Hydraulic Pumps

Positive Displacement Devices Displacement Formulae Characteristics

Gear Pumps (External Gear)
 Pumping

Mechanism

Gear Pumps (External Gear)
 Displacement

parameters and

determination  Displacement = π/4(Do2 – Di2)L
 Do  Di

= Outer diameter of the two gears = Inner diameter of the two gears
it is the diameter of the circle defined by the center of one gear and the outer diameter of the other.)

 (Actually

Gear Pumps (External Gear)
 Advantages:
 Cheap

(easy to manufacture)  Compact  Cheap
 Did

I say inexpensive?

Gear Pumps (External Gear)
 Disadvantages
 Limited

pressure capability  Unbalanced (note where pressure is) Results in large bearing loads  Can be noisy (gear mesh noise)  Volumetric efficiency?  Fixed Displacement

Gear Pumps (Internal Gear)
 Pumping

Mechanism

Gear Pumps (Internal Gear)
 Displacement

is a function of the number of teeth on the internal and external gears and the size of the crescent divider.  ( I don’t have a formula for the displacement. Perhaps you can derive one.)

Gear Pumps (Internal Gear)
 Advantages
 Similar

to external gear pumps in many respects  Quieter as gear slap is reduced
 Disadvantages
 Somewhat

more difficult to manufacture  Same issues of volumetric efficiency  Same issues of unbalanced forces  Fixed displacement

Gear Pumps (Internal Gear - Gerotor)
 Mechanism
 External

(inside) gear is shaft driven  Internal gear is driven by external  Single tooth space is displaced  Design keeps tolerance close throughout the cycle

Gear Pumps (Internal Gear - Gerotor)
 Advantages
 Cheap  Simple  Cheap

Gear Pumps (Internal Gear - Gerotor)
 Disadvantages
 Limited

pressure capability  Unbalanced design  Fixed displacement  Frequently used as a charge pump

Vane Pumps
 Pumping

mechanism

Vane Pumps
 Displacement
 VD

= π/2(Dc-DR)eL

 C = Cam  R = Rotor  E = eccentricity  L= depth

Vane Pumps (Variations)
 Vane

tip pressure control options

 Outlet

pressure under the vanes  Surface pressure under the vanes  Intravanes: outlet pressure is applied always to a small area of the vane while surface pressure is applied to the rest of the area
 These

are probably Vickers innovations and hence are highlighted in the text

Vane Pumps (Variations)
 Balanced

designs

Vane Pumps Advantages
 Cartridges

to quickly replace rotating group

Vane Pumps (Variations)
 Variable

Displacement Design

Vane Pumps
 Advantages
 Quieter

than gear pumps  Higher pressure capability than gear pumps?  Better volumetric efficiency than gear pumps?  Can be balanced in design for longer life  Variable displacement an option
 Disadvantages
 More

complex and expensive than gear pumps

Piston Pump Designs
 Axial

Piston

Piston Pump Designs
 Displacement
 VD

of an axial piston pump

= YAD tan(θ)

 Y = Number of Pistons in the rotating group  A = the area of a single piston  D = is the diameter of the centerline circle of the

piston bores  θ is the angle of the swashplate or the bend angle

Piston Pump Designs
 Radial

piston design

Piston Pump Designs
 Bent

axis design

Piston Pump Designs
 Bent

axis – variable displacement design

Piston Pump Designs
 Axial

piston – variable displacement design

Piston Pump Advantages
 Generally

highest volumetric efficiency  Generally highest pressure capability  Variable displacement designs

Piston Pump Disadvantages
 Higher

cost (complexity)

General Issues
 Pumps

are not strictly continuous flow devices. Discrete chambers are involved.  Flow is collected for discharge through valve plates  Design of the valve plate and the pump mechanism affects pressure pulses and variation (ripple) of torque and pressure  Design of pumps is not taught here

General Issues
 Our

theoretical displacements can be used to determine theoretical pump flow  Actual flow is a linear function of pump displacement, speed, a units constant, and an efficiency term  Two kinds of inefficiencies
 Volumetric  Friction

losses

losses

Actual Pump Output, Q
 Qp

= (Vp np ηVp) /1000 where:  Q: L/min  Vp : cm3/rev  ηVp: Volumetric efficiency (decimal)
 OR…

Qp = (Vp np ηVp) /231 where:  Q: GPM  Vp: in3/rev  ηVp: same as above (no units)

Torque to Drive a Pump
 Tp

= (ΔP Vp)/(2π ηtp)

where:

 Tp

: Newton meters torque required

 ΔP

: pressure rise across the pump in MPa  Vp : Pump displacement in cm3/rev
 ηtp : Pump torque efficiency – a decimal  OR…

Torque to Drive a Pump
English Units
 Tp

= (ΔP Vp)/(2π ηtp)

where:

 Tp

: inch lbs torque required

 ΔP

: pressure rise across the pump in PSI  Vp : Pump displacement in inches3/rev
 ηtp : Pump torque efficiency – a decimal

Power to Drive the Pump
 The

hydraulic power is QpΔP/60 or QpΔP/1714 for SI and English units
 (note

this is actual pump flow, not theoretical)

