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Improved Quality

Decreased Costs

Fewer Mistakes and delays

Better Use of Resources

Improved Productivity

Capture Larger Market

Stay in Business

More Jobs

Deming¶s Chain Reaction
December 10 IT-Quality Management 1

Deming¶s 14 points 1. Create a constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service, with the aim to become competitive and to stay in business and to provide jobs 2. Adopt the new philosophy. 3. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality 4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag alone. Instead minimize total cost. 5. Constantly and forever improve the system of production and service. 6. Institute training on the job. 7. Institute leadership 8. Drive out fear. 9. Break down barriers between departments. 10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the workforce. 11. Eliminate arbitrary work standards and numerical quotas. Substitute leadership 12. Remove barriers that rob people of their right to pride of workmanship 13. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement. 14. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation.
IT-Quality Management

December 10


Big Q versus Little q Content of Little q Products and services Processes Manufactured goods Point of service Processes directly related to the manufacture of goods Clients who buy the products Manufacturing Content of Big Q All products and services. government. business. All who are affected. support. and so on. whether for sale or not All processes ± manufacturing. external and internal All industries ± service. and so on ± whether for profit or not All costs that would disappear if everything were perfect Customer Industries Cost of poor quality Costs associated with deficient manufactured goods December 10 IT-Quality Management 3 .

and Motivation to :: Diagnose the Causes Stimulate Remedies Establish Controls to Hold the Gains IT-Quality Management 4 December 10 .The Three Universal Processes of Managing for Quality Quality Planning Determine Who the Customers Are Determine the Needs of the customers Develop Product Features that Respond to Customers Needs Develop Processes Able to Produce the Product Features Transfer the Plans to the Operating Forces Quality Control Evaluate Actual Product Performance Compare Actual Performance to Product Goals Act on the Difference Quality Improvement Establish the Infrastructure Identify the Improvement Projects Establish Project Teams Provide the Teams with Resources. Training.

December 10 IT-Quality Management 5 . Quality exists to differing degrees depending on the customer Fitness for use Conformance to requirements.Quality Stalwarts and their definitions of Quality Stalwarts Feigenbaum Definition of Quality Quality must be defined in terms of customer satisfaction.what the customer wants Objective ± physical. Four Absolutes of Quality Philip Crosby :: Quality Definition :Conformance to requirements Quality System : Prevention of Defects Quality Performance Standard : Zero defects Quality Measurement : Cost of Quality. quality is multidimensional and dynamic. Known For Total Quality Control Shewhart Statistical Process Control Charts Deming Fourteen Points Juran Crosby Processes for Managing Quality. measurable characteristics of goods or services Quality is multidimensional and must be defined in terms of customer satisfaction. Due to the changing needs of customers. Two aspects to quality: Subjective . Quality must be defined in order to manage it.

Eight Key principles have been included in the ISO 9000:2000 standards :: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Customer-focused organization Leadership Involvement of people Process approach Systems approach to management Continual improvement Factual approach to decision making Mutually beneficial supplier relationship December 10 IT-Quality Management 6 .

ISO 9001:2000. and communicates customer requirements. This standard serves as a reference to support the interpretation of the ISO 9001:2000 requirements but contains no actual requirements. ISO 9001 consists of four main sections : Management Responsibility :: This section focuses on how the analysis of data affects the performance of the organization¶s QMS. provides information about the concepts and vocabulary used in the other two standards. ISO 9001 is designed to be used by all organizations. ISO 9000:2000. size. December 10 IT-Quality Management 7 . achieves objectives. Quality Management Systems : Fundamentals and Vocabulary. 2. provides the requirements that organizations must meet in order to achieve certification. makes plans.ISO 9000:2000 is composed of three areas :: 1. Quality Management Systems: Requirements. or industry sector. regardless of type. Information is sought on how the organization¶s management establishes quality policies.

and work environment. Resources include information. products. or services. facilities. December 10 IT-Quality Management 8 . communication. processes.Resource Management :: The requirements in this section call for details on resource availability and deployment. people. Measurement. and Improvement :: This section examines the methods a company uses to measure its systems. Analysis. Product and/or Service Realization :: Product and/or service realization concentrates on how customer requirements and organizational selfassessments lead to continued improvement of processes and work methods. Training effectiveness is also evaluated.

and Communication Management Review Section 6:Resource Management 6.6 Management Commitment Customer Focus Quality Policy Planning Responsibility.3 5.2 5.4 Work Environment December 10 IT-Quality Management 9 .2 Human Resources 6.1 Provision of Resources 6.3 Infrastructure 6. Authority.2 Documentation Requirements Section 5: Management Responsibility 5.5 5.1 5.4 5.1 General Requirements 4.ISO 9001:2000 Section 4: Quality Management System 4.

