Grouting is a injection of appropriate materials (mixture of water, cement, sand, often colour tint, and sometimes fine gravel) under pressure into rock or soil through drilled hole to change the physical characteristics of the formation. It is applied as a thick liquid and hardens over time, much like mortar.

Grouti Grouting may be used n the follow ng applicat ons: appli 1. Filling voids to prevent excessive settlement lli voi excessi 2. To increase allowable pressure of the soil both for new structures and / soi or add t ons to existing structures. existi 3. Control of groundwater flow 4. Prevent on of loose - loose to med um sand dens f cat on under adjacent structures (i.e. Both for vert cal and lateral movements) due to adjacent (i excavat ons, p le dr v ng etc. 5. Ground movement control dur ng tunnel ng operat ons

Stab l zat on of loose sands aga nst l quefact on Foundat on underp nn ng Slope stab l sat on Volume change control of expans ve so ls through pressure nject on of l me slurry (only for some expans ve so ls) . 10. So l strengthen ng to reduce lateral support requ rement So l strengthen ng to ncrease lateral and vert cal res stance of p les.Contd« 6. 9. 8. 11. 7.

METHODS OF GROUTING: A. Essent ally no change n the volume or structure of the or g nal ground. . Permeat on Grout ng (Chemical Grouting): grout f lls the so l pores. D splacement or Compact on Grout ng Jet or Replacement Grout ng B. C.




mudjack ng    . CLAY AND CHEMICAL GROUTS : mpermeab l sat on and compact on grout ng CLAY GROUTS : l m ted use (usually f ll ng vo ds etc) CLAY-CEMENT GROUTS : f ll ng vo ds.AREAS OF USE:  CEMENT GROUTS : for both mpermeab l sat on and strength ncrease SOIL.

75 . From top to down 2. only 0.0 m of hole is grouted at a t me. . From up to bottom Grout ng s done in stages.TWO BASIC METHODS FOR CONSTRUCTION: 1 .1.


These phenomena have promoted growth of problematic buildings in Turkey. Foundation sealing was getting popular after enforcement of new building codes in 1998.    . Groundwater affects not only physio -mechanical properties of soils but also foundations.Case Study: Introduction  Uncontrolled urban growth has increased to meet challenging ground conditions in many countries.

  . In order to provide an impermeable curtain surface grouting . Compaction grouting was employed to minimize soil permeability. Foundation was sealed successfully and there was no seepage during last winter seasons.Contd  The examined foundation of a reinforced concrete building was below the groundwater level and there was an enormous water seepage into basement storey during winter seasons.


GEOLOGICAL MAP OF ORTACA AND ITS SURROUNDING AREA ‡Quaternary aged sediments cover a large area and overly rock units. . ‡These sediments are related to watercourses and in gravel size.

profile Borehole and Soil Profile ‡Figure illustrates a borehole 10 m in length. ‡Soil profile consists of gravel and includes some sand bands at several depths. .

.Sieve Analysis Of Soil { Depth: 3 meter} Sieve analysis of a sample. taken just beneath the foundation level. is given in figure and it contains 66% gravel and 34% sand.

5 Mts WINTER : 1.GROUNDWATER LEVEL  VARIABLE SUMMER : 4.3 Mts Chemical contents of groundwater were another issue because it would speed up corrosion These values were not high enough to accelerate spoil of concrete. However.    . water fluctuation was more harmful because of oxidation of steel.

08 5.9 7.24 0.34 4.77 1.99 483.22 -2.5 76 .67 0.38 6.35 34.75 2.CHEMICAL CONTENTS OF GROUNDWATER               Parameters ECx106 (nmhos/cm) pH calcium (me/l) magnesium (me/l) sodium (me/l) potassium (me/l) carbonate (me/l) bicarbonate (me/l) chloride (me/l) %Na SAR (%) RSC total salt (ppm) sulphate (mg/l) AverageValue 759.14 1.

In practice. 1/3 cement-water mixture is injected into soils. In this study.MATERIAL :  Grouting is used to express injection of liquid material(s) into a geological formation.    . It is a cost competitive method and easy to apply. proper grout material is injected into loose soils to improve geotechnical properties of problematic soils.

00 75 3.METHOD:  The grouting was enforced from bottom to up and 25 kPa pressure were applied for every meter (Table).00 1. INJECTION PRESSURES IN BOREHOLES Grouting Pressure (kPa) Injection Level (m) 0.00 125 5.00 4.00 150       .00 5.00 3.00 25 1.00 50 2.00 6.00 2.00 100 4.

Twenty grouting holes were drilled 6 meters in depth. .METHOD: Evenly distributed borehole pattern was employed as illustrated in Figure.


‡The applied pressures caused heaving up to ten centimeters on floor of basement storey.SCHEMATIC VIEW OF THE BUILDING AFTER INJECTION ‡Injection material was designed to wrap whole foundation. . ‡It was sealed successfully and there was no seepage during the last winter seasons.


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