 0 Y=½ 3 e!  p E E O! 3 3(1  2Y ) e!  p E !0 O !g e!0 -. E O! 3(1  2Y ) 1>2Y Y<½ (1 .

36) X xy ! G K xy X yz ! K yz X zx ! K zx (2.14 Shearing Strain If shear stresses are present Shear Strain = K xy (In radians) (2.37) .2.

The Generalized Hooke¶s Law: W X YW y YW z Ix !    E E E YW X W y YW z Iy !    E E E YW X YW y W z   Iz !  E E E X xy ! G X yz ! G X zx ! G K xy K yz K zx .

and G E !1Y 2G E G! 2(1  Y ) . Y.18 Further Discussion of Deformation under Axial Loading: Relation Among E.2.

.the localized effects caused by any load acting on the body will dissipate or smooth out within region that are sufficiently removed form the location of he load.Saint-Venant¶s Principle: -.

16 Stress-Strain Relationships for Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials -.2.orthotropic materials Iy Y xy !  Ix Iz and Y xz !  Ix Y xyW y Y zxW z W   Ix !  Ex Ey Ez Y xyW W y Y zxW z   Iy !  Ex Ey Ez Y xyW Y yzW y W z   Iz !  Ex Ey Ez .

Y xy Y yx Y yz Y zy Y zx Y xz ! ! ! Ex E y E y Ez Ez E x K xy X xy X yz X zx ! K yz ! K zx ! G G G .

2.17 Stress and Strain Distribution Under Axial Loading: Saint-Venant's Principle If the stress distribution is uniform: W y ! (W y )ave P ! A In reality: .

2.18 Stress Concentrations -.Stress raiser at locations where geometric discontinuity occurs W ma K! W ave = Stress Concentration Factor .

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19 Plastic Deformation Elastic Deformation p Plastic Deformation pElastoplastic behavior W Wy Y C Rupture I A D .2.

For Wmax < WY   K! W ma W ave W ave ! W ma K P ! W ave A ! W max A For Wmax = WY PY ! WY A For Wave = WY PU ! W Y A PY ! PU .

some stresses may still remain inside the material p Residual Stresses .20 Residual Stresses After the applied load is removed.2.