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ASTR 3520 Observations & Instrumentation II: Spectroscopy

Intro to Radio Astronomy

Intro to Radio Astronomy
• Concepts - Amplifiers - Mixers (down-conversion) - Principles of Radar - Radio Astronomy basics: System temperature, Receiver temperature Brightness temperature, The beam (θ = λ / D) [ its usually BIG] Interferometry (c.f. the Very Large Array – VLA) Aperture synthesis

Detection of EM Radiation Across the Spectrum
Incoherent detection - Particle properties (photons) - Energy, arrival time Coherent detection - Wave properties - Amplitude, phase - quantum noise: Trec > hν / 2

Transmission γ -ray
>MeV

X-ray
0.2 – 100 keV

UV Visible

NIR TIR sub-mm mm radio

cm

4000 – 10,000A 3 – 200 µ m 1 – 10 mm >1 cm 100 – 4000 A 1–3µ m 200 µ m – 1000µ m

λ

History of Radio Astronomy
(the second window on the Universe)

• 1929 - Karl Jansky (Bell Telephone Labs) • 1030s - Grote Reber • 1940s - WWII, radar - 21 cm (Jan Oort etc.) • 1950s - Early single dish & interferometry - `radio stars’, first map of Milky Way - Cambridge surveys (3C etc) • 1960s - quasars, pulsars, CMB, radar, VLBI aperture synthesis, molecules, masers (cm) • 1970s - CO, molecular clouds, astro-chemistry (mm • 1980s /90s – CMB anisotropy, (sub-mm)

Holmdel NJ. 1929 .Karl Jansky.

300 m dish at Arecibo: θ = λ / D ~ 48” at λ = 6 cm (5 GHz) .

408 MHz radio sky .

Outline • A Simple Heterodyne Receiver System – mixers and amplification • Observing in the Radio – resolution – brightness temperature • Radio Interferometry • Aperture synthesis .

signal out ω 1+ω 2 and ω 1− 2 ω . we usually filter out the high frequency (sum) component. In radio astronomy. The mixer outputs the sum and difference frequencies.Mixers local oscillator ω 2 signal in ω1 LO A mixer takes two inputs: the signal and a local oscillator (LO).

Mixers signal LO mixed signal original signal 0 Hz frequency .

To avoid this. signal LO mixed signal original signal 0 Hz frequency . we can use “Single Sideband Mixers” (SSBs) which eliminate the negative frequency components.Mixers The negative frequencies in the difference appear the same as a positive frequency.

W-band (94 GHz. 4 mm) amplifier .

Single sideband mixer: Local oscillator Downconverted signal Frequency Band-pass of amplifier: Intermediate frequency = IF .

Double sideband mixer: Local oscillator Lower sideband Upper sideband Amplifier passband FIF Frequency FLO .

Local oscillator Lower sideband Upper sideband Amplifier passband FIF Frequency FLO .

Venus (review) • Single dish spectroscopy Orion nebula CO example • Radiometer equation (noise vs. Fourier Inversion => Dirty maps De-convolve Dirty Beam => CLEAN maps • The VLA. exposure time) • Interferometer basics The U.ASTR 3520 Intro to Radio Aastronomy: • Review heterodyne & mixing Radar examples: cars. VLBA. V plane => Dirty beams. and ALMA .

Radar: Freflect = f trans + / .8 m /s c = 3 x 1010 cm/s = 3 x 105 km/s ∆ f = 1850 Hz .∆ f ∆ f = 2 f (V/c) f = 10 GHz V = 100 km/h = 27.

Mixing: Adding waves together Freflect = f trans + / .∆ f f trans ∆ f = 1850 Hz .

Single sideband mixer: Local oscillator Downconverted signal f = 10 GHz F+∆ f= 10 GHz + 1850 Hz 1850 Hz ∆ f = fIF Frequency Band-pass of amplifier: Intermediate frequency = IF .

Planetary Radar imaging: Doppler shift + time delay = 2D map Redshift Blueshift Radar Pulse Early echo Late echo .

