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National Institute of Fashion Technology, Gandhinagar

Apparel Quality
Management

Presentation on
Walter A. Shewhart

Copyright 2010: Esha Gupta || Nandini Gaur || Preksha Sharma || Saumya
1

Walter Andrew
Shewhart

Father of
Statistical
Quality Control

•Born: 18 March 1891 in New 
Canton Illinois, USA
•Died: 11 March 1967 in Troy 
Hills, New Jersey, USA

Walter A. Shewhart- The Father of Statistical Process Control 2

Brief

One of the most notable contributors to modern industry is Walter 
Shewhart, a quality control pioneer. He started his rise to guru status 
as a Bell Telephone employee in 1918. Born in New Canton, Illinois in 
1891, Shewhart set precedents that would be referenced for years to 
come in establishing the importance of information distribution among 
quality managers and production personnel.
 

Walter A. Shewhart- The Father of Statistical Process Control 3

 It was one of the largest manufacturing plants in the country. Walter A. Shewhart. Western Electric  produced hardware for the Bell Telephone Company. a suburb of  Chicago.Co nt. In 1918 Shewhart joined the Western Electric Company to assist their  • engineers in improving the quality of telephone hardware. By 1913 there were 14000 employees and by 1930 there were  43000.The Father of Statistical Process Control 4 . which became the  American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).  Shewart worked at Hawthorne until 1925 when he moved to the Bell  Telephone Research Laboratories where he remained until his retirement in  1956. The Western  Electric Company manufactured telephone equipment for them and since  1905 its major plant was the Hawthorne Plant in Cicero. The company and its factory grew rapidly with the need for  telephones.

Shewhart.The Father of Statistical Process Control 5 . Walter A. Shewhart met and influenced W Edwards  Deming who went on to champion Shewhart's methods. and Juran are often considered to be  the three founders of the quality improvement movement. Juran & Deming While at Hawthorne. Shewhart. Shewhart. Deming. Joseph Juran  also worked at Hawthorne from 1924 to 1941 and was influenced by  Shewhart.

 Deming wrote of Shewhart: “As a man. he was gentle. • Walter A. He knew  disappointment and frustration. never off his dignity.” He was founding editor of the Wiley Series in Mathematical Statistics. Shewhart. never ruffled.The Father of Statistical Process Control 6 .Achievements & Honors In his obituary for the American Statistical Association. a role that he  maintained for twenty years. through failure of many writers in mathematical  statistics to understand his point of view. genteel. always championing freedom of speech and confident  to publish views at variance with his own.

 Indian Statistical  Institute. Calcutta. •Holley medal of the American Society of Mechanical  Engineers. •Founding member. fellow and president of the Institute  & Honors of Mathematical Statistics. •Fellow of the International Statistical Institute. Walter A. •Honorary fellow of the Royal Statistical Society.Achievements His Honours included: •Founding member. •Fellow and President of the American Statistical  Association.The Father of Statistical Process Control 7 . first honorary member and  first Shewhart Medalist of the American Society for  Quality. •Honorary Doctor of Science. Shewhart.

Works He gave concepts for following: 1.Statistical  Process Control 3.The Father of Statistical Process Control 8 .PDCA Cycle 2. Walter A.Six Sigma 4. Shewhart.

 It was taken up and promoted very  effectively from the 1950s on by the famous Quality Management  authority. the pioneering statistician who developed statistical process  control in the Bell Laboratories in the US during the 1930's. W. Shewhart. Walter A. and is consequently known by many as  `the Deming Wheel'. Edwards Deming.PDCA Cycle The concept of the PDCA Cycle was originally developed by Walter  Shewhart.The Father of Statistical Process Control 9 . It is often  referred to as `the Shewhart Cycle'.

Shewhart. must result in effective action.PDCA Cycle- Uses PDCA Cycle is used to coordinate your continuous improvement efforts. The PDCA Cycle diagram is also used in team meetings to take stock of  what stage improvement initiatives are at. Walter A. and must move on  again to careful planning in a continuous cycle.The Father of Statistical Process Control 10 . It  both emphasizes and demonstrates that improvement programs must start  with careful planning. and to choose the appropriate  tools to see each stage through to successful completion.

