CHAP 01 : Communication and Its Components




Is the process of sending and receiving messages, whether you are exchanging e-mail, giving a formal presentation or chatting with co-workers. Effective Communication


Producing the intended result. When other understand your message correctly and respond to it the way you want them. Business


Business: the activity of buying, selling, or supplying goods or services for money legally. 12/6/2010


Definitions and their Analysis:
Communication is the various processes, both formal and informal, by which information is passed between the managers and employees within a business, or between the business itself and outsiders. Up Ward


Down ward Horizontal

Business Outsiders
12/6/2010 3

Definitions and their Analysis: Communication is a two way process of transmitting and receiving verbal and nonverbal messages. 12/6/2010 4 .

Definitions and their Analysis: Communication is a dialogue." Dialogue 12/6/2010 Monologue 5 . not a monologue. In fact. communication is more concerned with a dual listening process.

Verbal communication Verbal Communication refers to the spoken or written words you send or receive. Oral One-on-one conversations Meetings Phone calls Presentations Videoconferences Written Memorandums Letters Email Reports Miscellaneous 12/6/2010 6 .

1.Time & Silence Volume 12/6/2010 7 . Body Language Appearance Posture Gesture Touch 2.Nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication refers to messages without the use of words. Vocal Cues Pitch Rate 4. Space. Facial Expressions Eye Contact 3.

and sudden movements are all babies attempts to gain attention 12/6/2010 8 . humans develop body language skills ‡ Specifically. ATTENTION is what we learn first ‡ Crying.Body Language is Everybody s First Language ‡ From birth. before learning to speak. making noise.

Warming up II ‡ Match each picture with the emotion and correct sentence. 12/6/2010 9 .

is very impolite in other parts of the world. 12/6/2010 10 .Legs & Feet * In Asia and some European countries. * Sitting cross-legged. while common in North America and some European countries. putting feet up on a desk or any other piece of furniture is very disrespectful.

* For greeting and farewell * Handshaking 12/6/2010 11 .Hands * The Italian good-bye wave can be interpreted by Americans as the gesture of come here. * The American good-bye wave can be interpreted in many parts of Europe and Latin America as the signal for no.

Hands ‡ Friends put hands on each other to show closeness. 12/6/2010 12 . * Hand-holding among the same sex is a custom of special friendship and respect in several Middle Eastern and Asian countries.

* Left hand is considered unclean in much of the Middle East and in parts of Indonesia.Hands * Right hand. 12/6/2010 13 . The right hand has special significance in many societies. In certain countries in the Middle East and in Asia. using only the right hand or both. it is best to present business cards or gifts. or to pass dishes of food. to get an attention.

Turkey. Russia and some other countries 12/6/2010 14 . in most cultures.Fingers * The O. * zero or worthless in some parts of Europe * money in Japan * an insult in Greece. Italy. (the thumb and forefinger form a circle) means * fine.K.K. signal. or O. Brazil.

* Malaysians prefer pointing with the thumb.Fingers * Pointing. * But it is considered impolite in Japan and China where they favor using the whole open hand. * Pointing with the index finger is common in North America and Europe. 12/6/2010 15 .

Components of Communication ‡ Communication includes six components: ± ± ± ± ± ± Context SenderSender-Encoder Message Medium ReceiverReceiver-Decoder Feedback 12/6/2010 16 .

every culture. . organization. culture.1. and every company or organization has its own conventions for processing and communicating information. and external and internal stimuli. December 6. ‡ Every country. ‡ Context is a broad field that includes country. Context ‡ Every Communication begins with a context. 2010 17 12/6/2010 17 .

depending on whether your message is written or oral. 2010 18 12/6/2010 18 . you are the encoder .2. December 6. Sender-Encoder When you send a message. the writer or speaker.

2010 19 12/6/2010 19 . December 6. Message ‡ The message is the core idea you want to communicate. it consists of both verbal (written or spoken) symbols and nonverbal (unspoken) symbols.3.

letter. Medium ‡ To transmit your message to receiver. and an email. December 6. you select a communication channel such as the telephone. memo. 2010 20 12/6/2010 20 . your need for speed and formality required. the media available to you.4. your audience s location. ‡ The choice of channel depends on your message.

also known as the decoder. Receiver-Decoder ‡ The message receiver is your reader or listener. 2010 21 12/6/2010 21 . December 6.5. Many of your messages may have more than one decoder.