UV Venus Radar Radar .

Venus Radar .

A Simple Heterodyne Receiver signal @ 1420 MHz 1570 MHz LO low noise amplifier + filter + 1420 MHz 150 MHz receiver horn Computer outputs a power spectrum Analog-to-Digital Converter tunable filter tunable ~150 MHz LO .

Amplification • Why is having a low noise first amp so important? – the noise in the first amp gets amplified by all subsequent amps – you want to amplify the signal before subsequent electronics add noise • Amplification is in units of deciBells (dB) – logarithmic scale • • • • • 3 dB = x2 5 dB = x3 10 dB = x10 20 dB = x100 30 dB = x1000 V1 dB = 10 log10 ( ) V2 .

but not position on the sky – 2D detector • A CCD is also a 2D detector (we get x & y position) .Observing in the Radio I • We get frequency and phase information.

e.Observing in the Radio II: Typical Beamsize (Resolution) • i. The BURAO 21 cm horn (D ~ 1 m) λ 21χµ θ= ≈ = 12o ∆ 100χµ .

2' ∆ 10000χµ at 0.3 cm = 100 GHz λ 0.Observing in the Radio II • i.420 GHz λ 21χµ θ= ≈ = 7.2' ' ∆ 10000χµ .10' = 6.e. The NRAO GBT (D ~ 100 m) at 21cm = 1.3χµ θ= ≈ = 0.

1' ' ∆ 30000χµ .420 GHz λ 21χµ θ= ≈ = 2.Observing in the Radio II • i.4' ∆ 30000χµ at 0.3 cm = 100 GHz λ 0.e.3χµ θ= ≈ = 2. The Arecibo Telescope (D ~ 300 m) at 21cm = 1.

300 m dish at Arecibo .

Transmission (and brightness of the Atmosphere) depends on H2O! .

Observing in the Radio III: Brightness Temperature Flux: erg s-1 sr-1 cm-2 Hz-1 (1023 Jy) Bυ (T): erg s-1 sr-1 cm-2 Hz-1 (1023 Jy) We can use temperature as a proxy for flux (Jy) Conveniently. most radio signals have hυ /kT << 1. so we can use the Raleigh-Jeans approximation Bυ (T) = 2kT/λ 2 T u . flu islin a w te p ra re h s x e r ith me tu .

in which case TA is less than TB TA ~ TB Ω s/Ω b .Antenna Temperature TB = Fυ λ 2/2k • Brightness temperature (TB) gives the surface temperature of the source (if it’s a thermal spectrum) • Antenna Temperature (TA): – if the antenna beam is larger than the source. it will see the source and some sky background.

System Temperature • Noise in the system is characterized by the system temperature (Tsys) – i.e. you want your system temperature (especially in the first amp) to be low .

frequency range observed = integration time (how long is the exposure?) – t . noise in observation s ~ (2)1/2 since you have to switch – a o o rc =p s ns itc ff-s u e o itio w h o q e c =fre u n ys itc ff-fre u n y q e c w h – Tsys = System temperature – ∆ ν = bandwidth.s.Radiometer Equation • Trm = α Tsys / ( ∆ ν t) ½ s – Trm = r.m.

Spectral Resolution • The spectral resolution in a radio telescope can be limited by several issues: – integration time (signal-to-noise) – filter bank resolution (if you’re using a filter bank to generate a power spectrum in hardware) .

Tsys = 1000 TRM = 1 α (Kelvin) S . ∆ ν = 1 MHz (= 3 km/s). τ = 1 sec.•Single Dish line & continuum basics • θ = λ / D ~ arc minutes 10 m @ 1 cm => 250” • Brightness temperature: Bν (T) => I  T • Radiometer equation: TRM = α Tsys / (∆ ν S τ ) 1/2 Ex: ν = 100 GHz.

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6 mm Orion Nebula Orion A .Orion Molecular Clouds Orion B 13CO 2.

