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TEACHING AND LEARNING THEORIES

Ben Appel, Mike Babe, Steve Hall, Scott Wallace, Jonathan Pease

BEHAVIORISM

COMPARISON

CONSTRUCTIVISM

NEW TYPES OF LEARNING THEORIES
DISCOVERY LEARNING AUTHENTIC LEARNING HUMANISTIC LEARNING SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM COOPERATIVE LEARNING TRANSFORMATIONAL LEARNING COLLABORATIVE LEARNING MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING

TECHNOLOGY & LEARNING THEORIES

PERSONAL REFLECTIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF USEFUL WEBSITES ON THIS TOPIC

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BEHAVIORISM
Behaviorism is a theory learning that focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts mental activities. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior.
The Universal Learning Process CONDITIONING SYNOPSIS OF THE THEORY NOTABLE THEORIST CRITIQUE OF THE THEORY

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

BEHAVIORAL OPERANT CONDITIONING

A natural response to a stimulus

A reinforced response to a stimulus

a rat can shift its behavior to respond to changes in the layout of a maze it had previously mastered through reinforcements. since it disregards the activities of the mind. ‡ Reserach has shown that animals adapt their reinforced patterns to new information. BACK . For instance.CRITIQUES ON BEHAVIORISM ‡ Behaviorism does not account for all kinds of learning. ‡ Behaviorism does not explain some learning--such as the recognition of new language patterns by young children--for which there is no reinforcement mechanism.

BACK . Its positive and negative reinforcement techniques can be very effective.SYNOPSIS OF BEHAVIORISM Behaviorism is a simple theory which relies only on observable behavior and describes several universal laws of behavior. Behaviorism often is used by teachers. who reward or punish student behaviors.

SKINNER 1904-1990 Known for his work with Operant Conditioning.NOTABLE THEORIST IVAN PAVLOV 1849-1936 Known for his work with Classical Conditioning. F. B. BACK USEFUL WEBSITES ON THESE THEORIST .

http://home.http://www.funderstanding.cfm http://digitalliteracy.sedl.cfm IVAN PAVLOV.net/lifecircles/piaget.net/lifecircles/classica.edu/~ggiebler/WebProj/PapertParents.http://www.http://www.felk.htm Jean Piaget.org/scimath/compass/v01n03/2.konnections.ittheory.com/constructivism.htm George Miller.html http://omicron.org/constructivisim. SKINNER.net/lifecircles/skinner.http://www.konnections.htm B.mwg.htm John Dewey.http://www.fhsu.htm ‡ THEORISTS John Dewey.konnections.sedl.http://www.cz/~bobr/role/ch35.earthlink.cvut.com/behaviorism.net/lifecircles/millerIP.html http://www.http://www.com/dewey2.konnections.net/lifecircles/Bruner.htm Jerome Bruner.pdf BACK .konnections.htm ‡ CONSTRUCTIVISM http://www.htm Seymour Papert.net/~dougary/ITEC_800/final_project/dewey.BIBLIOGRAPHY OF USEFUL WEBSITES ‡ ‡ BEHAVIORISM THEORISTS http://www.html http://www.org/scimath/compass/v01n03/1. F.funderstanding.

we construct our own understanding of the world we live in. The purpose of learning is for the individual to construct his or her own meaning. Learning is the search for meaning. 3. 2. Parts are understood in context of wholes. Meaning requires knowledge of wholes and parts. by reflecting on our experiences.CONSTRUCTIVISM Constructivism is a philosophy of learning founded on the premise that. SYNOPSIS OF THE THEORY HOME NOTABLE THEORIST . Use of past experiences help us to make sense of our experiences. 4. GUIDING PRINCIPLES 1. To teach well we must understand students mental models.

one should encourage students to analyze. As a teacher using this technique. The use of open-ended questions allows for discussion between groups of students.SYNOPSIS OF CONSTRUCTIVISM Constructivism is a philosophy which calls for the use of curricula which is customized to the students' prior knowledge. A key element of this learning process is hands-on problem solving. These discussion help students form answers to the given problems. BACK . interpret. and predict information.