‡ Sometimes silence is used as feedback. It can also be an action. December 6.6. Feedback ‡ Ultimately the receiver reacts with either the desired response based on a clear understanding of the symbols or with an undesired response because of miscommunication. ‡ Feedback can be oral or written. such as receiving in the mail an item you ordered. 2010 22 12/6/2010 22 .

12/6/2010 23 . Speaking and listening effectively.Communication s Complexity (1) Communication is really more than speaking and listening.

you send and receive messages simultaneously. When a good player hits the ball. he or she moves into position to prepare for the return shot.  In communication. This transactional process may be pictured in the following way: Person One Person Two Speaking Listening Listening Speaking 12/6/2010 24 . A poor player may just stand there after hitting the ball instead of anticipating the return shot.Communication s Complexity (2) 2) Communication is Transactional  Transactional means that both communicators are constantly involved in and adjusting to the process  Communication works like a skilled tennis match: both tennis players are involved constantly in the game.

Communication s Complexity (3) 3) Communication Involves sharing of Meanings Meaning refers to the interpretation speakers and listeners place on the verbal and nonverbal messages they send out and receive.´ 12/6/2010 25 . ³Words don¶t mean. There is a wonderful expression that states. people do.

or ³noise. day dreaming 12/6/2010 26 . ‡When a person has trouble receiving the message that is being sent.Communication s Complexity (4) (5) Communication is blocked by interference.´ Interference: Something that blocks a listener¶s ability to receive a message. car traffic. sickness. External Interference: Big screen Tv. it is often because of interference. loud music Internal Interference: Tension.

You have to consider people¶s culture and expectation. Problems of Communication (cont d) 1) Conventions of Meaning 2) Perceptions of Reality 12/6/2010 27 .Communication s Complexity (5) (6)Communication occurs in context.

Cheap book. 12/6/2010 28 . Cheap book.Problems of Communication (Cont d) 1) Conventions o Meaning: a) Miscommunication Instructions Miscommunication occurs when sender and receiver give different meanings to the same word or different words attending the same meaning. (Twice a month) (Every two months) ‡ Tenement. Denotative. Connotative. ‡ Bimonthly. A large building divided into flats A land which does not have any building.

‡ Such problems may affect a person s ability to take in information through his/ her senses.Individual Perception (Physical Differences) ‡ You are farsighted but your brother is near sighted. ‡ You may have fine hearing but your friends ear infection may reduce his/her ability to hear properly. 12/6/2010 29 .

Functions of Silence (To provide thinking time) To allow the speaker thinking time In order to continue verbal communication. 12/6/2010 30 . It is important to have an opportunity.

Functions of Silence (Cont d) ‡ To be ready for future messages to recall references and what to come next ‡ Confessing undying love 12/6/2010 31 .

12/6/2010 32 .Functions of Silence (To Prevent Communication) ‡ Silence is to prevent the verbal communication of certain messages ‡ Once said something can t be unsaid ‡ Silence allows us to cool off ‡ Keep quiet and people think you philosopher.

Functions of Silence (To Communicate Feelings) ‡ Religious ceremonies ‡ To communicate nothing 12/6/2010 33 .

Time and Appropriateness When to do something ? When to say something to be effective 12/6/2010 34 . Clock watching Totally unaware when to leave.-10 min.Time ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ On time 5min.

12/6/2010 35 . Nonverbal messages may contradict the verbal messages.Joint Functions O Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication ‡ Nonverbal messages support verbal ± We want to make strong defense system.

what should you do? ‡ If someone looks at watch while you re explaining a process.Joint Functions of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication (Cont d) ‡ Nonverbal messages may replace verbal. ‡ Nonverbal Messages regulate verbal messages ‡ When someone puts his hand to his ear during your presentation. what might you do? 12/6/2010 36 .

Goal o Any Communication: The goal of any form of communication is to promote complete understanding of a message 12/6/2010 37 .

religious artifacts and school insignia stand for something else. songs. How important are symbols to you in your daily life? How far should we go to protect them or to control them? What exactly do they communicate? Discuss the following incident from a communication perspective and answer the above question. 12/6/2010 38 .‡ Deciding on the medium: Oral or Written? Symbols such as flags.

