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‡ It is a legitimate subject of psychological analysis. ‡ It refers to the behavioral interactions of individuals within groups. ‡ Behavior directed towards society, or taking place between, members of the same species.

‡ Behavior such as predation which involves members of different species is not social. While many social behaviors are communication (provoke a response, or change in behavior, without acting directly on the receiver) communication between members of different species is not social behavior.

derived from individual agency.g. three (i. a social group). . a dyad). form the basis of the social structure. ‡ Social relations. a triad) or more individuals (e.e.e.SOCIAL INTERACTION ‡ refers to a relationship between two (i.

Further categories must be established in the abstract in order to form observations and conduct social research. "Community and Society") or "collective consciousness". in Max Weber's theory of social action. . for instance.SOCIAL INTERACTION ‡ Fundamental enquiries into the nature of social relations are to be found in the work of the classical sociologists. such as Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft (lit.

. conducted separately by American psychologist Norman Triplett and French agricultural engineer Max Ringelmann.Study of human behavior in relation to society.a relatively young discipline whose origin can be traced to experiments conducted late in the 19th century. .NATURE OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR Social Psychology .

Individual s selective perceptions -roles. attitudes . values.SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY ‡ This is focused on how persons are affected by others (social influence). ‡ Inner determinants of social behavior .

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY ‡ Social psychologists focus on the process called Social cognition. -cognitive processes (Stereo-typing and prejudice and attitude change) that individuals use in understanding themselves and others. . cognition.

SOCIAL COGNITION STEREOTYPES ± This is under social perception. occupation. ± Oversimplified conceptions: oversimplified standardized images of a person or group ± These are generalized beliefs that associate whole groups of people with certain traits. . the second core topic in social psychology. and socioeconomic class. ± Research shows that we naturally sort other people into social categories such as race. gender.

. the second core topic in social psychology. occupation. ± Oversimplified conceptions: oversimplified standardized images of a person or group ± These are generalized beliefs that associate whole groups of people with certain traits. gender. ± Research shows that we naturally sort other people into social categories such as race. and socioeconomic class.SOCIAL COGNITION STEREOTYPES ± This is under social perception.

people may demean others. ± One cause of this is the tendency to stereotype.SOCIAL COGNITION PREJUDICE ± The negative evaluation of others based solely on their membership in a particular group. . Second. ± Two other causes: First. prejudices often stem from direct competition for valuable but limited resources. in order to boost their own sense of self-worth. without realizing it.

. not only do we form impressions but we also try to understand their behavior.SOCIAL PERCEPTION ‡ Since we spend significant portion of our lives interacting with people.

SOCIAL PERCEPTION FIRST IMPRESSIONS  Our overall impression of another person is influenced more by the first information we receive about the person than by the information that comes later. .

. what we pay attention to and what we ignore.SOCIAL PERCEPTION EXPECTATIONS  Our expectancies affect how we perceive the behavior of others. We rarely consider the possibility that our expectations partly bring out the very behavior we expect.

. ‡ CONFLICT ± Having an disagreement between another being.SOCIAL RELATIONS ‡ AGRESSION ± The intentional infliction of physical or psychological harm to another.

material or non-material object. .SOCIAL RELATIONS ‡ ATTRACTION ± Proximity ± Reciprocal liking ± Attractiveness ± Similarity ‡ PEACEMAKING ± People have a nature that is directly or indirectly sharing out morals.

SOCIAL INFLUENCES CONFIRMITY  It is going along with the group. . Changing or adopting an attitude or behavior to be consistent with the norms of the group or expectations.

but unquestioned obedience can cause humans to commit horrible acts.SOCIAL INFLUENCES OBEDIENCE  Following orders. Some obedience is necessary if civilized society is to function. .

not out conformity or obedience. . There are many times when people act.SOCIAL INFLUENCES COMPLIANCE  Giving in to requests. but in accordance with the wishes or requests of another person.


. Internal factors such as our body mechanism and external factors such as the surrounding.BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOR ‡ There are two basis of behavior. It can either be internal or external.

BASIS OF BEHAVIOR INTERNAL ± Neurons ± Brain ± Nervous system ± Lobes inside the brain ± etc .

The Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex ‡ Frontal lobe: part of cerebral cortex that is responsible for voluntary movement. goal-directed behavior. . and appropriate emotional experiences. it is also important for attention.

‡ Temporal lobe: part of the cerebral hemisphere that helps regulate hearing. balance and equilibrium. ‡ Parietal lobe: part of the cerebral cortex that receives sensory information from throughout the body. and certain emotions and motivations. .The Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex ‡ Occipital lobe: part of the cerebral hemisphere that receives and interprets visual information.

‡ Autonomic nervous system: the part of the PNS that carries messages between the CNS and the internal organs. .THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ‡ Somatic nervous system: the part of the PNS that carries messages from the senses to the CNS and between the CNS and the skeletal muscles.

it prepares the body for quick action in an emergency.THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ‡ Sympathetic division: branch of the autonomic nervous system. ‡ Parasympathetic division: branch of the autonomic nervous system. it calms and relaxes the body. .

The Autonomic Nervous System .

BASIS OF BEHAVIOR EXTERNAL ± Groups ± Family ± Culture ± Environment ± Media and technology .

the tendency to put less effort when working with others on a common task that working alone. . either as audience or coactor.GROUPS SOCIAL FACILITATION .any positive or negative effect on the performance due to the presence of others. SOCIAL LOAFING .


Pertains to the behaviors considered to be appropriate for individuals occupying same positions within the group. .GROUPS SOCIAL ROLES .

FAMILY Since most of us belong to a family. . whatever is happening inside the house affects how a child or an adult behaves. Since it is also the basic unit of the society. it plays a role in the early socialization of the child.

ONLY BOY AMONG GIRLS Usually with women all the time. Wants to be bigger than the others. or he may rebel. or become effeminate. ALL BOYS If mother wanted a girl. Can be overprotected and spoiled. Child may capitalize on assigned role or protest it vigorously. May feel squeezed out of a position of privilege and significance. "take it or leave it" attitude. idealize the biological parents. They may try Child may become very spoiled and demanding.POSITION FAMILY SITUATION CHILD'S CHARACTERISTICS ONLY Birth is a miracle. ALL GIRLS May be dressed as a boy. MIDDLE Is "sandwiched" in. Likes being the center of adult attention. Child may exploit mother's over-concern for his well-being. . SECOND He has a pacemaker. encouraged. Parents have no previous experience. There is always someone ahead. Can become helpful if usually very high. or a tomboy and outdo the brothers. Parents may see one as the older. Can have identity problems. TWIN One is usually stronger or more active. Retains 200% attention from both parents. Can stay the "baby. May have huge plans that never work out. Often has difficulty sharing with siblings and peers." Frequently spoiled. Competition can deteriorate into rivalry. Has to learn to share. wants to overtake older child. ONLY GIRL AMONG BOYS Older brothers may act as her protectors. Stronger one may become the leader. Never dethroned. Parent expectations are May become authoritarian or strict. May have trouble finding a place or become a fighter of injustice. Is more competitive. May try to prove he is the man in the family. "GHOST CHILD" Child born after the death of the first child may have a "ghost" in front of him. Child may capitalize on assigned role or protest it vigorously. Feels power is his right. if father is away. he may resent or to compensate for the loss of his biological parents. Older children try to educate him. Eventually. Prefers adult company and uses adult language. and protest the feeling of being compared to an idealized memory. May become a rebel or try to outdo everyone. Often given responsibility and expected to set an example. May try to please the father. OLDEST Dethroned by next child. ADOPTED CHILD Parents may be so thankful to have a child that they spoil him. Mother may become over-protective. May turn to father after birth of next child. can be dressed as a girl. YOUNGEST Has many mothers and fathers. Can become very feminine. May be even-tempered. May become rival of one parent.

sexual gratification. On the other hand. development of skills. . the other family functions are not essential for adaptive functioning. nurturance.FAMILY The family roles were classified into two by Epstein and Bishop namely: the necessary family functions which includes resources.

