HISTORY

The mighty Brahmaputra-
Assam's lifeline
‡ The early history of Assam is lost
in the mists of antiquity
‡ In the sacred scriptures assam
was known as KAMRUPA
‡ Historical evidences prove that
the first king who ruled over
Kamrupa was Pushya Varman
(350 - 380 AD), who was a
contemporary of Samudragupta
(350 - 375 AD).
An early kamrupa scripture
‡The famous Chinese pilgrim-scholar
Hiuen-Tsang, reported that he had
attended the court of king Bhaskar
Barman. Several stone and copper
inscriptions dating from the7th to the 12th
centuries indicate a succession of Hindu
dynasties
Hiuen Tsang
‡ The Salasthambha dynasty was the next to
rule Assam
‡ The last king of this dynasty, Tyaga
Singha was succeeded by Brahmapala who
founded a new dynasty- that of the Palas.
Jayapala was the last ruler of this dynasty.
The first Islamic invasion of
Kamrupa took place during the
reign of a king called Prithu
who was killed in a battle with
Illtutmish's son Nasiruddin .
After the invasion of the
Mughals in the 15th century
many Muslims settled in Assam
and thus became the first
Muslim settlers of this region.
The famous
Kamakhya temple
Ruins of Banasur's
capital Sonitpur
Early in the 20 century the government of India made
vast tracts of land in Assam available to predominantly
Muslim farmers from the provinces of East Bengal for
settlement and cultivation. Nepalese were employed as
herders and encouraged to colonize new lands. The
subsequent Immigration of Marwaris and Sikhs boasted
capital development in Assam and strengthen its ties
with the rest of India.
ECONOMICS
ଂ Economics of Assam represents a unique juxtaposition of backwardness in plenty
ଂ Growth rate of Assam has not kept pace with that of India during the post British
era
ଂ India economy grew 6.6% pa in 1981-2000 while Assam grew 3.3%
ଂ In 6
th
plan period Assam showed negative growth rate of 3.78% while India grew
6%
ଂ Now Assam is showing signs of improvement
ଂ 1993-94 : Assam economy grew 4.5% growth
ଂ 1994-95 : the growth rate fell to 3.4%
ଂ 2003-04 and 2004-05 : the economy showed constant growth of 5.5% and 5.3%
respectively
Year Gross State Domestic Product
1980 25,160
1985 56,730
1990 106,210
1995 194,110
2000 314,760
25160
56730
106210
94110
14720
Gross domestic product
1980 1985 1990 1995 2000
ଂAssams gross state domestic product for 2004 is 13$
estimated in current prices
ଂThe sectored contribution for the state is as follows
Primary sector agriculture: 2.6% pa
Secondary sector industry: 3.4% pa
Tertiary sector service: contributes more than primary
and secondary sectors
COMMERCE AND TRADE
ECONOMY :
In the 1950s, per capita income
in Assam was little higher than
that in India. In 2000±01, in
Assam it was INR 6,157 at
constant prices (1993±94) and
INR 10,198 at current prices;
almost 40% lower than that in
India. According to the recent
estimates, per capita income in
Assam has reached INR 6756
(1993±94 constant prices) in
2004±05, which is still much lower
than India's.
AGRICULTURE:
Accounts for more than a third of
Assam¶s income and employs 69%
of workforce.Assam's biggest
contribution to the world is tea. It
produces some of the finest and
expensive teas and has its own
variety Camellia assamica. Assam
also accounts for fair share of
India¶s production of rice, rapeseed,
mustard seed, jute, potato, sweet
potato, banana, papaya, areca nut
and turmeric. It is also a home of
large varieties of citrus fruits, leaf
vegetables, vegetables, useful
grasses, herbs, spices, etc.
‡A tea garden in Assam: tea
is grown at elevations near
sea level, giving it a malty
sweetness and an earthy
flavor, as opposed to the more
floral aroma of highland (e.g.
Darjeeling, Taiwanese) teas.
INDUSTRY:
‡ Apart from tea and petroleum refineries, Assam
has few industries of significance. Industrial
development is inhibited by its physical and political
isolation from neighbouring countries such as
Myanmar, China and Bangladesh and from other
growing Southeast Asian economies; ultimately
leading to neglect by the federal government in
regards to development ± a key motivation for
separatist groups
‡ Assam is a mojor producer of crude oil and it
accounts for about 15% of india¶s crude oil output,
exploited by the Assam Oil Company Ltd and
natural gas in india and is the second largest in the
world.
‡ Although having a poor industrial development,
several other industries have come such as
fertilizers, cement and sugar. Jute, textile and silk
yarn mills have also been started.
Processed assamtea
A product of a
textile mill
FINANCE
Assam finance status of India:
‡Before independence there were only two branches
in the finance and budget branch
‡With the growth of the economy, the size of the
finance department also has been growing over the
years.
Assam financial corporation:
‡To provide financial assistance to small
scale and medium scale industries within
its jurisdiction covering the North Eastern
state of Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur and
Tripura.
Objective :
‡To accelerate the industrial growth.
‡Promotion of self employement.
‡Proper utilization of local natural resources.
‡To encourage new technical entrepreneurs towards industrial projects.
‡To provide assistance for promotion or expansion of industry by the rural and urban
areas.
Assam state finance commision:
The Assam Finance Commision has been constituted by the
government of Assam on 23 June,1995 to review the financial
position of the local bodies namely the Panchayats and
Municipalities and put forward to the government the
reccomondations relating to the distribution between the state bof
Assam and the Panchayats/ municipalities of the net proceeds of
taxes, duties, tools and fees.
INTRODUCTION: Human development front and the
challenges it faces.
POVERTY :
‡ The historical trend in the incidence of rural poverty in Assam shows an