However. The supervisor of the day shift has been with the company for 6 years and liked by the management of the company. some of which are unpopular in Germany. he is known to have strong opinions.± You are the American manager for a division of an American company that produces medical products. Your division is located in a small town in southern Germany. What would you do? 12/6/2010 39 . One day he brought in an old Nazi flag and tacked it on the bulletin board. Most of his coworkers were incensed. Some demanded his immediate dismissal.

You are the assistant to an architect for an American firm that has been contracted to build a new hospital in Kabul. He has asked you to prepare a short report outlining the nonverbal customs of Afghanistan and specifically of Kabul.‡ A short Informative Report on the Non verbal customs of an Asian Country. eating customs and any other pertinent information. Include in your report. dress. Kabul conventions of time and space. 12/6/2010 40 . Your boss will be spending 2 months in Afghanistan supervising the project until it gets under way. gestures and body language.

2010 41 41 . December 6.Assignment ‡ Bring at least 10 Pictures and explain the message they communicate.

Chapter Two Speaking and Listening in Public What is Public Speaking? €Public Speaking is a way of sharing your ideas with other people and of influencing other people 42 12/6/2010 .

Death 2.Public Speaking Produces Anxiety in Most People People¶s Biggest Fears 3. Snakes 1. Public Speaking 12/6/2010 43 .

12/6/2010 44 . and athletes are nervous before a big game. ƒ Surveys show that 76% of experienced speakers have stage fright before taking the floor. politicians are nervous before a speech.Developing Confidence 1. Nervousness is Normal ƒ Actors are nervous before a play.

squeeze your hands together and then release them Concentrate on communicating rather than worrying about stage fright 12/6/2010 45 . Here are many ways you can turn your nervousness from negative force into a positive one: Acquire Speaking Experience Prepare. Prepare. you should transform it from a negative force into positive nervousness. quietly tighten and relax your leg muscles. Dealing with Nervousness ƒ ƒ Cont d Rather than trying to eliminate every stage fright. deep breaths before you start to speak Make eye contact with your audience As you are waiting to speak. Prepare Think Positively Use the Power of Visualization Know That Most Nervousness Is Not Visible Don t Expect Perfection Take a couple slow.Developing Confidence 2.

and successful politicians are all excellent listeners. 12/6/2010 46 . ‡ Top business people. there are exceptions.Listening is Important ‡ Although most people listen poorly.

as when we attend a classroom lecture or listen to directions 4. as when a doctor listens to a patient or when we listen to a friend is distress 3. as when we listen to music. Comprehensive Listening listening to understand the message of a speaker.Kinds of Listening 1. as when we listen to the speech a political candidate. Critical Listening listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it. Appreciative Listening listening for pleasure or enjoyment. 2. or arguments in a court 12/6/2010 47 . Empathic Listening listening to provide emotional support for the speaker.

the brain can process 400 to 800 words a minute. €Listening Too Hard ƒ We try to pick up a speaker s every word as if every word were equally important €Jumping to Conclusions €Focusing on Delivery and Personal Appearance 12/6/2010 48 .Four Causes of Poor Listening €Not Concentrating ƒ Although we talk at a rate of 120 to 150 words a minute.

This is passive listening. €Resist Distractions ƒ We try to eliminate all physical and mental distractions ƒ Make a conscious effort to pull your mind back to what the speaker is saying. ƒ Active listeners give their undivided attention to the speaker to understand his or her point of view. This is not the same as jumping to conclusions. €Be an Active Listener ƒ We listen to a music while studying. ƒ Another way to keep your mind on a speech is to review mentally what the speaker has already said and make sure you understand it 12/6/2010 49 . Try to anticipate what the speaker is saying next.How to Become a Better Listener €Take Listening Seriously ƒ Listening comes from practice. parents listen to their children while fixing the dinner.

How to Become a Better Listener Cont d €Don t be Diverted by Appearance or Delivery ƒ Gandhi was a very unimpressive-looking man who often spoke dressed in a simple white cotton cloth. €Develop Note-Taking Skills Note12/6/2010 50 . you need not fear listening to opposing views. you have every reason to listen carefully. ƒ It has been said more than once that a closed mind is an empty mind. ƒ If you are not sure. €Suspend Judgment ƒ If you are sure of your beliefs.

Chapter 3 The Seven C¶s of Effective Communication 12/6/2010 51 .

2. 7.Seven C s Communication Principles that we must apply to compose effective written and oral messages. 6. Completeness Conciseness Consideration Concreteness Clarity Courtesy Correctness 12/6/2010 52 . 5. 4. 1. 3.