 Shaft

power to drive the pump is given by Psp = Phydr / ηpp where:
 ηpp = ηvp ηtp

which is total pump efficiency

What Determines ηvp & ηtp ?
 ηvp

is a function of clearance spaces, system pressure, and pump speed  Leakage flow at a given pressure is relatively fixed regardless of pump speed  It is also affected by fluid viscosity as lower viscosity fluid will result in higher leakage flow and lower volumetric efficiency

What about Torque Efficiency?
 Torque

efficiency is a function of speed and fluid viscosity  Higher pump speeds will result in lower efficiency as viscous friction is speed dependent  Lower viscosity fluid can reduce viscous losses but acts negatively on volumetric efficiency

Efficiencies

(μ n)/(ΔP x 1000)

Sizing Pumps
 Component
 Load
Flow

sizing begins with the LOAD

and actuator will determine

requirement for this circuit Pressure range required by the circuit (We’ll do this with cylinders and motors… soon)
 Total

the simultaneous flow requirements  Select for the maximum load pressure  Add pressure drops that will occur in valves, lines and fittings ( another topic to come…)

Pump Sizing
 With

pump outlet pressure and flow known we will consider speed.
 Industrial

apps will use synchonous speed of electric motors. Generally 1750 rpm, or possibly 1100. ($ decides)  Small diesel apps such as skid loaders can operate directly from engine crankshaft and will have engine speed. (2000-3000 rpm).  Larger diesel apps – pump splitter with gear reductions possible to optimize speed

Pump Sizing
 Determine

appropriate speed for your app  Use the equation for pump flow, solved for displacement
 Vp

= 1000Q/p (np ηVp)

 What

shall we use for ηVp??

 This

is a function of speed, pressure, and fluid viscosity  Look for vendor data or curves and adjust…

Example Pump Problem Car Crusher
 Need

125,000 lbs of force  8 foot stroke  10 seconds to extend?  Target system max pressure of 1500 psi  What is the cylinder size needed?
 125,000

lbs/ A (area) = 1500 psi  Area = 83.33 in2  πr2 = 83.33 in2 r = 5.15 inches (let’s use 5”)

Car Crusher Pump cont’d
 What

will the system pressure be?

 Cylinder

area = 52 π = 78.53 in2  125,000 lbs / 78.53 in2 = 1592 psi  We study our plumbing and valves and allow for 300 psi drops in our system  Set PRV to 1900?

Car Crusher Pump cont’d
 What
Q

is flow is required of the pump?

= cyl stroke x area /time  Q = 96 in x 78.53 in2/ 10 sec = 754 in3/sec  754 in3/sec x 1 gal/231 in3 x 60 sec/min  Q = 195.8 GPM
Note

that we have sized for one cylinder. We might have others (a cylinder to kick your crushed Hummer bale out of the machine). Size for those that will be used simultaneously.

Car Crusher Pump cont’d
 Pump

speed:

 Electric

power available? - 1750 rpm  Remote from grid? Diesel at 2200 rpm
 Determine
 Vp  Vp  Vp

approximate size

= 1000Q/p (np ηVp) or 231Q/p (np ηVp) = 231*196/(1750*.95) = 27.2 inches3/revolution

Car Crusher Pump cont’d
 Large
 Now

pump (27.2 in3/rev)

we would look at vendors  For this large, a piston design is likely  Could also select two or more smaller pumps operating in tandem with outlets coupled  Selection will be based upon costs of installation, costs of operation, and required life
Continuous

use favors efficiency Intermittent use may favor low initial cost

Pumps Selection
 Fixed
 So

or variable displacement?

far our circuit is simple and we would likely use a fixed displacement pump  Later we will look at more efficient circuits and may wish to select a variable displacement pump with appropriate controls

itive displacement pumps:
Reciprocating piston External gear pump

Double screw pump

Sliding vane

Three-lobe pump (left) Double circumferential piston (centre)

Flexible tube squeegee (peristaltic)

Pumps in series and parallel
Series

Equivalent pump

Parallel

Equivalent pump

Pumps in Series
Add the heads (H) at each flow rate (Q) For example, for two identical pumps the head will be double that of a single pump.

Pumps in Parallel
Add the flow rates (Q) at each head (H) For example, for two identical pumps the flow rate will be double that of a single pump.

Pump-system operation
System resistance (losses) curves (typically H ∝ Q2)

C = operating point

Positive Displacement Pumps
 Typical

Characteristics

 Constant

Flow at Various Pressures  Pulse Flow is possible  Most can pump solids suspended in liquids  Self-priming

Types of PD Pumps
 Rotary
 Gear  Lobe  Vane  Screw

Pumps
– Internal, External

 Reciprocating
 Piston  Plunger  Diaphragm

Pumps

Rotary vs. Reciprocating Pumps
 Rotary

pumps transfer liquid through the action of a rotating mechanism (gear, lobe or vane) operating inside a rigid container  Pumping rates varied by changing speed of rotor

Rotary vs. Reciprocating Pumps
 Reciprocating

pumps move liquids by changing the internal volume of the pump  Require valves on the suction and discharge sides  Pumping rates varied by changing the frequency or the stroke length

Source: http://www.watson-marlow.com/wna-se/p-fmi.htm

Internal Gear Pumps
•Smaller gear rotating within a bigger gear •Partial vacuum created by meshing and unmeshing of internal teeth with external teeth •Crescent divides liquid flow between rotor and

Source: http://www.pumpschool.com/principles/internal.htm

PD Pump Curve

Source: http://www.driedger.ca/ce2_pdp/CE2_PDP.html

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