FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

FIBERS:
1. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites ‡ Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) is a Polymer Matrix Composite material reinforced by carbon fibers. ‡ Carbon fibers are very expensive but they possess the highest specific (divided by weight) mechanical properties: modulus of elasticity and strength.

Carbon fibers are used for reinforcing polymer matrix due to the following their properties
‡ Very high modulus of elasticity exceeding that of steel; ‡ High tensile strength, which may reach (7 GPa); ‡ Low density: 114 lb/ft³ (1800 kg/m³); ‡ High chemical inertness. ‡ The main disadvantage of carbon (Graphite) fibers is catastrophic mode of failure (carbon fibers are brittle).

‡ IM (intermediate modulus). . Modulus of elasticity is in the range 29000-51000 ksi (200-350GPa).The types of carbon fibers are as follows: ‡ UHM (ultra high modulus). ‡ HM (high modulus).5GPa). Modulus of elasticity is in the range 51000-65400 ksi (350-450GPa). Tensile strength > 650 ksi (4. ‡ SHT (super high tensile). modulus of elasticity < 14500 ksi (100 GPa). Tensile strength > 436 ksi (3 GPa). low modulus). ‡ HT (high tensile. Modulus of elasticity > 65400 ksi (450GPa).

High strength-to-weight ratio. Good corrosion resistance. .Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) are characterized by the following properties: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Light weight. High electric conductivity. Low impact resistance. High Fatigue strength. High cost. Very low coefficient of thermal expansion. Very High modulus elasticity-to-weight ratio.

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) are used for manufacturing: ‡ automotive marine and aerospace parts. ‡ sport goods (golf clubs. . skis. fishing rods) ‡ bicycle frames. tennis racquets.

It is also known as GFK (for Glasfaserverstärkter Kunststoff).2.[2] is a fiber reinforced polymer made of a plastic matrix reinforced by fine fibers made of glass. .[1] also known as glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP). or simply by the name of the reinforcing fibers themselves: fiberglass.Glass-reinforced plastic ‡ Glass-reinforced plastic (GRP).

‡ S+R-Glass the strongest and most expensive glass fibers of low diameter (half of that of E-Glass fibers). pipes and other chemical resistant equipment. magnesia (MgO). . 16-25% CaO. The designation letter E means electrical (E-Glass is excellent insulator). CGlass fibers are used for manufacturing storage tanks. ‡ C-Glass corrosion and chemical resistant glass fibers. and 8-13% B203 ‡ S-Glass stronger than E-Glass fibers (the letter S means strength). The composition of E-glass ranges from 52-56% SiO2. S-Glass consists of silica (SiO2).The types of glass used for fiberglasses are as follows: ‡ E-Glass the most popular and inexpensive glass fibers. S-Glass is used in military applications and in aerospace. alumina (Al2O3). 12-16% A1203.

strong material .Properties: ‡ An individual structural glass fiber is both stiff and strong in tension and compression ‡ GRP is a lightweight.

Good insulating properties. Good corrosion resistance. Low thermal resistance (as compared to metals and ceramics).Fiberglasses (Glass fibers reinforced polymer matrix composites) are characterized by the following properties: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ High strength-to-weight ratio. . High modulus of elasticity-to-weight ratio.

above and under the ground. ‡ Used for parts inboats. . automobiles.Applications ‡ GRP is also used in the telecommunications industry . pipes. roofing. water tanks. GRP tanks are also used for septic tanks ‡ Other uses include sheet form made electrical insulators and other structural components commonly found in the power industries ‡ GRP and GRE pipe systems can be used for a variety of applications. ‡ Storage tanks can be made of GRP with capacities up to about 300 tonnes.

) of aramid (poly-para-phenylene terephthalamide) fibers. .Kevlar (aramid) fiber reinforced polymers ‡ Kevlar is the trade name (registered by DuPont Co.3. ‡ Distinctive features of Kevlar are high impact resistance and low density. ‡ Kevlar fibers were originally developed as a replacement of steel in automotive tires.

‡ Low weight.Kevlar fibers possess the following properties: ‡ High tensile strength (five times stronger per weight unite than steel). ‡ Textile processibility. ‡ High Fracture Toughness (impact resistance). ‡ High cut resistance. ‡ Very low elongation up to breaking point. ‡ High chemical inertness. ‡ Very low coefficient of thermal expansion. ‡ High modulus of elasticity. ‡ Flame resistance .

‡ Kevlar 149 ultra high modulus (27000 ksi/186 GPa). cables.TYPES OF KEVLAR FIBERS ‡ Kevlar 29 high strength (520000 psi/3600 MPa). low density (90 lb/ft³/1440 kg/m³) fibers used for manufacturing bullet-proof vests. ropes. ‡ Kevlar 49 high modulus (19000 ksi/131 GPa). low density (92 lb/ft³/1470 kg/m³) highly crystalline fibers used as reinforcing dispersed phase for composite aircraft components. high strength (490000 psi/3400 MPa). automotive and marine applications. high strength (550000 psi/3800 MPa). helmets. . composite armor reinforcement. asbestos replacing parts. low density (90 lb/ft³/1440 kg/m³) fibers used in aerospace.

polycarbonate (PC). ‡ Fiberflass materials usually have laminate structure with different fibers orientations in the reinforcing glass layers. ‡ The most popular matrix materials for manufacturing fiberglasses are Thermosets such as unsaturated polyesters (UP).MATRIX: 1. epoxies (EP) and Thermoplastics such as nylon (polyamide). . polystyrene (PS).Polymer(Fiberglasses) ‡ Fiberglass is a common name of Polymer Matrix Composite materials reinforced by fine glass fibers. polyvinylchloride (PVC).

