Negotiation is :‡
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ one of the most common approaches used to make decisions and manage disputes a dialogue intended to resolve disputes to produce an agreement upon courses of action to bargain for individual or collective advantage or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests

‡ the primary method of alternative dispute resolution

Negotiation occurs in :‡ business ‡ non-profit organizations ‡ government branches ‡ legal proceedings ‡ among nations ‡ personal situations such as marriage, divorce, parenting ‡ and everyday life

CONDITIONS FOR NEGOTIATION :‡ Identifiable parties who are willing to participate. ‡ Interdependence. ‡ Readiness to negotiate. ‡ Means of influence or leverage. ‡ Agreement on some issues and interests ‡ No major psychological barriers to settlement. ‡ The people must have the authority to decide.

‡ Will to settle. ‡ Unpredictability of outcome ‡ Resources to negotiate. ‡ External factors favorable to settlement. ‡ The agreement must be reasonable and implementable ‡ A sense of urgency and deadline

REASONS FOR CHOOSING NEGOTIATIONS:‡ Test the strength of other parties ‡ Obtain information about issues, interests and positions of other parties ‡ Educate all sides about a particular view of an issue or concern ‡ Ventilate emotions about issues or people ‡ Change perceptions

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Mobilize public support Buy time Bring about a desired change in a relationship; Develop new procedures for handling problems; Make substantive gains; Solve a problem.

REASONS FOR REFUSING NEGOTIATION:‡ Parties are fearful of being perceived as weak by a constituency, by their adversary or by the public; ‡ Discussions are premature. There may be other alternatives available--informal communications, small private meetings, policy revision, decree, elections; Meeting could provide false hope to an adversary or to one's own constituency; Meeting could increase the visibility of the dispute; Negotiating could intensify the dispute; Parties lack confidence in the process;

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

‡ There is a lack of jurisdictional authority; ‡ Authoritative powers are unavailable or reluctant to meet; ‡ Meeting is too time-consuming; ‡ Parties need additional time to prepare; ‡ Parties want to avoid locking themselves into a position; there is still time to escalate demands and to intensify conflict to their advantage.

APPROCHES OF NEGOTIATION:‡ ‡ positional bargaining interest-based bargaining

STAGES OF NEGOTIATION:Stage 1: Evaluate and Select a Strategy to Guide Problem solving Stage 2: Make Contact with Other Party or Parties Stage 3: Collect and Analyze Background Information Stage 4: Design a Detailed Plan for Negotiation Stage 5: Build Trust and Cooperation Stage 6: Beginning the Negotiation Session

Stage 7: Define Issues and Set an Agenda Stage 8: Uncover Hidden Interests Stage 9: Generate Options for Settlement Stage 10: Assess Options for Settlement Stage 11: Final Bargaining Stage 12: Achieving Formal Settlement

Tips for negotiation :‡ Don't be afraid to ask ‡ Never negotiate against yourself ‡ Get it in writing ‡ Establish a fall-back plan ‡ Avoid form contracts ‡ Listen to the other side


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