Plan to improve your operations first by  finding out what things are going  wrong (that is identify the problems  faced). and come up with ideas for  solving these problems.The Father of Statistical Process Control 11 . Walter A. This minimises disruption  to routine activity while testing  whether the changes will work or not.Do changes designed to solve the  problems on a small or experimental  scale first. Plan-Do- Check-Act Four stages of the Cycle: 1. 2. Shewhart.

4. Check whether the small scale or experimental changes are achieving the  desired result or not.  or those who may simply benefit from what you have learned (you may. Shewhart. Act to implement changes on a larger scale if the experiment is successful. continuously Check nominated key activities  (regardless of any experimentation going on) to ensure that you know what the  quality of the output is at all times to identify any new problems when they crop  up. suppliers. of course. Walter A.  already have involved these people in the Do or trial stage). Also.  This means making the changes a routine part of your activity.The Father of Statistical Process Control 12 . Also Act to involve  other persons (other departments. Plan-Do- Check-Act 3. or customers) affected by the  changes and whose cooperation you need to implement them on a larger scale.

The Father of Statistical Process Control 13 . Shewhart. Tools and techniques which can be used to  PDCA Cycle complete each stage of the PDCA Cycle. Walter A.

 Shewhart defined control as follows:   "A phenomenon will be said to be controlled when. Walter A."   This definition means that control is not equivalent to a complete absence  of variation but rather that the system is in a state where variation  is predictable within some fixed limit. through the use  of past experience. at least within limits. how the  phenomenon may be expected to vary in the future. Here it is understood  that prediction within limits means that we can state. at least  approximately. Shewhart.The Father of Statistical Process Control 14 . the probability that the observed phenomenon will fall  within the given limits. we can predict. Statistical Process Control (SPC) Walter A.

Statistical Process Control (SPC) Shewhart also realized that frequent process-adjustment in reaction to  non-conformance actually increased variation and degraded quality.  That's why he expressed the fundamental rule of statistical process  control in this way:   "Variation from common-cause systems should be left to chance. Shewhart.  but special causes of variation should be identified and eliminated.The Father of Statistical Process Control 15 ." Walter A.

The Father of Statistical Process Control 16 . Basics of SPC •Statistical Process Control (SPC) UCL –monitoring production process to  detect and prevent poor quality •Sample –subset of items produced to use for  inspection LCL •Control Charts –process is within statistical control  limits Walter A. Shewhart.

Variability Walter A.The Father of Statistical Process Control 17 . Shewhart.

02 0.16 Rbar= 3.18 1.27 Measure2 6 8 10 5 7 10 6 5 7 10 10 10 8 5 11 3 1.00 3.2 7.08 1.37 UCLx= 9.8 7.00 2. .88 0.0SL=0.86 LCL R = 0 UCL R = 8. Shewhart.383 7 5 8 Subgroup 0 5 10 15 Control Chart Actions 9 1 3.6 9.2 9.2 9.86 Xdbar= 7.82 Standard Shewhart Control  Factors.57 Measure3 5 3 5 5 10 9 10 7 6 9 8 5 5 9 6 Measure4 7 7 7 8 5 10 5 10 7 9 10 6 8 5 12 4 0.2 10 7.176 8 2 Sample Range 7 6 3 5 4 R=3.00 2.0SL=5.Thecalculate centre lines Father of Statistical Process Control 18 and limits.613 5 7 6 6 -3.6 7.00E+00 7 8 Subgroup Control Chart Factors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 n A2 D3 D4 Measure1 6 4 9 6 6 9 10 6 8 10 9 9 5 8 8 2 1.0SL=9. used to manually Table for data collection Walter A.4 7 7 7.00 2.73 0.34 0.92 R 2 6 5 3 5 3 5 5 2 1 2 5 4 4 6 LCLx= 5.61 8 0.11 Sum 30 31 38 29 36 50 39 33 36 48 47 35 35 36 48 6 0.48 0.6 7 0.87 9 0.14 1.0SL=8.00 2.37 0.42 0.58 0.844 5 3 Sample Mean 9 4 8 X=7.00 xbar 6 6.28 Measure5 6 9 7 5 8 12 8 5 8 10 10 5 9 9 11 5 0. Actions to  Example Chart rules follow industry follow if Rules  standards or are breached adapt to suit Xbar/R Chart for Data Control Chart Rules 1 1 2 10 3.6 5.8 6.867 4 3 2 5 1 6 0 -3.