increasing trend opposed to a secular decline in all other states. This does not
come as a surprise considering the slow growth in Gross State Domestic
product in Assam as compared to the growth in the all India GDP.
‡ Direct intervention by the government is necessary not only for the
redistribution purpose but also because most of the basic services have a
public good characteristic.
SOCIOLOGY
HEALTH SECTOR:
‡ Good health not only increases productivity and earnings of an
individual but also improves the overall quality of life and the socio-
economic development of general population.
‡Government takes steps to avoid poverty and ensure good health by
improving drinking and sanitation facilities.
EDUCATION:
‡ A large number of eligible children of school going age still
remain still remain out of school. The recent NFHS survey
indicates that 72% of the population is attending school in Assam.
POLITICAL
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STATISTICS
POPULATION
12000000
12500000
13000000
13500000
14000000
POPULATION
POPULATIO
N
There is a total of 2,66,38407 people
living in assamaccording to the 2001
cencus.
Literacy rate
There is a total of 64.28% literacy rate in
assam.
0
20
40
60
Rural urban
Literacy
Literacy
Agriculture
Assam has a net geographical area of 7843800. it includes Total
cropped area, Cultivable wasteland, Area under forest, Land put to
non agriculture, Grazing land, Net area sown.
0
500000
1000000
1500000
2000000
2500000
3000000
3500000
4000000
4500000
Agriculture
Agriculture
CULTURE
ART AND CRAFT
‡ The magic of art of assamese
craftsmen is a a common passion
inspirin the deep senses with its
age old simplicity and
sophistication.
‡ Asssam is renowned for its
exquisite silks, bamboo, and
cane products.
‡ Assam handloom is indeed
noteworthy offering a mosaic of
colours with pleasin design.
‡ The colourful assamese
japi(head gear,),terracotta and
other decorative items bear
witness to the craftmanship of
its land.
‡ The Eri,Muga and typical
tribal attires are a treat to the
eyes of the beholder.
Japi with gamosa
Xorai
A traditional assamese
paintinhg
An assamcoin
Assamese Cuisine
‡Rice is the staple diet.
‡The people eat a lot of rice based
breakfast, cereals with milk, yoghurt or
thick cream.
‡Their food is mainly based on rice and
fish. For dessert there is a huge
variety of ´pithasµ(cakes)
‡Authentic assamese cuisine is usually
made with very little oil and practically
no spices.
‡Assamese are usually non-vegetarians.
It is very tough to find people who
donot eat fish and duck eggs.
‡Mustard oil is usually used and
occasionaly buutter or ghee.
Fish and rice.
Koat pitha
Dal duck egg curry.
Traditional attires of assam
‡Handloom weaving is Assams largest
and oldest industry.
‡The traditional costume for women is
known as Mekhla chadar. Mekhla is
the shirt and chaddar is the skirt.
‡The men dress themselves in Dhoti
and chaddar.
‡Muga silk is used as the common
material base. It has a natural golden
colour that becomes brighter with
every wash.
Traditional jewellery
of assam
A man with his traditional attire
Music and dance
‡The traditional dance of assam is called BIHU.
‡It is a rhythamic dance form with a lot of
grace and beauty.
‡The costume of this dance form is is the
traditional attire of assamese the mekhla
chadar wown out of the silk muga
‡The traditional music of assam is called the
dhullias.
‡It is basically the music that is played with
the help of DHOLAKSdrums)
TOURISM
Assam is the central state in the North-East Region
of India and serves as the gateway to the rest of
the Seven Sister States.
‡Introduction
For the purposes of tourism there are wildlife
preserves like the Kaziranga National Park .
The climate is sub-tropical. Assam experiences
the Indian monsoon and has one of the
highest forest densities in India. The winter
months are the best time to visit.
It has a rich cultural heritage going back to
the Ahom Dynasty which governed the region
for many centuries before the British
occupation.
Main Destinations
‡Brahmaputra
The only male river in India, this is both a source of
sorrow and sustenance for the people of Assam.
‡ Guwahati
One of the key urban centres of Assam and the
biggest city in North-East India, this serves as the
major gateway to the whole region. This is the primary
hopping point for accessing Shillong, the hill station
‡ Majuli
The largest freshwater island in South Asia on
the Brahmaputra River
Kamalabari satra of
Majuli.
Brahmaputra
Kaziranga
This is one of the few places covered as a
World Heritage Site and the main habitat
of the Great Indian One-horned
Rhinoceros. Also check out Manas National
Park and Orang National Park.
A Crimson Sunbird at
Kaziranga.
Orchids are
abundantly found in
Assam; a variety ±
Bhatou Phul or Vanda
coerulea, the 'Blue
Orchid.
Goalpara
Goalpara is also a major tourist spot in
Assam.It has a numerous tourist spots and
temples like Sri Surya Pahar,Tekreshwari
Pahar,Paglartek in Pancharatna,Pir Babas
Mazar in Joleshwar,Naranarayan
Setu(Bridge)connecting northern Assam
districts like Kokraghar,Bongaigoan,Dhubri
etc to Goalpara,Guwahati and major part
of Meghalaya
Dibrugarh
Business hub in upper Assam. Serves as
gateway to Nagaland
The fomous one
horned one horned
rhino
The golden
langur
Agnigarh Hill, Tezpur
Tezpur
Small town steeped in history and culture. Check out Usha
Pahar, Agnigarh, Mahabhairav Temple, etc...
Sivasagar
Seat of the Ahom Kingdom. Check out Rang Ghar, Talatal
Ghar, Sivadol, Kareng Ghar of Garhgaon etc...
Hajo
Hajo is a small township situated to the northwest of
Guwahati across the river Brahmaputra.Hajo is a remarkable
example of communal harmony .
Dibru Saikhowa
Dibru Saikhowa National Park is a beautiful National Park
situated in Tinsukia district. There are few Eco lodges
situated here to enjoy the beauty of this park.
Rang Ghar in Sivasagar

