# Solid State Physics for Illumination Engineering II Lecture I

Prof. Shavkat Yuldashev
Dongguk University, September 2010

Free Electron Fermi Gas I
Electron Waves
In the classical picture, electrons are particles that follow Newton's laws of mechanics. They are characterized by their mass m0, their position = ( x , y , z ) , and their velocity However, this intuitive picture is not sufficient for describing the behavior of electrons within solid crystals, where it is more appropriate to consider electrons as waves. The wave-particle duality is one of the fundamental features of quantum mechanics. Using complex numbers, the wave function for a free electron can be written as (1) with the wave vector The wave vector is parallel to the electron momentum (2) and it relates to the electron energy E as

with

In general, electron wave functions need to satisfy the Schrodinger equation (3) where the potential as represents the periodic semiconductor crystal. This equation is often written (4)

with H called the Hamiltonian. The Schrodinger equation is for just one electron; all other electrons and atomic nuclei are included in the potential . For the free electron, = 0 and the solution to the Schrodinger equation is of the simple form given by Eq. (1.1). The boundary conditions are n(0) = 0; n (L) = 0, as imposed by the infinite potential energy barriers. They are satisfied if the wavefunction is sinelike with an integral number n of halfwavelengths between 0 and L: (5) where A is a constant. We see that (1.5) is the solution of (1.4), because

(6)

According to the Pauli exclusion principle no two electrons can have all their quantum numbers identical. That is each orbital can be occupied by at most one electron. This applies to electrons in atoms, molecules, or solids. 1. 1

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By (1. defined as the energy of the topmost filled orbital at absolute zero. .6) with n = nF we have in one dimension: (7) The Fermi – Dirac distribution gives the probability that the orbital at energy ε will be occupied in an ideal electron gas in thermal equilibrium: (8) The quantity µ is the chemical potential.The Fermi energy εF is defined as the energy of the topmost filled level in the ground state of the N electron system. and we see that at absolute zero temperature the chemical potential is equal to the Fermi energy.

The kinetic energy of the electron gas increases as the temperature is increased: some energy levels are occupied which were vacant at absolute zero. . and some levels are vacant which were occupied at absolute zero temperature.

z with the period L.(9) (10) We now require the wavefunctions to be periodic in x. y. Thus (11) (12) With the wavevector component k satisfy .

We confirm that these values of kx satisfy (1. for = = The energy (1. where n is a positive or negative integer. The components of k are the quantum numbers of the problem. along with quantum number ms for the spin direction.11).14) (13) .Any component of k is of the form 2nπ/L .

for the volume element (2π/L) 3 of k space. for each allowed value of k. kz . ky . the spin quantum number.14) (17) . one distinct triplet of quantum numbers kx . Then (16) which depends only on the particle concentration. Thus in the sphere of volume 4πkF3 /3 the total number of orbitals is (15) where the factor 2 on the left comes from the two allowed values of ms . Using (1.We see that there is one allowed wavevector – that is.

(19) (20) .

(21) .

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only a fraction of the order of T / T F can be excited thermally at temperature T. (22) (23) .If N is the total number of electrons.5). because only these lie within an energy range of the order of kBT of the top of the energy distribution (Fig.

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It is good approximation to evaluate the density of states D (ε) at εF and take it outside of the integral: .

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Solution: .

Solution: .

Solution: .

Solution: .

The mass of an atom of He3 is Thus so that the concentration is .Solution: The number of moles per cm3 is atoms cm–3 .

Solution: .

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Solution: .

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Solution: .

Solution: .

1kΩ.Solution: Rsq (ohms) = 10-9 c2 Rsq (gaussian) ≈ (30)(137)ohms ≈ 4. .