Shewhart.SPC in TQM •Tool for identifying problems and make  improvements •Contributes to the TQM goal of continuous  improvements Walter A.The Father of Statistical Process Control 19 .

Shewhart. Quality Measures Walter A.The Father of Statistical Process Control 20 .

Control Charts •A graph that establishes control  limits of a process •Control limits –upper and lower bands  of a control chart Walter A. Shewhart.The Father of Statistical Process Control 21 .

Where to use Control Charts •Process has a tendency to go out of control •Process is particularly harmful and costly if it goes out of control •Examples –at the beginning of a process because it is a waste of time and  money to begin production process with bad supplies –before a costly or irreversible point. Shewhart.The Father of Statistical Process Control 22 . after which product is difficult to  rework or correct –before and after assembly or painting operations that might cover  defects –before the outgoing final product or service is delivered Walter A.

Shewhart.Developing Control Charts Walter A.The Father of Statistical Process Control 23 .

Shewhart.Next Steps Walter A.The Father of Statistical Process Control 24 .

The Father of Statistical Process Control 25 . Shewhart.Process Control Charts Out of control Upper control limit Process average Lower control limit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sample number Walter A.

Shewhart.The Father of Statistical Process Control 26 . Normal Distribution 95% 99.74% -3σ -2σ -1σ µ =0 1σ 2σ 3σ Walter A.

Points appear randomly distributed Walter A. Shewhart.No sample points outside limits 2.A process is in control if.About equal number of points above and  below centerline 4..Most points near process average 3. 1.The Father of Statistical Process Control 27 .

The Father of Statistical Process Control 28 . Walter A. descriptive  terms are used. Control Charts for Attributes •Attribute refers to those quality characteristics that confirm to  specification or do not confirm to specification •When an attribute does not confirm to specification. Shewhart. diff. •A nonconformity is a departure of a quality characteristic from its  product or service not to meet the specification requirement.

Control Charts for Attributes Walter A.The Father of Statistical Process Control 29 . Shewhart.

Walter A. of sample in subgroup •P= np/n. •To control the fraction nonconformity in product. of occurance(events).The Father of Statistical Process Control 30 .Charts •P chart mainly used for the data that consist of the proportion of the number of  occurrence of an event to the total no. quality characteristic or group  of quality characteristic. P. Shewhart. •As a fraction non conformity is the proportion of the number nonconforming the  sample or subgroup to the total no.

P.The Father of Statistical Process Control 31 . Shewhart.Charts UCL = p + zp LCL = p - zp z = number of standard deviations from  process average p= sample proportion defective. an estimate  of process average p =  standard deviation of sample proportion p(1 - p) p = n Walter A.

04 : : : : : : 20 18 .Charts Example NUMBER OF PROPORTION SAMPLE DEFECTIVES DEFECTIVE 1 6 . Shewhart.P.00 3 4 .18 200 20 samples of 100 pairs of jeans Walter A.06 2 0 .The Father of Statistical Process Control 32 .

10(1 - 0.10 - 3 n 100 LCL = 0.10 + 3 n 100 UCL = 0.10) LCL = p - z                    = 0.10(1 - 0.10 total sample observations p(1 - p) 0.Chart Example Cont.010 Walter A. total defectives p = = 200 / 20(100) = 0.P.The Father of Statistical Process Control 33 . Shewhart.190 p(1 - p) 0.10) UCL = p + z                     = 0.

0.08 0.The Father of Statistical Process Control 34 . Shewhart.20 Example 0.Chart 0.010 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Sample number Walter A.04 0.02 LCL = 0.P.10 0.16 0.12 p = 0.14 Proportion defective 0.10 0.06 0.18 UCL = 0.190 Cont.

 a given sample can have more than one  instance of the condition. in which case we count all the times it occurs in the  sample. and from this sample count the  total number of errors in all the transactions. S h e w h a rt.T h e Fa th e r o f S ta tistica l Pro ce ss C o n tro l c. W a lte r A . For our example. We would then track on the control  chart the number of errors in all the sampled transactions per month. we would sample a set number of transactions each  month from all the transactions that occurred. In this case. 35 .Charts The c-Chart monitors the number of times a condition occurs. relative to a  constant sample size.