Caplan cited five interpersonal requisites for the maintenance of this unit. Unconditional love Support Impulse control Feel part of a group Personal achievement and recognition . 1. 5.FAMILY The problems and crisis that a family is undertaking also affects the child s behavior. 2. 4. 3.

influence our attitudes and reap billons of peso. Though the mass media is a good source of information. we can t help but think that everywoman and male are for those kinds of NST or ROTC . including advertising.MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY The mass media.


values and norms ‡ Refers to any way in which an individual. group. it is the representation of a person.CULTURE ‡ according to Bell(1994). or community s internal and external daily expression of their beliefs. group or community defines itself or is defined by others ‡ Social heritage .

the Eskimos and their thirteen words for snow. People with a high interest in music will have developed an extensive vocabulary to describe various aspects of music. Their language will include finer discriminations than the language of a society with little interest in music.‡ A culture generally has the most words for those areas of experience which are of major to that culture for example. .

If the child fails. talk.Developmental Task ± It is one that a certain culture imposes on a child at a certain age in our lives. If the child attains/masters it. he/she will be regarded/accepted/respected. without the help of anyone ‡ Age 5 to 6 read. write and master numbers ‡ Age 7 to 13 games such as basketball that peers play . take care of one s bodily needs. other members of group will withhold approval or respond negatively ‡ Infancy to Young childhood eat. dress.

As we grow older.‡ Failure to master those skills affect not merely the physical development but also the personal-social relationships with other children and adults. we face new and more complex tasks. .

.Culture includes: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Race Ethnicity Religion Age Class Socioeconomic status Sexual orientation Gender Professions Etc.

and of value ± Also represents the individual s thoughts about values.Worldview Perspective ± Refers to the individual s beliefs regarding what he or she considers to be true. interactions with others. knowledge development. and role in the universe .

Mongolian. and not scientifically important . are not reliably measured. and Negroid races ‡ Racial distinctions are not genetically discrete.RACE ‡ lineage ‡ Differentiated into Caucasian.

RACE ‡ Racial discrimination was significantly high in America in the 18th Century. . an outspoken opponent of the expansion of slavery. issued the Emancipation Proclamation to finally end the madness. and the Whites were the highest. as the Blacks were considered the lowest form of people in a society. Abraham Lincoln.

Ethnicity ‡ Describes a group of people whose members identify with each other. through a common heritage with a common language. a common culture. . a common religion and a tradition of common ancestry.

Ethnicity ‡ Philippine Setting ± Several ethnic groups can be found in the Philippines. Examples are: » » » » » » » » » Visayan Tagalog Ilocano Bikolano Kapampangan Pangasinense Ibanag Ivatan Sambal .

almost always only one religion is practiced ‡ Philippine setting: ± Christianity and Islam are the widespread religions . and practices ‡ In a culture. beliefs.Religion ‡ a personal set or institutionalized system of religious attitudes.

Age ‡ Largely affects on how one views a situation ‡ Children favor some way of acting that everyone will approve of What a nice person would do. .

There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her.Age In Europe. a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make.000 for a small dose of the drug. The drug was expensive to make. . It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2.

The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $ 1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug-for his wife. Should the husband have done that?

‡ In Kohlberg s study, children that were asked if what Heinz did was right or wrong focused on obedience and punishment orientation, such as It s against the law. or It s bad to steal. ‡ As the age group goes up, the reasoning behind the answer gets more intricate, such as when adults are asked, they answer according to Universal Principles , or principles that achieve justice and includes individual rights.

‡ Family economics largely determines this aspect of culture ‡ Stratification
± Differences in the ranking of members by others in a certain society

‡ Important factor in social learning ‡ Interrelated to socioeconomic status

Socioeconomic Status
It is based on:
± Family income ± Parental education level ± Parental occupation ± Social status in the community

Some even have to work for their food.Socioeconomic status plays a big role in the growth of a child. Low class children. Middle and upper class children have a higher standard of living. as those mentioned are more respectful of the middle and upper class children. have less opportunities. They are not treated as well by the police. . however. and some cannot even go to school. and can afford to study in competent schools. teachers and salespeople.

. either of the opposite or the same sex.Gender orientation ‡ Used interchangeably with sexual orientation. this refers to the sexual desire directed to a person.