HISTORY
‡ The early history of Assam is lost in the mists of antiquity ‡ In the sacred scriptures assam was known as KAMRUPA ‡ Historical evidences prove that the first king who ruled over Kamrupa was Pushya Varman (350 - 380 AD), who was a contemporary of Samudragupta (350 - 375 AD).

The mighty BrahmaputraAssam's lifeline

An early kamrupa scripture

Jayapala was the last ruler of this dynasty. Several stone and copper inscriptions dating from the7th to the 12th centuries indicate a succession of Hindu dynasties ‡ The Salasthambha dynasty was the next to rule Assam ‡ The last king of this dynasty. Hiuen Tsang .‡The famous Chinese pilgrim-scholar Hiuen-Tsang. reported that he had attended the court of king Bhaskar Barman. Tyaga Singha was succeeded by Brahmapala who founded a new dynasty.that of the Palas.

The first Islamic invasion of Kamrupa took place during the reign of a king called Prithu who was killed in a battle with Illtutmish's son Nasiruddin . The famous Kamakhya temple Ruins of Banasur's capital Sonitpur . After the invasion of the Mughals in the 15th century many Muslims settled in Assam and thus became the first Muslim settlers of this region.

Nepalese were employed as herders and encouraged to colonize new lands. . The subsequent Immigration of Marwaris and Sikhs boasted capital development in Assam and strengthen its ties with the rest of India.Early in the 20 century the government of India made vast tracts of land in Assam available to predominantly Muslim farmers from the provinces of East Bengal for settlement and cultivation.

3% In 6th plan period Assam showed negative growth rate of 3.78% while India grew 6% Now Assam is showing signs of improvement 1993-94 : Assam economy grew 4.ECONOMICS Economics of Assam represents a unique juxtaposition of backwardness in plenty Growth rate of Assam has not kept pace with that of India during the post British era India economy grew 6.6% pa in 1981-2000 while Assam grew 3.3% respectively .5% and 5.4% 2003-04 and 2004-05 : the economy showed constant growth of 5.5% growth 1994-95 : the growth rate fell to 3.