3 8.2 8.1 8.2 7.5 General Monitoring and Measurement Control of Non-conforming Product Analysis of Data Improvement December 10 IT-Quality Management 10 .3 7. and Improvement 8.Section 7: Product and/or Service Realization 7.4 8.1 7. Analysis.6 Planning of Product Realization Customer-Related Processes Design and Development Purchasing Product and Service Provision Control of Monitoring and Measuring Devices Section 8: Measurement.4 7.5 7.

ISO 9004:2000. December 10 IT-Quality Management 11 . provides guidelines for those companies wishing to go beyond ISO 9001:2000 and establish a quality management system that not only meets customer requirements but also focuses on improving performance.3. ISO 9004:2000 is not a requirement and does not lead to certification. Quality Management Systems: Guidelines for Performance Improvement.

MALCOLM BALDRIGE NATIONAL QUALITY AWARD :: (Process Management) LEADERSHIP :: ‡ Are the organizations leaders converting policies into actions related to the key business processes ? ‡ Is leadership focused on processes rather than activities ? STRATEGIC PLANNING :: ‡ Has the strategic plan identified the key processes that the organization absolutely must perform well in order to attract & retain customers & stay in business ? ‡ Has the strategic plan mapped out a strategic for improving each key process ? December 10 IT-Quality Management 12 .

disseminating. ANALYSIS.CUSTOMER & MARKET FOCUS :: ‡ Is the organization constantly checking to determine whether the customer & market information indicates a need to change a key process ? MEASUREMENT. & using information related to its key processes ? ‡ Is there a communication system that links everyone in the organization with the customers ? HUMAN RESOURCE FOCUS :: ‡ Do employee policies & reward systems support improvement activities related to the key processes ? ‡ Is there a reward & recognition process that is supportive of the needs of the employees while contributing to the organizations success ? December 10 IT-Quality Management 13 . analyzing. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT :: ‡ Is the organization gathering.

being used to guide changes in organizational processes ? ‡ Is customer & market information being integrated with business results information in order to make changes to key processes ? December 10 IT-Quality Management 14 .PROCESS MANAGEMENT :: ‡ Have the key processes been identified ? ‡ Are the key processes being continuously monitored for improvement opportunities ? ‡ How is the organization measuring key process performance ? ‡ Does the organization have corrective & preventive action processes in place ? BUSINESS RESULTS :: ‡ Does the organizations skill at managing key business processes translate to improvements in the financial performance of the organization ? ‡ Are business results. combined with customer information.

1 Customer & market knowledge 3.1.2 Information & knowledge management December 10 IT-Quality Management 15 . Analysis. Knowledge management 4.2 Social Responsibility 2.2 Strategy Deployment 3.2 Customer Relationship & satisfaction 4.1 Strategic Development 2. & Analysis of organizational Performance 4.1 Organizational leadership 1.0 Customer & Market Focus 3.0 Strategic Planning 2.1 Measurement.0 Measurement.0 Leadership 1.

December 10 IT-Quality Management 16 .4 7.1 7.5.0 Human Resource Focus 5.2 Employee learning & motivation 6.2 Support Processes 7.3 7.1 Value Creation Processes 6.2 7.6 Customer ± Focused Results Product & Service Results Financial & Market Results Human Resource Results Organizational Effectiveness Results Governance & Social Responsibility Results.0 Business Results 7.0 Process Management 6.5 7.1 Work Systems 5.

The company shall appoint a management representative with the responsibility to ensure that ISO guidelines are implemented. suitability and effectiveness.ISO 9001 Checklist (4. (4.1 of ISO 9001) Management Review :: The quality system adopted to satisfy the requirements for this information standard shall be reviewed periodically to ensure continuity.0 of ISO 9001) Quality Policy :: The management shall define the quality policy and ensure that all concerned understand this policy. December 10 IT-Quality Management 17 . The policy document should be signed by the CEO and be displayed at prominent places.

QSP includes the following ‡ ‡ ‡ QS manual Management procedures Technical work instructions December 10 IT-Quality Management 18 . 2.(4.2 of ISO 9001) Quality System Procedure (QSP):: The company shall establish a QSP and maintain a documented quality system as a means of ensuring that it conforms to the specified requirements of ISO. Effective implementation of these procedures. Preparation of documented quality system procedures and instructions. 1.