Shewhart.The Father of Statistical Process Control 36 .Charts UCL = c + zc c=    c LCL = c - zc where c = number of defects per sample Walter A.c.

67 + 3    12.67 = 23.67 = 1.Charts cont. Number of defects in 15 sample rooms NUMBER SAMPL OF E DEFECTS 190 c=           = 12.The Father of Statistical Process Control 37 .99 Walter A. Shewhart.c.67 1            12 15 2              8 3            16 UCL = c + zc :           : = 12.35 :           : 15          15 LCL = c + zc              190 = 12.67 - 3    12.

Shewhart.Charts cont. 24 UCL = 23.35 21 18 Number of defects c = 12.The Father of Statistical Process Control 38 .67 15 12 9 6 3 LCL = 1.c.99 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Sample number Walter A.

Control Charts  for Variables §Mean chart ( x -Chart ) §uses average of a sample §Range chart ( R-Chart ) §uses amount of dispersion in  a sample Walter A.The Father of Statistical Process Control 39 . Shewhart.

The Father of Statistical Process Control 40 .bar chart x1 + x2 + . xk x= = k UCL = x= + A2R LCL = x= . Shewhart..A2R where = x = average of sample means Walter A..X.

03 5.10 5.99 4.92 5.07 4.08 4 5.09 1.12 3 4.08 5.03 4.01 5.08 5.93 4.bar chart example OBSERVATIONS (SLIP- RING DIAMETER.05 0.92 4.02 0.98 5.97 5.15 Walter A.94 4.00 4.97 0.14 5.09 5.89 4.00 4.The Father of Statistical Process Control 41 .15 10 5.09 5.91 5.01 4.99 4.99 5.00 0.99 5.10 50.03 0.10 7 5.08 2 5.96 5.02 5. Shewhart.14 5 4.01 4.96 4.06 4.07 4.13 6 4.X.98 4.99 0.01 0.11 9 5.99 5.96 5.08 5.06 5.96 4.05 5.95 4.05 5.03 5.96 0.01 4.01 5.03 5.99 5.14 8 5.99 5. CM) SAMPLE k  1 2 3 4 5 x R 1 5.10 4.01 4.95 4.10 4.98 0.08 0.

bar chart example cont.The Father of Statistical Process Control 42 .09 x =          =             = 5. = ∑x 50.115) = 5.58)(0.94 Walter A.58)(0.115) = 4.01 + (0.08 = LCL = x - A 2R = 5. Shewhart.X.01 cm k 10 UCL = x + A = 2R = 5.01 - (0.

X.08 = LCL = x - A2R = 5.The Father of Statistical Process Control 43 .01 + (0. = ∑x 50.94 = Walter A.bar chart example cont.09 x =          = =                  = 5.115) = 5.01 cm k 10 UCL = x + A2R = 5.01 - (0.58)(0.58)(0. Shewhart.115) = 4.

Shewhart. 5.08 5.08 – UCL = 5.00 – 4.98 – 4.94 – 4.The Father of Statistical Process Control 44 .92 – | | | | | | | | | | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sample number Walter A.94 4.bar chart example cont.02 – 5.06 – 5.10 – 5.04 – x= = 5.96 – LCL = 4.01 Mean 5.X.

01 5.10 50.95 4.97 0.03 5.15 10 5.96 4.99 5.96 0.08 5.99 5.chart OBSERVATIONS (SLIP-RING DIAMETER.01 4.98 5.98 4.09 5.10 4.99 4.89 4.09 5.98 0.96 5.07 4.10 7 5.14 8 5.03 5.01 5.03 4.08 5.02 5.10 5.14 5.02 0.10 4. Shewhart.96 4.99 5.07 4.97 5.95 4.99 4.99 0.03 0.R.91 5.06 5.00 4.01 0. CM) SAMPLE k  1 2 3 4 5 x R 1 5.05 5.13 6 4.08 4 5.94 4.08 0.99 5.08 5.01 4.92 4.03 5.15 Walter A.96 5.93 4.01 4.11 9 5.14 5 4.05 0.99 5.01 4.12 3 4.The Father of Statistical Process Control 45 .92 5.09 1.05 5.06 4.08 2 5.00 4.00 0.