110 314.730 106.Year 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Gross State Domestic Product 25.160 56.760 Gross domestic product 1980 1985 1990 1995 14720 25160 56730 94110 2000 106210 .210 194.

6% pa Secondary sector industry: 3.4% pa Tertiary sector service: contributes more than primary and secondary sectors .Assams gross state domestic product for 2004 is 13$ estimated in current prices The sectored contribution for the state is as follows Primary sector agriculture: 2.

. per capita income in Assam has reached INR 6756 (1993±94 constant prices) in 2004±05. According to the recent estimates.198 at current prices. almost 40% lower than that in India.COMMERCE AND TRADE ECONOMY : In the 1950s. which is still much lower than India's. In 2000±01. per capita income in Assam was little higher than that in India.157 at constant prices (1993±94) and INR 10. in Assam it was INR 6.

potato. It is also a home of large varieties of citrus fruits. vegetables. banana. mustard seed.g. ‡A tea garden in Assam: tea is grown at elevations near sea level.AGRICULTURE: Accounts for more than a third of Assam¶s income and employs 69% of workforce. papaya. jute. Taiwanese) teas. spices. etc. . herbs. Assam also accounts for fair share of India¶s production of rice. Darjeeling. as opposed to the more floral aroma of highland (e. useful grasses. giving it a malty sweetness and an earthy flavor. sweet potato.Assam's biggest contribution to the world is tea. areca nut and turmeric. rapeseed. leaf vegetables. It produces some of the finest and expensive teas and has its own variety Camellia assamica.

ultimately leading to neglect by the federal government in regards to development ± a key motivation for separatist groups ‡ Assam is a mojor producer of crude oil and it accounts for about 15% of india¶s crude oil output. ‡ Although having a poor industrial development. cement and sugar. textile and silk yarn mills have also been started. several other industries have come such as fertilizers. exploited by the Assam Oil Company Ltd and natural gas in india and is the second largest in the world. Assam has few industries of significance.INDUSTRY: ‡ Apart from tea and petroleum refineries. Jute. Processed assam tea A product of a textile mill . China and Bangladesh and from other growing Southeast Asian economies. Industrial development is inhibited by its physical and political isolation from neighbouring countries such as Myanmar.

Assam financial corporation: ‡To provide financial assistance to small scale and medium scale industries within its jurisdiction covering the North Eastern state of Assam. . the size of the finance department also has been growing over the years. Manipur and Tripura. Meghalaya.FINANCE Assam finance status of India: ‡Before independence there were only two branches in the finance and budget branch ‡With the growth of the economy.

. duties.Objective : ‡To accelerate the industrial growth.1995 to review the financial position of the local bodies namely the Panchayats and Municipalities and put forward to the government the reccomondations relating to the distribution between the state bof Assam and the Panchayats/ municipalities of the net proceeds of taxes. ‡Proper utilization of local natural resources. ‡To provide assistance for promotion or expansion of industry by the rural and urban areas. ‡To encourage new technical entrepreneurs towards industrial projects. ‡Promotion of self employement. Assam state finance commision: The Assam Finance Commision has been constituted by the government of Assam on 23 June. tools and fees.

POVERTY : The historical trend in the incidence of rural poverty in Assam shows an increasing trend opposed to a secular decline in all other states. . ‡ ‡ Direct intervention by the government is necessary not only for the redistribution purpose but also because most of the basic services have a public good characteristic.SOCIOLOGY INTRODUCTION: Human development front and the challenges it faces. This does not come as a surprise considering the slow growth in Gross State Domestic product in Assam as compared to the growth in the all India GDP.

HEALTH SECTOR: not only increases productivity and earnings of an individual but also improves the overall quality of life and the socioeconomic development of general population. ‡Government takes steps to avoid poverty and ensure good health by improving drinking and sanitation facilities. The recent NFHS survey indicates that 72% of the population is attending school in Assam. . ‡ Good health EDUCATION: ‡ A large number of eligible children of school going age still remain still remain out of school.

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STATISTICS POPULATION There is a total of 2.28% literacy rate in assam .66.38407 people living in assam according to the 2001 cencus. 14000000 13500000 13000000 12500000 12000000 POPULATION POPULATIO N Literacy rate There is a total of 64. 60 40 20 0 Literacy Literacy Rural urban .