(4. ‡ Contractual requirements are adequately defined and documented ‡ Procedure to resolve any deviation ‡ Ensure capability to meet contractual requirement ‡ Records of contract review are maintained (4. The points to be covered are : ‡ Identification of design consideration ‡ Design methodology ‡ Use of past design experience ‡ Inclusion of design Inputs requirements ‡ Design verification ‡ Design changes December 10 IT-Quality Management 19 .3 of ISO 9001) Contract Review :: The company shall establish a procedure for contract review and co-ordination of activities.4 of ISO 9001) Design Control :: Establish and maintain procedures to control and verify the design to ensure that specified requirements are met.

The documents covered are : ‡ Design ‡ Planning documents ‡ Procedural documents ‡ Reference documents ‡ Document master list and its revision log ‡ The organization for documentation (4.6 of ISO 9001) Purchasing :: The company shall ensure that the product and resources purchased conform to the requirements that fulfill the software need ‡ Hardware. software.5 of ISO 9001) Document Control :: The company shall establish and maintain procedures to control all documents relate to the requirements of the ISO.(4. tools ‡ Assessment of sub contractors ‡ Verification of supplies December 10 IT-Quality Management 20 .

(4. These items are part of the deliverables of the company. December 10 IT-Quality Management 21 .7 of ISO 9001) Software Identification and Tracing :: Establish a procedure whereby software can be drilled down to all documentation to trace any information needed. The procedure should have following aspects covered through documents. If software is found unsuitable it should be returned with resource for Rejection. (4. store and maintain client supplied software/tools etc. Appropriate numbering. coding and version control numbers should be introduced.(4.8 of ISO 9001) Purchase Supplied Product :: The company shall establish a procedure to receive.9 of ISO 9001) Process Control :: A procedure to ensure that from development to implementation all activities are carried out to meet the quality requirements. verify.

Workmanship standards (4. It should cover : ‡ In process inspection and testing ‡ Final inspection and testing ‡ Records of testing December 10 IT-Quality Management 22 . ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Work Instruction Monitoring and control of activities Approval of processes and hardware and software /tools etc.Contd««««.10 of ISO 9001) Inspection and Testing :: Establish a procedure to ensure the resources are as per the required standards.

communication software Internet and Web tools are evaluated earlier for purchase and installation. conventions.g. (4. installed or used by mistake. December 10 IT-Quality Management 23 . ‡ Ensure that test plans are evolved for all stages of development.11 of ISO 9001) Inspection. database software. practices.12 of ISO 9001) Test Status :: Set a procedure to ensure that only tested and quality assured products are dispatched. tools and techniques agreed upon between the company and customer are adhered to and used in the development. e. ‡ Software tools. (4.(4. editors. compilers. tps. used or installed.13 of ISO 9001) Control of Non-conforming Products :: Set up a procedure to ensure that the software not conforming to specified requirements is not dispatched.. Measuring and Testing Equipment :: ‡ Establish a procedure to ensure that rules.

Storage and Delivery :: Ensure that unauthorized persons do not tamper with the software during development and after completion. There should be a set of guidelines for retention of quality records for future reference in case a dispute arises. The retention period is of mutual convenience and as per contract terms.14 of ISO 9001) Correction Action :: Set up a procedure to ensure that corrective action is taken to set right nonconforming software.16 of ISO 9001) Quality Records :: A procedure should be set to identify and maintain quality records with a clear an unique relation to the software for which it is maintained. and as a result.15 of ISO 9001) Handling. (4. if any. deliver software that has quality problems. (4. Strict controls as access and use of media are necessary to control the quality of outgoing software. December 10 IT-Quality Management 24 .(4.

17 of ISO 9001) Internal Quality Audits :: A procedure should be in place to audit whether the quality procedures have been complied with.(4.19 of ISO 9001) Software Maintenance Service :: If software includes support and service needs of the customer. The training records will justify the inclusion of personnel in the testing team. then a support procedure should be in place that ensures that this service is effectively carried out.18 of ISO 9001) Training :: The company will maintain a procedure to identify the training needs of people responsible for quality assurance. The audit will be scheduled and results reported and corrective action taken as laid down. (4. (4. December 10 IT-Quality Management 25 .

20 of ISO 9001) Statistical Techniques :: A procedure should be in place to verify the need for statistical techniques that will in turn verify process capability and characteristics. This would be more applicable in-process control software.(4. December 10 IT-Quality Management 26 .