The Father of Statistical Process Control 46 . Shewhart.R.chart UCL = D4R LCL = D3R ∑R R= k where R = range of each sample k = number of samples Walter A.

92 4.03 5.09 5. CM) SAMPLE k  1 2 3 4 5 x R 1 5.R.91 5.06 5.01 4.10 50.96 5.10 7 5.05 5.09 1.The Father of Statistical Process Control 47 .00 0.96 0.96 4.08 4 5.15 10 5.11 9 5.05 5.02 0.01 0.03 4.03 5.08 5.14 8 5.03 5.10 4.99 0.01 5.05 0.15 Walter A.95 4.13 6 4.98 0.06 4.chart example OBSERVATIONS (SLIP-RING DIAMETER.03 0.14 5 4.97 0.92 5.10 4.89 4.99 4. Shewhart.98 5.96 4.93 4.07 4.02 5.09 5.96 5.99 5.01 4.08 5.01 5.99 5.95 4.99 5.00 4.07 4.12 3 4.98 4.08 0.08 5.14 5.08 2 5.01 4.99 5.94 4.01 4.10 5.97 5.99 5.00 4.99 4.

R- chart
example
cont.

∑R 1.15 UCL = D4R = 2.11(0.115) = 0.243
R= = = 0.115
k 10 LCL = D3R = 0(0.115) = 0

Walter A. Shewhart- The Father of Statistical Process Control 48

R- chart
example
cont.
0.28 –
0.24 –
0.20 – UCL = 0.243

0.16 –
Range

0.12 – R = 0.115

0.08 –
0.04 –
0– LCL = 0
| | | | | | | | | |
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Sample number
Walter A. Shewhart- The Father of Statistical Process Control 49

Performing a
Pattern Test

SAMPLE x ABOVE/BELOW UP/DOWN
ZONE
1 4.98 B — B
2 5.00 B U C
3 4.95 B D A
4 4.96 B D A
5 4.99 B U C
6 5.01 — U C
7 5.02 A U C
8 5.05 A U B
9 5.08 A U A
10 5.03 A D B
Walter A. Shewhart- The Father of Statistical Process Control 50

Sample Test •Attribute charts require larger sample sizes - 50 to 100 parts in a sample •Variable charts require smaller samples - 2 to 10 parts in a sample Walter A. Shewhart.The Father of Statistical Process Control 51 .

Appendix SAMPLE SIZE FACTOR FOR x-CHART FACTORS FOR R-CHART n A2 D3 D4 2 1.40 1.69 14 0.99 0.41 1.11 0.00 0.00 2. Shewhart.65 16 0.18 1.44 0.11 6 0.26 1.72 13 0.42 0.73 0.61 19 0.67 15 0.88 0.39 1.77 0.62 18 0.08 1.33 1.78 11 0.88 0.00 3.58 0.11 0.22 1.99 0.00 7 0.00 2.86 9 0.48 0.61 20 0.59 Walter A.02 0.57 4 0.36 1.00 2.44 0.74 12 0.14 1.The Father of Statistical Process Control 52 .99 0.55 0.28 5 0.22 0.92 8 0.37 0.82 10 0.35 1.00 2.28 1.31 1.64 17 0.38 1.27 3 1.

The Father of Statistical Process Control 53 . Walter A.Shewhart & Six  Sigma Selected aspects of the work of Shewhart and  Deming can be compared with  a common element of various six-sigma  programs. Shewhart.

Shewhart.  • (b) as an operation or technique of attaining uniformity.” Walter A. process behavior charts] may play an  important part in attaining uniformity in the quality of manufactured  product:  • (a) as a concept of a statistical state constituting a limit to which  one may hope to go in improving the uniformity of quality.The Father of Statistical Process Control 54 .e. and • (c) as a judgment.Shewhart & Six  Sigma • Shewhart explains in the opening paragraph of Statistical Method: • “Corresponding to these three steps there are three senses in  which statistical control [i.

 and they  approximate what an unpredictable process can be  made to do.Shewhart & Six  Sigma • The three-sigma limits of a process behavior chart  characterize the potential of your process. Shewhart. They define  what a predictable process will do.The Father of Statistical Process Control 55 . Walter A.