Area under forest. Grazing land.Agriculture Assam has a net geographical area of 7843800. Land put to non agriculture. Net area sown. Agriculture 4500000 4000000 3500000 3000000 2500000 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0 Agriculture . it includes Total cropped area. Cultivable wasteland.

CULTURE ART AND CRAFT ‡ The magic of art of assamese craftsmen is a a common passion inspirin the deep senses with its age old simplicity and sophistication. bamboo.).terracotta and other decorative items bear witness to the craftmanship of its land. ‡ Assam handloom is indeed noteworthy offering a mosaic of colours with pleasin design. ‡ The Eri. ‡ The colourful assamese japi(head gear. and cane products. ‡ Asssam is renowned for its exquisite silks.Muga and typical tribal attires are a treat to the eyes of the beholder. Xorai Japi with gamosa An assam coin A traditional assamese paintinhg .

cereals with milk. ‡Their food is mainly based on rice and fish.Assamese Cuisine ‡Rice is the staple diet. . yoghurt or thick cream. Koat pitha Dal duck egg curry. ‡Mustard oil is usually used and occasionaly buutter or ghee. ‡Assamese are usually non-vegetarians. ‡The people eat a lot of rice based breakfast. It is very tough to find people who donot eat fish and duck eggs. For dessert there is a huge variety of ´pithasµ(cakes) ‡Authentic assamese cuisine is usually made with very little oil and practically no spices. Fish and rice.

Traditional attires of assam ‡Handloom weaving is Assams largest and oldest industry. It has a natural golden colour that becomes brighter with every wash. ‡The men dress themselves in Dhoti and chaddar. Mekhla is the shirt and chaddar is the skirt. Traditional jewellery of assam A man with his traditional attire . ‡Muga silk is used as the common material base. ‡The traditional costume for women is known as Mekhla chadar.

‡It is basically the music that is played with the help of DHOLAKSdrums) .Music and dance ‡The traditional dance of assam is called BIHU. ‡The costume of this dance form is is the traditional attire of assamese the mekhla chadar wown out of the silk muga ‡The traditional music of assam is called the dhullias. ‡It is a rhythamic dance form with a lot of grace and beauty.

‡Introduction For the purposes of tourism there are wildlife preserves like the Kaziranga National Park .TOURISM Assam is the central state in the North-East Region of India and serves as the gateway to the rest of the Seven Sister States. It has a rich cultural heritage going back to the Ahom Dynasty which governed the region for many centuries before the British occupation. Assam experiences the Indian monsoon and has one of the highest forest densities in India. The climate is sub-tropical. . The winter months are the best time to visit.

This is the primary hopping point for accessing Shillong.Main Destinations ‡Brahmaputra The only male river in India. the hill station ‡ Majuli Kamalabari satra of Majuli. this serves as the major gateway to the whole region. The largest freshwater island in South Asia on the Brahmaputra River . Brahmaputra ‡ Guwahati One of the key urban centres of Assam and the biggest city in North-East India. this is both a source of sorrow and sustenance for the people of Assam.

Naranarayan Setu(Bridge)connecting northern Assam districts like Kokraghar.Dhubri etc to Goalpara.Guwahati and major part of Meghalaya The fomous one horned one horned rhino Orchids are abundantly found in Assam.Tekreshwari Pahar.Kaziranga This is one of the few places covered as a World Heritage Site and the main habitat of the Great Indian One-horned Rhinoceros. the 'Blue Orchid. A Crimson Sunbird at Kaziranga.Paglartek in Pancharatna. Goalpara Goalpara is also a major tourist spot in Assam. Also check out Manas National Park and Orang National Park. Dibrugarh Business hub in upper Assam.Pir Babas Mazar in Joleshwar.It has a numerous tourist spots and temples like Sri Surya Pahar.Bongaigoan. Serves as gateway to Nagaland The golden langur . a variety ± Bhatou Phul or Vanda coerulea.

.. Hajo Hajo is a small township situated to the northwest of Guwahati across the river Brahmaputra. Check out Usha Pahar.. Mahabhairav Temple. There are few Eco lodges situated here to enjoy the beauty of this park. Kareng Ghar of Garhgaon etc. Sivadol. Talatal Ghar.. etc. Sivasagar Agnigarh Hill. Dibru Saikhowa Rang Ghar in Sivasagar Dibru Saikhowa National Park is a beautiful National Park situated in Tinsukia district. Check out Rang Ghar.Tezpur Small town steeped in history and culture. Tezpur Seat of the Ahom Kingdom.Hajo is a remarkable example of communal harmony . Agnigarh. .