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Ph.D.

Research Proposal
Structural Health Monitoring and Damage Detection of Structures
Presented by Hemant Kumar Vinayak Guided by Dr. S.K. Thakkar Dr. Ashok Kumar Dr. Pankaj Agrawal Department of Earthquake Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, UA

Presentation Overview
Introduction Objectives Methodology involved Experimental setup details Plan of work 

   

Introduction (Contd..)
Structural Health Monitoring (Definition)
Focuses on techniques of :
Identifying the existence of damage Identifying the location of damage Estimating the magnitude of damage

Buildings etc. Highway.Introduction Structural Health Monitoring (Application) Civil Infrastructure (Bridges.) Air Craft and Missile Structures Space Structures Land/ Marines Structures .

) Objectives  Present an overview of Damage Detection and Structural Health Monitoring methods for buildings.  Comparative study of damage detection techniques for building structures  Develop methodology of damage detection and health status in pre and post earthquake scenario using Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques ..  Establish a correlation between damage in the model with its known dynamic characteristics.Project Proposal (Contd.

Literature review 1. Literature review   Identification of various methods Selection of experimental procedure Identifying the set of controlling parameters that are need to be computed through experimentation .

.Methodology Involved (Contd. Kinetic energy Dynamically measured flexibility Comparison of flexibility changes Unity check method Stiffness error matrix method Effect of residual flexibility Changes in measured stiffness matrix Updating structural model parameters Optimal Matrix update methods Sensitivity based update methods Eigen structure Assignment methods Hybrid matrix update methods .) Vibration based damage detection methods (Review by Doebling) Changes in basic modal properties Frequency changes Mode shape changes Mode shape curvature/ Strain mode shape changes Changes in modal energy.

Methodology Involved (Contd.) Structural Health Monitoring (Method for Current Research) Changes in basic model properties at each level of damage during the experiment: frequency Mode shapes.. Modal strain energy. .

mode shape and damping ratio from forced vibration test. Damping from logarithmic decrement Natural frequency. Damping ratio will be determined from half power band width method Mode shapes . mode shape and damping ratio from free vibration test.The data acquired will coupled with the model generated in ARTeMIS software .Methodology Involved (Contd.) Determine Stiffness from displacement versus load graph Natural frequency..

) Structural Health Monitoring (Method for Current Research. Contd.) Level of damage in % Hysteresis Loop Load vs.Methodology involved (Contd.. Deflection curve Mode shapes Hysteresis damping Natural frequency Negligible Light Moderate Heavy ..

max DisPasquale E and Maximum deformation Cakmak A.) Most traditional indicator Koh Displacement ductility Integrity index Q max Qd ! Q yield S di Si ! S ui Ti. Stiffness ratio Bachmann H 1996 Q max Di ! H Di ! failureM / U firstyield .S. initial Di ! 1  Ti. 1990 Skaerbaek P.Damage indices Methodology (Contd.S. Drift ratio 1996 Park R 1996 ..

) Nagar. 1992. A .1999 SARCOF Kraetzig W et al 2000 Damage Indicator Softening index EI (t ) 0.. K max Ghobarah.5 Di ! 1  EI 0 Ed Di ! 1  Eo . A. Flexural damage rotation K0 Di ! Bernal D.1995.Methodology Involved (Contd.

Methodology Involved (Contd..) Ewins 1984 Salawu and Williams 1994 Modal assurance criteria [§ (J nj ) d (J nj ) u ] 2 MAC ! j (J nj ) 2 d § (J nj ) 2 u § j j Normalised area difference Relative difference NAD ! ´ J d  Ju dx RDnj ! (J nj ) d  (J nj ) u (J nj ) u .

Experimental Setup Details Model 1 A concrete cantilever column subject to lateral load .

Experimental Setup Details Model 2 A single story plane frame subject to lateral load .

Experimental Setup Details (Contd.) Model 3 One bay subject to uniaxial load ..

.) Model 4 .Experimental Setup Details (Contd.

Plan of Work Jan 2004 to Oct 2004 i) Course work ii) Comprehensive exam iii) Literature review i) ii) i) Fabrication of Models Testing of Models Analysis and Presentation of result Oct 2004 to Dec 2005 Jan 2006 to Jun 2006 July 2006 to Dec 2006 i) Writing of PhD Thesis .

Publications Thank you .

Future central monitoring station .