A founding father of Constructivist Theory. BACK USEFUL WEBSITES ON THESE THEORIST . Jerome Bruner 1915Seymour Papert 1928Expert on technologybased learning. Jean Piaget 1896-1980 Theorized cognitive abilities are acquired by assimilation. George Miller 1920Known for theories of chunking and information processing.NOTABLE THEORIST John Dewey 1859-1952 Known for rejecting authoritarian methods and believed education should be integrated with life experiences.

uwa.au/altmodes/to_delivery/discovery_learning.html BACK . ³«it is expected that the student will have to explore examples from them µdiscover¶ the principles or concepts which are to be learned.´ (Snelbecker) FOR MORE INFO SEE http://www.csd.DISCOVERY LEARNING Mode of teaching that encourages students to ask questions and find their own answers. Students also learn general principles from examples and experience.edu.

evaluate it. because a question to be answered or problem to be solved cannot be found through previously learned knowledge. They must work cooperatively in teams. analyze. children need to become independent.edu/~jconway/authlrn. ³To succeed in the workplace. or manipulate information. organize it.AUTHENTIC LEARNING A higher level of thinking when a student must interpret.udel. and then effectively express their knowledge and ideas. They must know where and how to find information.´ (The Role of Online Communications in Schools: A National Study) BACK FOR MORE INFO SEE http://copland. critical thinkers.htm .

Problems drive the curriculum . Authentic. changes. 1.there is no one formula for student approaches to the problem.ca. and the solution.the problems do not test skills.there is no single solution.PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING A curriculum development and delivery system that recognizes the need to develop problem solving skills along with developing and acquiring necessary knowledge and skills. FOR MORE INFO SEE http://score. 4. 3.teachers are coaches and facilitators. perception of the problem changes.rims. Students are only given guidelines.k12.us/problearn. 2. The problems are truly ill-structured .html . and as new information is gathered. performance based assessment is a seamless part and end of the BACK instruction. 5. Students solve the problems . they assist in development of skills.

and believed that meaningfulness and subjectivity were more important than objectivity.net/lifecircles/maslow. He placed emphasis on choice. BACK FOR MORE INFO SEE http://www. creativity. values.konnections.htm . all distinctively human qualities.HUMANISTIC LEARNING Abraham Maslow 1908-1970 Maslow's theory is based on the notion that experience is the primary phenomenon in the study of human learning and behavior. selfrealization.

konnections. in that the teacher and older children play important roles in learning.SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM Lev Vyotsky 1896-1934 Vygotsky shared many of Piaget's views about child development. The teacher is typically active and involved BACK FOR MORE INFO SEE http://www.net/lifecircles/vygotsky.htm . which is also based on Piaget's ideas. but he was more interested in the social aspects of learning. Vygotsky differs from discovery learning.

changing together. ³Learning is enhanced when it is more like a team effort than a solo race.learning/wiersema.COLLABORATIVE LEARNIMNG Collaborative Learning is a philosophy that implores working together. 1998) BACK FOR MORE INFO SEE http://www. not competitive and isolated Sharing one's ideas and responding to others' improves thinking and deepens understanding" (Gerdy. in order to learn skills and build knowledge. Good learning. like good work. learning together.ac.londonmet.uk/deliberations/collab.htm l . building together.city. is collaborative and social. improving together.

The idea is simple.html . BACK FOR MORE INFO SEE http://www.COOPERATIVE LEARNING Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other's learning. Class members are organized into small groups after receiving instruction from the teacher.co-operation.org/pages/cl. They then work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it.

TECHNOLOGY & LEARNING THEORIES Historically. How do the ³newer´ types of learning theories address the issues of incorporating technology tools into teaching and learning experiences? The newer theories allow more student freedom which is furthered by technology. Teachers should cater to different learner styles and abilities. what pedagogical methods have been the paradigms for instruction? Behaviorism and Constructivism How do the methods differ in belief and practice? Behaviorism is based more on teacher instruction and Constructivism gives freedom to the student What have educators theorized and discovered about the processes of teaching and learning? How have educational theorists/practitioners changed the concept of teaching as ³one size fits all´? Every student brings something different to the classroom. How are these ³newer´ learning theories changing the roles of teachers? Of students? Teachers are becoming more of a guiding force than a driving force in the classroom BACK learning process. .

htm .net/lifecircles/mezirow.TRANSFORMATIONAL LEARNING Transformational Learning is an unconventional theory of learning which involves having the student work outside of their comfort zone as far as thinking and learning. Jack Mezirow Father of the Transformational Learning Theory BACK FOR MORE INFO SEE http://www.konnections. This idea depends on the willingness of the teacher to change the learning to fit the needs of the ever changing classroom.

MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES Theory built out of the idea that everyone has his or her own specialties and strengths which come out in different ways. Musical 4. Intrapersonal 8.konnections. The basis for the theory is that everyone does not learn in the same manner. Naturalist 9. The 10 Intelligences 1. Interpersonal 7. Existential FOR MORE INFO SEE http://www. Spatial 6. Linguistic/Verbal 2. Logical-Mathematical 3. Bodily/Kinesthetic 5.htm Howard Gardner Father of Multiple Intelligences Theory BACK .net/lifecircles/gardener. Spiritual 10.

COMPARING THE THEORIES BEHAVIORISM CONSTRUCTIVISM DIRECTED INSTRUCTION OBJECTIVIST TEACHER-CENTERED BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATIONS FOCUS ON THE INDIVIDUAL FOCUS ON SINGLE APPROACH NON-DIRECTED INSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNER-CENTERED COGNITIVE OPERATIONS FOCUS ON GROUP WORK HOLISTIC IN APPROACH BACK .

PERSONAL REFLECTIONS BEN APPEL JONATHAN PEASE STEVE HALL SCOTT WALLACE MIKE BABE BACK .

I would tell them to feel free to ask for my help. I would expect my students to figure it out for themselves when trying to use it. There are many different calculators out for math students to use and that they are familiar with. I envision myself allowing students to work in groups or by themselves without a lot of my guidance. Others say that students could gain more if they figured things out for themselves. life is learned through many methods and all are important in our lives. 3 &4. Some believe that there are certain instructions necessary for understanding and performing concepts. For example. there will always be a select few that will need the information presented in a different way. After learning about how students understand new concepts. I think that I will teach with a certain style and technique that may benefit the majority of my class. 2. However. Everyone learns things in their own way and there is not one accepted style of teaching that is considered the generally accepted type of pedagogy. I am leaning away from behaviorist theories.BEN APPEL 1. every so often an upgraded version comes out. Multiple learning theories would best represent my beliefs and practices in learning and teaching. If they had questions. Either way. BACK .

MIKE BABE 1. which I am accustomed to. I learned that I may have to influence my teaching lessons based around constructivism. I can design meaningful learning experiences by creating interesting and different lesson plans that does not become repetitive. I know that technology will take an important role in my classroom and that I will have to use different learning theories along with technology to teach my students. I will allow them the freedom to choose how they wish to design their projects or complete their research. 2. Also the positive aspect is that I learned different-learning theories that I may adapt to use in my teaching philosophy. with constructivism. 4. 3. I will incorporate different learning theories to ensure that learning occurs and that and that I have variety in my lessons. into constructivism. For example. BACK . I have learned that teaching is changing from behaviorism. Humanism most represents my philosophy in education because I believe that every child has the ability to learn something and that we should not restrict any child.

2. I believe that everyone has a different learning style. 3. Learning different teaching styles will enable me as a teacher to not only help the students learn more efficiently. . Humanism is the teaching and learning style which I would like to represent because I believe that every child has the ability to learn something new and should not try to be held back from learning. The growth of technology has played a huge role in modern education and will only increase with time. I plan on using technology as a big part of my lesson plan. but will also help me create different assignments that will be beneficial to each and every students type of learning. I also learned many different theories which will help me with my teaching lessons when I am older. 4.JONATHAN PEASE 1.

I am excited by this and I believe that changing technology is making it more and more easy to implement this sort of instruction into the classroom environment. I have learned that the new standard for classroom instruction is the Constructivist approach. I plan for technology to play a huge role in my math classroom. 2. I believe that a teacher should structure his or her classroom to fit different learning styles and also to try to engage all students actively in learning. The idea of Multiple Intelligences represents my teaching philosophy. BACK . I believe that I can make the learning experience meaningful for students by tying the instruction to projects in which the students will have to apply real life applications of what they have learned. 3. I would ideally like to make all lessons interactive through powerpoint and various other programs. 4.STEVE HALL 1.

I think that my teaching skill is more behavioral side of teaching and I like the though of multiple Intelligence aspect of learning. If I can see and learn different tips of teaching styles I will be able to implement several activities which might help more student then if I would just stay in the behavioral aspect. that there are many different ways to go about it. 3. I think that the best way for me to do that would have to bring a more constructivist point of view. . I have learned that the teaching and learning is not a one tracked road. BACK 2. 4.SCOTT WALLACE 1.