Completeness Completeness offers numerous benefits: 1. 2. They can do a better job of building goodwill 3. Can help avert (Stop happening) costly lawsuits (complaints) that may result if important information is missing 12/6/2010 53 . Bring the desired results without the expense of additional messages.

when. why) ii. when desirable 12/6/2010 54 . Give something extra. Answer all questions asked. what . Provide all necessary information.Continued«. The following are the guidelines for a complete message i.where. (Who. iii.

Avoid unnecessary repetition 12/6/2010 55 . ii. Suggestions for achieving conciseness i. A concise message is complete without being wordy. Eliminate Wordy Expressions Include only Relevant Materials iii. A concise message saves time and expense for both sender and receiver.Conciseness What you have to say in the fewest possible words.

Use Single-Word Substitutes instead of phrases whenever possible without changing meaning. Eliminate Wordy Expressions 1.unnecessary expressions Wordy: Please be advised that your admission statement was received Concise: Your admission statement has been received. 12/6/2010 56 . Wordy: At this time Concise: Now 2. Omit trite (dull) .Continued« i.

Omit ³which´ and ³that´ clauses whenever possible. 4. Concise: The balance due is on page 2 of this report. Limit use of passive voice.Continued«. Wordy: The total balance due will be found on page 2 of this report. 3. 12/6/2010 57 . Wordy: She bought a car which was nice.. Concise: She bought a nice car.

‡ Get to the important point tactfully and concisely. Include Only Relevant Material ‡ Stick to the purpose of the message. 58 . pompous words. ‡ Avoid long introductions. gushy (excessively effusive) politeness. 12/6/2010 Concise: We appreciate your confidence. Wordy: We hereby wish to let you know that our company is pleased with the confidence you have reposed (rely) in us. ‡ Delete irrelevant words and rambling(aimless) sentences.Continued« ii. unnecessary explanations. excessive adjectives and prepositions.

Instead of American ³Association of Technical Analysts´ again and again. 12/6/2010 59 .Continued«. Cut out all needless repetition of phrases and sentences. Instead of ³North Central Company´ North Central ii. iii. Use pronouns or initials rather than repeat long names. use ³it´ or ³they´ or ³AATA´ iii. Avoid Unnecessary Repetition ‡ Use a shorter Name After you have mentioned the long one once.

Don¶t accuse Don¶t charge without facts. Guidelines to indicate consideration. 12/6/2010 60 .    Don¶t lose temper.  Try to put yourself in their place.Consideration Preparing the message with message receivers in mind. pleasant facts.  Show Audience Benefit or Interest  Emphasize positive.  Focus on ³You´ instead of ³I´ and ³we´.

Continued« i. Focus on ³You´ instead of ³I´ and ³we´. We-attitude: I am delighted to announce that we will be extending our hours to make our shopping more convenient. You-attitude: You will be able to shop evenings with extended hours. ii. Show Audience Benefit or Interest

‡ Show how your receivers will benefit from whatever the message announces or asks. ‡ Readers may react positively when benefits are

shown to them.


Continued« iii. Emphasize Positive, Pleasant Facts

Negative --- Unpleasant We don¶t refund if the returned items soiled and unsalable. Positive ---- Pleasant We refund when the returned item is clean and resalable.



‡ To be specific, definite and vivid rather than vague and general. ‡ It means using denotative rather than connotative words. For example, the term female has different connotations such as wife, mother, widow, dowager, etc. The following guidelines should help compose concrete, convincing message. i. Use Specific Facts and Figures ii. Put Action in Your Verb

iii. Choose Vivid, image building words.


A lecture was delivered. slow. confusion. He delivered a lecture. The following are some of the words which can lead to uncertainty. most. (Active) 12/6/2010 a. (passive) 64 . Slightly. vividness. ii. Put Action in Your Verbs when the Subjects acts there is more life. Use Active rather than passive verbs. small. soon. use an exact.Continued« i. Use Specific Facts and Figures Whenever possible. several. precise statement or a figure in place of a general word to make your message more concrete.

Not in Nouns Action Hiding in a ³Quiet´ Noun The function of this office is the collection of payments and the compilation of statements. Not in Infinitives Action Hiding in Infinitive The duty of secretary is to check incoming mail. Put Action in Verb. Action in the Verb The Secretary checks the incoming mail. Action in the Verb The office collects payments and compiles statements.Continued« b. Put Action in Verbs. 12/6/2010 65 . c.