. High modulus of elasticity-to-weight ratio. Good corrosion resistance. Good insulating properties. Low thermal resistance (as compared to metals and ceramics).Fiberglasses (Glass fibers reinforced polymer matrix composites) are characterized by the following properties: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ High strength-to-weight ratio.

‡ aircraft wings and fuselage sections. ‡ welding helmets. ‡ Fiberglass materials are used for manufacturing: ‡ boat hulls and marine structures. ‡ housings for radar systems. roofs.Applications of Fiber Glass. ‡ automobile and truck body panels. pipes. ‡ pressure vessels. .

tungsten. ‡ Aluminum Matrix Composites (AMC) ‡ Magnesium Matrix Composite ‡ Titanium Matrix Composite ‡ Copper Matrix Composites . molybdenum) dispersed phase.Metal Matrix Composites According to the classification of composite materials: Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) is a material consisting of a metallic matrix combined with a ceramic (oxides. carbides) or metallic (lead.2.

Aluminum Matrix Composites (AMC) ‡ Aluminum Matrix Composites (AMC) are reinforced by: ‡ Alumina (Al2O3) or silicon carbide (SiC) particles (particulate Composites) in amounts 15-70 vol%. ‡ Continuous fibers of alumina. . Graphite (long-fiber reinforced composites). ‡ Discontinuous fibers of alumina (short-fiber reinforced composites). silicon carbide.

Excellent abrasion resistance. Low density.The following properties are typical for Aluminum Matrix Composites: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ High strength even at elevated temperatures. High thermal conductivity. High stiffness (modulus of elasticity). .

Magnesium Matrix Composite Magnesium Matrix Composites are reinforced mainly by silicon carbide (SiC) particles (particulate composites) The following properties are typical for Magnesium Matrix Composites: ‡ Low density. ‡ Good creep resistance. ‡ High stiffness (modulus of elasticity). ‡ Good strength even at elevated temperatures. . ‡ High wear resistance.

Applications ‡ Titanium Matrix Compositesare used for manufacturing structural components of the F-16 jet s landing gear. ‡ turbine engine components (fan blades. actuator pistons. shafts. automotive engine components. connecting links. general machine components. . discs).

‡ lightweight automotive brake system. compressors and engine. ‡ transmissions.Applications ‡ Magnesium Matrix Compositesare used for manufacturing components for racing cars. . ‡ aircraft parts for: gearboxes.

Copper Matrix Composites ‡ Copper Matrix Composites are reinforced by: ‡ Continuous fibers of carbon . ‡ Silicon carbide particles (particulate composites). stainless steel (long-fiber reinforced composites). . tungsten (W). silicon carbon (SiC).

. Good electrical conductivity. High stiffness (modulus of elasticity). High thermal conductivity.The following properties are typical for Copper Matrix Composites: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Low coefficient of thermal expansion. Good wear resistance.

Titanium Matrix Composite ‡ Titanium Matrix Composites are reinforced mainly by: ‡ Continuous monofilament silicon carbide fiber (long-fiber reinforced composites). . ‡ Titanium boride (TiB2) and titanium carbide (TiC) particles (particulate composites).

The following properties are typical for Titanium Matrix Composites: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ High strength. High thermal stability. High creep resistance. High wear resistance. . High stiffness (modulus of elasticity).

‡ electrically conducting springs and ‡ other electrical and electronic components .Applications: ‡ Copper Matrix Compositesare used for electronic relays.

Ceramic Matrix Composites ‡ Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) is a material consisting of a ceramic matrix combined with a ceramic (oxides. . carbides) dispersed phase.3. the main disadvantage of which is brittleness. ‡ Ceramic Matrix Composites are reinforced by either continuous (long) fibers or discontinuous (short) fibers. ‡ Ceramic Matrix Composites are designed to improve toughness of conventional ceramics.

aluminum nitride (AlN). zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and other ceramic fibers. Most of CMC are reinforced by silicon carbide fibers due to their high strength and stiffness (modulus of elasticity). .‡ ceramic matrix reinforced by whiskers of silicon carbide (SiC). titanium boride (TiB2).

‡ Low density. . ‡ High corrosion resistance even at high temperatures. ‡ High toughness. ‡ High thermal shock resistance.Typical properties of long-fiber Ceramic Matrix Composites: ‡ High mechanical strength even at high temperatures. ‡ High stiffness. ‡ High thermal stability.

filters for hot liquids. furnace pipe hangers. ‡ used for manufacturing heat exchangers. burner stabilizers. gas-fired burner parts. heat exchangers. . rocket propulsion components.Application: ‡ These composites are used for manufacturing combustion liners of gas turbine engines. immersion burner tubes. thermo-photovoltaic burners. filters for hot liquids.

.FILLERS: These are quartz Silica Tricalcium phosphate and Zirconium dioxide ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Addition of fillers provide Strength Rigidity Hardness Increase in modulus of elasticity Decrease in coefficient of thermal expansion Decrease in contraction.

COUPLING AGENTS: Organic silanes such as gamma-methacryloxy propyltrimethoxy silane Functions :‡ binds the filling particles to resin matrix ‡ Allow more flexible polymer matrix to transfer stresses to stiffer filler particles ‡ Provide hydrolytic stability by preventing the water from penetrating along the filler resin matrix. .