THz spectra! OMC1 OMC1-S (Kawamura et al. 2002) 350 µ m 1 2 CO J=9-8 CO J=6-5 661 GHz 1 3 CO J=9-8 (discovery) 1 2 (Wilson et al. – in prep) .

Milky Way all-sky: Visual wavelengths .

Milky Way all-sky: Infrared wavelengths (COBE) .

408 MHz radio sky .

21 cm HI all-sky map .

Dame et al. CO map of Milky Way .

CO map of Milky Way ρ -Ophiucus R Cor Aust.Dame et al. Galactic Center .

Multi-transition Multi-transition analysis of outflow mass spectra Analysis of Outflow mass spectra .

L1551 J=2-1 CO .

L1551 [SII] with CO .

Radio Interferometry al y n tio dela i os se p a ph to c ur so e Θ Θ + East .

Two Dish Interferometry
• The fringe pattern as a function of time gives the East-West (RA) position of the object • Also think of the interferometer as painting a fringe pattern on the sky
– the source moves through this pattern, changing the amplitude as it goes

Extended Sources
+ - + - + - +

• Spacing of the fringes is a function of the projected baseline • The area under the fringes determines the amplitude of the signal (positive fringes add, negative fringes subtract) • The projected baseline changes as the source rises or sets

Extended Sources
A four hour observation of the Sun at 12 GHz using a two dish E-W interferometer. The narrow fringes (not visible here), represent the positional delay. The broad envelope is the self-interference of the extended source.

Extended Sources
• In order to determine the extended object’s shape, we must disentangle the fringes due to the projected baseline (which we’d get from a point source) from the interference of the different parts of the source
– to do this, we use delay lines – we introduce a delay between the two antennas to compensate for the the positional delay – this leaves only the fringes from the structure of the source

Aperture Synthesis • A two dish interferometer only gives information on the E-W (RA) structure of a source • To get 2D information. we want to use several dishes spread out over two dimensions on the ground .

Radio Telescope Arrays The VLA: An array of 27 antennas with 25 meter apertures maximum baseline: 36 km 75 Mhz to 43 GHz .

Very Large Array radio telescope (near Socorro NM) .

The VLA An amplifier .

The U-V Plane • Think of an array as a partially filled aperture – the point source function (PSF) will be have complicated structure (not an airy disk) – the U-V plane shows what part of the aperture is filled by a telescope – this changes with time as the object rises and sets – a long exposure will have a better PSF because there is better U-V plane coverage (closer to a filled aperture) .

The U-V plane a snapshot of the U-V plane (VLBA) U-V coverage in a horizon to horizon exposure .

Point Spreaddiffraction pattern of the array The dirty beam : the Function .

UV plane covered over 6 hrs Fourier plane sampling fringes on a source Amplitude of .

Dirty Beams: A snapshot (few min) Examples 10 hrs of weighting Full VLA+VLBA+GBT .

Image Deconvolution • Interferometers have nasty PSFs • To get a good image we “deconvolve” the image with the PSF – we know the PSF from the UV plane coverage – computer programs take a PSF pattern in the image and replace it with a point – the image becomes a collection of point sources .

UV Plane Coverage and PSF images from a presentation by Tim Cornwell (given at NRAO SISS 2002) .

UV Plane Coverage and PSF images from a presentation by Tim Cornwell (given at NRAO SISS 2002) .

Image Deconvolution images from a presentation by Tim Cornwell (given at NRAO SISS 2002) .

The Orion Nebula (at 1.4 GHz) .

4 GHz (L band) 5.SNR Cassiopeia A Continuum in 3 colors: 1.4 GHz (X band) .0 GHz (C band) 8.

Jupiter and its magnetosphere .

27c jets) .W50 SNR: SS 433 (accreting neutron star + 0.

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21 cm HI map of M33 .

Centaurus A (the nearest radio galaxy) .

PH 227 Radio galaxy and jets .

Radio galaxy 3C286 .

VLBA .

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Radio Telescope Arrays ALMA: An array of 64 antennas with 12 meter apertures maximum baseline: 10 km 35 GHz to 850 GHz .