12/6/2010 66 . instead of saying´ It was hot in the factory´ you may say the ³sweat trickled down the arms of the line workers´.Continued« iii. For example. Image-Building Words You can use the following devices to make your messages forceful. Comparison ( Comparison can make an unclear idea clear or make it more vivid Compare: This is a long letter. vivid and specific. b. Sensory Appeals (Which appeals to one or more of the five senses). This letter is three times as long as you said it would be. a.Choose Vivid.

Continued« c. break the pitcher. 12/6/2010 67 . Figurative language ( Art representing forms that are recognizably derived from life) For example.

ideas. experiences associated with words. Choose Precise. Clarity is difficult because we all carry around our own interpretations. As you strive for clarity follow the guidelines below: i. Construct Effective Sentences and Paragraphs 12/6/2010 68 .Clarity The purpose of clarity is to get meaning from your head to the head of your reader/listener accurately. Concrete and Familiar Words ii.

Concrete and Familiar Words When you use precise or concrete language. instead of long. i. Choose Precise. you select exactly the right word to convey your meaning.Continued«.. unfamiliar words.. Familiar About After Pay Invoice Unfamiliar Circa Subsequent Remuneration Statement for Payment 12/6/2010 69 . Choose Short. familiar words.

Continued« ii. For example. compound or complex.unity means that you have one main idea and many other ideas in the sentence must be closely related. Unity: In a sentence. Length: The suggested average sentence length should be about 17 to 20 words. 2. 12/6/2010 70 . ‡ Avoid long sentences ‡ Avoid too many short sentences. there is no unity in the sentence below. I drink water and she is from Kabul. coherence and emphasis 1.whether simple. Construct Effective Sentences and Paragraphs Important Characteristics to Consider are: Length. unity.

Coherence: The Words are correctly arranged so that the ideas clearly express the intended meaning. 3. Clear: As you are an excellent lawyer. I am sure you can help us. you can surely help us.Continued«. Clear: Being an excellent lawyer. I am sure you «« 12/6/2010 71 . Try to place the correct modifier as close as possible to the word it is supposed to modify Look at the example below: Unclear: Being an excellent lawyer.

Be Sincerely Tactful. Choose Non-Discriminatory Expressions 12/6/2010 72 . ii.Courtesy Courtesy involves being aware not only of the perspective of others . thoughtful. The Following are suggestions for generating a courteous tone. Use Expressions that show respect iii. i.but also their feelings. and appreciative.

you didn¶t read my latest Fax. More Tactful Sometimes my wording Is not precise. let me try again 12/6/2010 73 .Continued« i. Be Sincerely Tactful. Blunt Clearly. Thoughtful and Appreciative Tactless.

± ± ± ± b. Irresponsible You failed to Omit Questionable Humor 12/6/2010 74 . Contrary to your inference I don t agree with you.Continued ii. We should try to avoid such expressions. a. Use Expressions that Show Respect Omit Irritating Expressions The following are expressions which people find irritating.

Choose Non-Discriminatory Expressions Another requirement for courtesy is the use of nondiscriminatory language that reflects equal treatment of people regardless of gender. race.Continued iii. ethnic origin and physical features. 12/6/2010 75 .

all of concerned about the issue. noted on his bill. grade reduced. you should be concerned about the issue.6.5 Courtesy (Cont d)  Any one who comes Students who come late to class late will get his to class will have their grade reduced.  Each customer will Customers will have new have the new changes changes noted on their bills.  You guys shall be Both men and women. .

incorrect grammar. informal. The following are the characteristic of correctness.Correctness At the core of correctness is proper grammar. scholarly articles. Substandard: Using incorrect words. Informal: Writing is more characteristics of business writing. Formal: Writing is often associated with scholarly writing: doctoral dissertation. top level government agreements and other materials where formality in style is demanded. legal documents. Use the Right Level of Language There are three levels of language: Formal. i. and substandard. ‡ ‡ ‡ 12/6/2010 77 . and faulty pronunciation. punctuation and spelling.

Continued. facts and words. and Words. 12/6/2010 78 . Verify your statistical data Double check your totals Have some one else read your message Determine whether a fact has changed over time. ± ± ± ± ± Check Accuracy of Figures. ii. Check and double to ensure that the figures. Facts..