Dependent on the position of the defect relative to mode shape for a particular mode of vibration .. shear failure and overload causing internal damage  Degree of reduction .Methodology Involved (Contd.Support failure.When measured natural frequencies are substantially lower than expected  Damage Causes .S. crack propagation. Salawu)  Loss of stiffness .) Changes in basic modal properties Frequency changes (Review by O.

. d.Methodology Involved (Contd.) Changes in basic modal properties Equation of motion [ [k] . L .Modulus of Elasticity E.([2 + H [2 ) [M] ]{J + HJ} = {0} Stiffness depends upon Property of materials .[2[M] ]{J} = {0} Damage induction in the structure [ (k+Hk) . DensityV Dimension of element .b.

Prion and Rezai 1996 .Mode shapes of undamaged and damaged steel frame infilled with unstiffened thin steel plate shear panels .

) Modal strain energy change MSEC MSE d ij  MSE ij MSE ij MSECRij ! Undamaged modal strain energy MSEij = JiTkj Ji Damaged modal strain energy MSEdij = JdiTkj Jdi .Methodology Involved (Contd..

) Changes in basic modal properties Mode shape changes  West 1984 .Graphical comparison of relative changes in mode shapes  Cobb and Liebst 1997 .optimal sensor location for damage detection based on changes in mode shapes using substructure iteration method .Changes in Modal Assurance Criterion to localize structural damage  Fox 1992 ..Methodology Involved (Contd.Prioritizing sensor location based on eigenvector sensitivity analysis  Skjaeraek 1996 .

Changes in mode shape curvature can be a good indicator for Fem beam structure.Numerically calculating curvature from mode shapes resulted in unacceptable errors.) Changes in basic modal properties Mode shape curvature/ strain mode shape changes Utilizes relationship between curvature and bending strain for beams plates and shells  Pandey et al 1991 . Nwosu et al (1995) and Yao and Change (1995) .  Chance et al.Methodology Involved (Contd.  Chen and Swamidas (1994). Kondo and Hamamoto (1994).. Dong et al (1994). 1994 . Measured strains improved the result dramatically.

.Changes in mode shape curvature can be a good indicator for Fem beam structure. Dong et al (1994).  Chen and Swamidas (1994). Kondo and Hamamoto (1994). 1994 .Numerically calculating curvature from mode shapes resulted in unacceptable errors. Nwosu et al (1995) and Yao and Change (1995) .Methodology Involved (Contd.) Dynamically measured flexibility Comparison of flexibility changes Utilizes relationship between curvature and bending strain for beams plates and shells  Pandey et al 1991 .  Chance et al. Measured strains improved the result dramatically.

Methodology Involved (Contd.Proposes for locating modeling error and uses the location of the entry with maximum magnitude in each column to determine the error location.  Lim 1991 ..) Dynamically measured flexibility Unit check method An error matrix is defined which measures the degree to which pseudoinverse relationship between the dynamically measured flexibility matrix and structural stiffness matrix is satisfied  Lim 1990 .Defines a least square problem for the elemental stiffness changes consistent with unity check error in potentially damaged members .

Demonstrated dependency on type of reduction matrix used and on number of modes used to form flexibility matrices.) Dynamically measured flexibility Stiffness Error Matrix Method Based on computation of an error matrix function of flexibility changes and undamaged stiffness matrix.  Gysin 1986 . Guyan reduction (acceptable result) and indirect reduction (unacceptable result) .Methodology Involved (Contd.. Compared the reduction techniques of elimination (acceptable result).Indicator of errors between measured parameters and analytical stiffness matrix.  He and Ewins 1986 .

) Dynamically measured flexibility Effect of Residual Flexibility Represents contribution to the flexibility matrix from modes outside measured bandwidth so that exact flexibility matrix can be related to measured modes..  Doebling et al.Technique to estimate unmeasured partition of residual flexibility matrix . . 1996 .Methodology Involved (Contd.

Proposed a method to use measure stiffness and mass matrices to locate damage .Methodology Involved (Contd.  Peterson et al. 1993 .  Salawu and Williams 1993 ..) Dynamically measured flexibility Changes in Measured Stiffness matrix Pseudoinverse of dynamically measured flexibility matrix.Used direct comparison of measured parameter to estimate damage .

Methodology Involved (Contd.  Salawu and Williams 1993 ..Used direct comparison of measured parameter to estimate damage . 1993 .) Updating structural model parameters Optimal matrix update methods Pseudoinverse of dynamically measured flexibility matrix.  Peterson et al.Proposed a method to use measure stiffness and mass matrices to locate damage .