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HASSAN - 573201

µCarbon Fiber¶


Under the guidance of Mr. B. K. Shivalingaiah, BE, M. Tech., MISTE Asst. Professor Department of Industrial and Production Engineering

Introduction ‡ Carbon fibers are a new breed of high-strength materials. . Carbon fiber has been described as a fiber containing at least 90% carbon obtained by the controlled pyrolysis of appropriate fibers.

The complex interwoven nature of the fiber makes it very difficult to break. including popular Formula One racecars. . bicycles. y These material are employed in high-quality cars.y Carbon fiber is most notably used to reinforce composite materials. y A small piece can withstand an impact of many tons and still deform minimally. boats. particularly the class of materials known as Carbon fiber or graphite reinforced polymers. and planes.

. y In 1958.History y The existence of µCarbon Fiber¶ came into being in 1879 when Edison took out a patent for the manufacture of carbon filaments suitable for use in electric lamps. Roger Bacon created high-performance µCarbon Fibers¶ at the Union Carbide Parma Technical Center. Dr. Ohio(US). located outside of Cleveland. y Those fibers were manufactured by heating strands of rayon until they carbonized.

y In early 1960s. . as the resulting fibers contained only about 20% carbon and had low strength and stiffness properties. This had produced a carbon fiber that contained about 55% carbon and had much better properties. a process was developed using PolyAcryloNitrile (PAN) as a raw material. and this process became the primary method for producing carbon fibers.y This process proved to be inefficient.

‡ Each carbon filament thread is a bundle of many thousand carbon filaments. A single such filament is a thin tube with a diameter of 5 to 8 micrometers and consists almost exclusively of carbon. consisting of sheets of carbon atoms arranged in a regular hexagonal pattern. the fiber fails at very low strain.Structure ‡ The atomic structure of carbon fiber is similar to that of graphite. . ‡ Carbon fibers are very brittle and the layers are formed by strong covalent bonds. ‡ On bending.

A 6 m diameter carbon filament (Running from bottom left to top right) compared to a human hair. .

‡ By secondary processing .500 MPa or higher Low elastic modulus type (LM) Tensile elastic modulus: 200 GPa or lower Tensile strength: 3. iv.Types of Carbon Fibers ‡ By raw materials: ‡ PAN Type ‡ Pitch Type ‡ By mechanical performance: I. v. Tensile strength: 2.500 MPa or lower ii.500 MPa or higher Intermediate elastic modulus type (IM) Tensile elastic modulus: 280-350 GPa Tensile strength: 3. High elastic modulus type (HM) Tensile elastic modulus: 350-600 GPa Tensile strength: 2.500 MPa or higher Standard elastic modulus type (HT) Tensile elastic modulus: 200-280 GPa Tensile strength: approximately 2. Ultra high elastic modulus type (UHM): Tensile elastic modulus: 600 GPa or higher. iii.500 MPa or higher.

They are as follows: ‡ Oxidative Stabilization: At 200 ± 300 °C PAN oxidized to Non ± plastic Cyclic Compound. the fibers are treated at temperature between 1500 ± 3000 °C. ‡ Graphitization: Depending on the type of fiber required. which improves the ordering. and noncarbon elements are removed and yield 50% of mass of original PAN. and orientation of the crystallites in the direction of the fiber axis. . ‡ Carbonization: At 1000 °C fibers are carbonized without tension in an inert atmosphere (normally nitrogen).Manufacture of Carbon Fibers Poly Acrylo Nitrile (PAN): There are three successive stages in the conversion of PAN into high-performance carbon fibers.

the fibers can easily be made fuzz. waste yarn can cause a short .Properties ‡ Each carbon filament is made out of long. ‡ As Carbon Fibers are very fine in nature and moreover easily breakable by stretching (less than 2% elongation).circuit at electric lines. ‡ As most of carbon fibers have high elastic modulus ‡ Micro fiber tends to stick to human skins or mucous membranes causing pains or itch. . thin filaments of carbon sometimes transformed to graphite. ‡ As carbon fibers have electric conductivity.

‡Good vibration damping. . and toughness. ‡High dimensional stability. ‡Biological inertness and x-ray permeability. ‡Chemical inertness and stability. low specific gravity. ‡Low thermal expansion and low abrasion coefficient. ‡Physical strength. strength. light weight. ‡It is categorized as "incombustible" under the Building Code of Japan.Characteristics ‡ ³Light in weight. Strong and Durable!´ Carbon Fibers are nothing but a 21st century high technology material. high corrosion resistance. specific toughness.

‡ Electric facilities troubles and electric shocks. ‡ Carbon fiber wastes should be regarded as "Industrial Wastes" but not "Household Wastes" and is categorized as "Plastics Wastes". ‡ Local governments may have their own local codes by which disposing of carbon fiber wastes are governed.Safety and Handling Precautions ‡ Prevention of generating plumage. dust and fly. . ‡ Prevention of hazards to human body. ‡ If it heated above 400 0C with some fuel it burns slowly. but stops right after the burning fuel is removed.

automobile bodies and fan blades. Large telescopes. ‡ Racing cars. gears. Aircraft brakes. cams. ‡ Audio equipment. & rockets. Loudspeakers for Hi-fi equipment and etc. solar panel used in satellites. Space shuttles. ‡ Aerospace and nuclear engineering. ‡ Aerospace antenna and its supporting structure.Applications ‡ Manufacture of Missiles. .

compressed natural gas storage and transportation.Future Scope ‡ The future of Carbon Fiber is very bright. choke. ‡ Fuel Efficient Automobiles: Currently used in small production. and kill lines. but moving toward large production series cars. buoyancy. ‡ Construction and Infrastructure: Light weight pre-cast concrete. . fuel cells. with vast potential such as ‡ Alternate Energy: Wind turbines. ‡ Oil Exploration: Deep Sea drilling platforms. umbilical. earth quake protection. high performance automobiles. and drill pipes.

Graph shows the future growth trends for the carbon fiber industry .

Toray (World Largest Manufactures of Carbon Fiber) plans to cooperate with such automakers to expand its use. ‡ It is an ultra light and strong material that expresses a woven pattern that is both high-tech and sensuous. .Conclusion ‡ Despite the Carbon Fibers amorphous structure. and wins $3 Billion order of carbon fiber from Boeing. carbon fiber is the future for several industries and that to in a rapid roller coaster. ‡ The use of carbon fiber in automobiles is now limited to racing cars and top-end luxury cars. it is still a dependable material. ‡ So.

http://www. 1998 ‡ American Carbon Society website http://www. Vaccari. 1999 ‡ ³Fibers´. published by Marcel Dekker Inc. ‡ Materials & Composites News. McGraw-Hill. Materials Handbook.. George S. 1990. and John A. 3.. Clauser. ³Advanced Materials & Composites´ ‡ 8. No. 1997.References ‡ Carbon fibers Seen as Having Big Long Term Growth Infrastructure is Next Big Trend ‡ www. No.edulcarbon/ ‡ Carbon Composites website.psu.carb. . Henry R. p370.