Chapter Four The Process of Preparing Effective Business Messages Monday. December 06. 2010 79 .

in a credit refusal letter.Five Planning Steps 1. mental filters. and culture Monday. your purpose is: to refuse the request while encouraging the customer s continued business 2. Identify Your Purpose All messages have an underlying rational purpose-to create goodwill. For example. Analyze Your Audience You realize how important it is to adapt your messages to your receivers views. December 06. 2010 80 . needs.

Choose your Ideas With your purpose and receiver in mind. the next step is to choose the ideas for your message If you are answering a letter. underline the main points to discuss and jot your ideas in the margin Begin by listing ideas as they come to youbrainstorming-and then choose the best ideas for your receiver The ideas you include depend on the type of message you are sending and the background and location of your receiver(national or international) Monday. 2010 81 .3. December 06.

picture. 2010 82 . Collect Your Data You must determine whether you need specific facts. rambling messages often seem careless. figures. Organize Your Message Before you write your first drat. confusing. you may need to enclose a brochure. or other forms of evidence to support your points Sometimes. or product sample 5. and unimportant Monday. outline your message(mentally or on paper) The order in which you present your ideas is as important as the ideas themselves Disorganized. quotations. December 06.4. table.

2.Basic Organizational Plans ‡ For letters. 2010 83 . Direct-Request Plan Good-News Plan Bad-News Plan Persuasive-request Plan ± The first two plans use the direct approach. you can choose one of four basic organizational plans: 1. which states the main idea later Monday. the last two plans use the indirect approach. 4. 3. which begins with the main idea. December 06.

1. Direct (Deductive) Approach
‡ When you think your reader or listener will have a favorable or neutral reaction to your message ‡ You begin with the main idea or best news. After the opening, you include all necessary explanatory details in one or several paragraphs and end with an appropriate, friendly closing ‡ Use the direct-request plan when the main purpose of your message is to make a request that requires less persuasion ‡ Use good-news plan to grant requests, announce favorable or neutral information, and exchange routine information within or between companies

Monday, December 06, 2010


2. Indirect (Inductive) Approach
‡ If you think your readers or listeners might react negatively to your message, generally you should not present the main idea in the first paragraph ‡ Instead consider beginning with a buffer-a relevant pleasant, neutral, or receiver-benefit statement; then give an explanation before you introduce your idea ‡ The bad-news message is one of the most difficult to prepare because your reader may react negatively. ‡ Likewise, in the persuasive request you may face resistance
Monday, December 06, 2010 85

Beginnings and Endings
‡ Two of the most important positions in business message are the opening and closing paragraphs You have probably heard the old sayings First impressions are lasting and We remember best what we read last. and All is well that ends well.


Monday, December 06, 2010


concise. Sentence structure 2. courteous. 2010 87 . Buffer first for bad-news messages 3. or discards it a. Get reader into opening 2. Choose Openings Appropriate for Message Purpose and Reader 1. Opening Paragraphs Often the opening of a written message determines whether the reader continues reading. Use courteous. Avoid unnecessary repetition c. Focus on the positive 4. Check for completeness regarding 1. Date of letter you are answering Monday. puts the message aside for later. neutral. and good-news messages 2.1. clear 1. Make the opening considerate. conversational language 5. Attention-getting statements first for persuasive requests b. Keep first paragraph relatively short 3. December 06. Main idea or good-news first for direct-request.

reply envelope . state your office hours and location When: Date the action.2. Closing Paragraphs Your closing is more likely to motivate the reader to act as requested if it is appropriately strong. Make action request clear and complete with the five W s and the H if you want your reader to do something What and Who: Clearly state what action you desire and who should do it How and Where: Make action easy. if possible Monday. clear.give instructions. 2010 88 . December 06. if desirable Why: Show reader benefit. Include phone number. and polite 1.

Letter writing 12/6/2010 .

 Industrial & commercial life  Business side of personal life  House purchasing  Maintenance of property  Insurance of property  Income tax  Placing order  Purchasing of personal and house hold use  Applications of employment and so on). 12/6/2010 .Business Letters Business letters are concerned with.

correct letter parts. 12/6/2010 .Business letters The appearance of the letter should be very Appropriate which will produce a favorable reaction. and layout. They are stationery.

size. color: Good company stationery is most often at least 25 % cotton content. 12/6/2010 . 20 pound weight. a: Quality. cream or light gray in color.Business Letters 1. 8 ½ by 11 inches size. and white. stationery and Envelop Keep the following guidelines for the stationery of letter.