Gender Orientation Heterosexuality ± Tendency to direct sexual desire towards the opposite sex ± Accepted norm of the society .

but it causes psychological damage to homosexual people. not a mental defect ± Physically harmless.Gender Orientation Homosexuality ± Society considers it to be deviant in a bad sense ± Only being uncommon. because it puts them in a conflict with social or religious standards that condemn it .

enhancing personal appearance with fastidious grooming. although not being homosexual themselves ± Being very meticulous about one s looks. beauty treatments and fashionable clothes .Gender Orientation Metrosexuality ± Occurs in males ± Metrosexuals are described as men who display attributes stereotypically associated with homosexual men.

and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women ‡ Large differences in being raised by parents .Gender ‡ Being male or female ‡ the socially constructed roles. activities. behaviors.


It enables us to appraise people and it helps us process social information. object or issue.A relatively stable evaluation of a person. .ATTITUDE .

This consists of the emotional reactions people have to attitude objects ‡ Behavioral Component . ‡ Cognitive Component .These are the thoughts and beliefs people have about an attitude object .This consists of actions or observable behavior that is the result of an attitude object.ATTITUDE ‡ Affective Component .


Affectively Based Attitudes When a person forms an opinion of something based on emotions and values.ATTITUDE BASES Cognitively Based Attitudes When a person's opinion about something is based primarily on the beliefs or facts they have. . they have created an affectively based attitude. then it is called a cognitively based attitude. rather than objective beliefs.

When people choose to engage in behaviors.Sometimes smells. those behaviors will be reinforced when followed by a reward. Affectively based attitudes can also result from conditioning. ‡ 1. and they are often linked to peoples values . ‡ All affectively based attitudes have three key things in common. ‡ 2. They don't result from rational evaluations.Operant Conditioning .Classical Conditioning . colors and other sensory information can elicit strong emotional response.‡ Such attitudes are formed not through logic so much as on inner feelings and values. they are not governed by logic.

. Explicit and Implicit Attitudes When a person consciously endorses and easily reports an attitude.Behaviorially Based Attitudes These attitudes come from observations of behavior toward something. then that attitude is explicit.

ATTITUDE CHANE Attitude Change Cognitive Dissonance is a complex theory that explains the discomfort people feel when they hold two conflicting ideas in their head at the same time. as a way to resolve feelings of post-decision dissonance. This is called internal justification. and like coffee. which usually occurs when a person is unable to find any external justification for the dissonance they experienced . and the subsequent cognitions and resolutions that can occur from such discomfort. Counterattitudinal Advocacy The funny thing about the lie you told is that you might start to actually believe it.



It involves analyzing who is making the communication.Persuasive Communications To make wide scale changes and convince a lot of people to have a certain attitude about something is very difficult. . There are an infinite number of tactics that can be used when making an argument. this is a method of studying persuasive communications. Many persuasive communications fail to change attitudes while some are successful. Psychological studies have been conducted to try and understand what makes a persuasive communication effective \ Yale Attitude Change Created by researchers at Yale University. the quality of the communication and what kind of people the communication is intended for.


they are being centrally affected.When a person is motivated and pays attention to the persuasive communication.‡ Elaboration Likelihood Model The problems with the Yale Attitude Change approach have been addressed by various researchers. One approach is called the elaboration likelihood model .When a person doesn't pay attention to the arguments in the speech but is influenced by other aspects of the communication such as who is giving it. which explains two ways in which persuasive communication can cause attitudinal change. Centrally . Peripherally . then they are being peripherally affected. .


if given. . the probability that the victim will receive help decreases.THE BYSTANDER EFFECT ‡ The fact that as a number of bystanders at an emergency increases. it is likely to be delayed.

. so each person feels less compelled to act than if he alone bore the total responsibility.DIFFUSION OF RESPONSIBILITY ‡ The feeling among bystanders that the responsibility for helping is shared by the group.

PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR ‡ Behavior that benefits others like : »Helping »Cooperation »sympathy .

SCHIZOID they neither desire nor enjoy close relationships. .SOCIAL BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS SOCIAL PHOBIA fear and avoidance of situations that exposes them to humiliation or embarrassment. PARANOID having a pervasive distrust to others and suspect that they are deceiving them.