Shewhart & Six  Sigma Walter A. Shewhart.The Father of Statistical Process Control 56 .

sigma goes Rapid spread TQM principles to US mainstream Widespread service industries Pacific basin countries .War US .time Production Ishikawain develops the US Ishikawa diagram and pioneers use of 7 - tools Widespread abandonment of Shewhart's principles in Post . called TQC ( Total Quality Control ) eventually the term TQM ( Total Quality Management ) is used as the label .The Father of Statistical Process Control 57 . Renewed focus on Process Management 1920' 1931 1940' 1943 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 1994 1996 2000 2002 s s US discovers Deming 6 .Deming teaches Shewhart principles to Japanese Deming develops management philosophy based on Shewhart concepts own extend Japanese ideas Deming's teachings . Timeline Shewhart's studies into variation at Bell Telephone Labs Shewhart publishes book . Shewhart. " Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product Widespread adoption of Shewhart's principles for War . develop the " Total Quality ” concept USA starts to copy Japan . excluding Australia emergence of commence adopting TQM Balanced Scorecard Organisational learning Western Europe discovers TQM Australian services sector copies US with emerging as a key adoption Australian of TQM competitive Team based approaches issue to work manufacturing commences with TQM gaining broad acceptance in Developing countries rapidly adopting TQM Businessindustry Process Reengineering Walter A.

  During this period he published many articles papers in the Bell System  Technical Journal. Shewhart. In 1939 he published the important book Statistical  Method from the Viewpoint of Quality Control.The Father of Statistical Process Control 58 .Publications •The Bell Telephone Laboratories were founded in 1925 and Shewhart  moved to them when the Laboratories opened and worked there until his  retirement in 1956. he published Random sampling in the American Mathematical  Monthly in 1931.  Walter A.  •In addition.  •He expanded his interests to a broader use of statistics over this period.

The Father of Statistical Process Control 59 . and of the Royal Statistical Society. He was also a founder of the American Society for Quality Control. and the New York  Academy of Science. Societies Shewhart  was a founder of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics. The Indian Statistical Institute in Calcutta  awarded him an honorary doctorate. of the  International Statistical Institute. Walter A. and was awarded the Holley medal of the American Society  of Mechanical Engineers in 1954. the Econometric Society. He was also  elected to the American Association for the Advancement of Science (serving on  the council during 1942-49). He served a term as president of the American Statistical  Association in 1945. being elected  a fellow and serving a term as vice-president in 1936 and president from 1936 to  1944.  He was elected to a fellowship of the American Statistical Association. Shewhart.

  that nominee.The Father of Statistical Process Control 60 . Shewhart. who is deemed by it to have  demonstrated the most outstanding technical leadership in the field of  modern quality control.”(ASQ bylaws) The Society made him their first honorary member in 1947 and also  made him the first to receive their Shewhart Medal. Walter A. and techniques. not more often than once each year. especially through the development to its theory.  principles. Shewhart Medal The Shewhart Medal is awarded for technical leadership: “The Shewhart  Medal committee may designate... not previously so designated.

The Father of Statistical Process Control 61 .Shewhart’s visit to India The ISI also played a pioneering role in starting the Statistical Quality  Control (SQC) movement in India by organising a visit of Professor W. to India in November 1947  Walter A.A. Shewhart. the father of SQC.  Shewhart.

html •http://www.in/arep0003_chapter7.st-and.com/ •http://asq.ac.References •http://www-groups.jstor.html Walter A.eolss.pdfhttp://walter-a-shewart.blogspot.st-and.pdf •http://www-groups.html •http://mospi.org/about-asq/who-we-are/bio_shewhart.dcs.uk/~history/Biographies/Shewhart.net/ebooks/Sample%20Chapters/C02/E6-02-05-04.The Father of Statistical Process Control 62 .ac.org/pss/25047976 •http://www. Shewhart.nic.uk/~history/Biographies/Shewhart.dcs.

Shewhart.The Father of Statistical Process Control 63 .Thank You Walter A.