Nature of business IV. Complete address III. I. The letterhead should have only necessary information and that too in a brief form but it must have. Name of company II. Telephone number and fax number 12/6/2010 .Business Letters b: Letter Head: The letterhead is the printed heading giving the name and address of the company.

‡ Printed like letterhead or typewritten ‡ The addressee's address should be placed on the envelop ‡ The address should always be written in block letters 12/6/2010 .Business Letters c: Envelop: ‡ It should contain the return address of the senders.

iii. vii.STANDARD Parts of Business Letter i. ii. vi. Heading/letterhead and date Inside address Salutation/Greeting Body of the letter Complimentary close Signature area Reference initial 12/6/2010 . iv. v.

Parts of Business Letter 1. If it is letterhead stationery. 12/6/2010 . your return address. but not your name. If you are not using letterhead stationery. is typed directly above the date about 2 inches from the top. Heading-letterhead and date A heading shows where the letter comes from. it is usually at the top center of the letter.

Inside address The inside address includes the address of the Addressee. A salutation is the complimentary term used to begin the letter.Parts of Business letter 2. If the letter deals with different subjects. Body (Communication) It conveys the main message. 4. 12/6/2010 . they should be put in different paragraphs in order of importance. Salutation or Greeting. 3.

Very truly yours. It is written to close the letter. Yours sincerely. Notice that the first word is capitalized. (the most popular) Sincerely yours. Sincerely. Complimentary Close.Parts of Business letter 5. 12/6/2010 . The most popular complimentary closes in American letters are the following.

Parts of Business letter Yours very truly. Cordially. Cordially yours. Signature lines (area) Three blank lines should be left for it. It should always be written in ink (blue or black) You can include several identification in it. 6. The complimentary close begins with a capital letter and ends with a comma. 12/6/2010 .

Parts of Business letter Examples: Name of your company Your signature Your typed written name Your business title If printed on the letterhead. if you wish to include it. However. type it in capital letters a double space under the complimentary close. your company needs not be typed after the complimentary close. 12/6/2010 .

Parts of Business letter 1. Signature Jennifer Wenthe Marketing Manager 12/6/2010 . Very truly yours.

WESTWOOD FILMS. Sincerely.Parts of Business letter 2. INC. Signature Suart Stanton Human Resource Director 12/6/2010 .

Reference Initial Here three initial of the composer (writer) should be written (in uppercase characters) then two of his/hers (the typist) (in all lowercase characters.Parts of Business letter 6.) They usually appear at the left margin at least double space below the signature. MZQ/se MZQ:se (Mohammad Zafeer Qasmi is the composer & Samiullah Elam is the typist) 12/6/2010 .

Reference line Attention line Subject line Enclosures Copy notation File or account number Postscript On-arrival notation 12/6/2010 . VI.Optional Parts of the Business letter I. VII. VIII. II. III. V. IV.

type it on one or two lines.Optional Parts of the Business Letter 1. Reference line If the recipient specifically requests information. such as a job reference or invoice number. 2007 12/6/2010 . refer to it here. Re: Job # 625-01 Re: Your letter dated October 6. immediately below the date. For example. If you are replying to a letter.

Optional Parts of the Business letter 2. Attention line Type the name of the person to whom you are sending the letter. If you write the person s name in the inside address. skip this. skip the person s name in the inside address. If you type an attention line. 12/6/2010 . Do the same on the envelope.

Enclosure notation An enclosure or attachment notation is included to remind your reader to check for additional pages of information. 4. It is usually placed on the second line below the salutation. 12/6/2010 . Subject line It helps tell your reader at a glance what your letter is about. The enclosure notation is usually typed single or double space under reference initial.Optional Parts of the Business letter 3.

Optional Parts of the Business letter
5. Copy notation (Copy Distribution) When person other than the addressee will receive a copy of your message, you note by writing C , or CC followed by the names of these persons just below the reference initial or the enclosure notation.

Optional Parts of the Business letter
6. File or account umber To aid and filling and quick retrieved for both the sender s and the reader s company, some firm require that file, loan, or account numbers be typed above the body of the letter.


Optional Parts of the Business letter
8. Postscript If there is a Postscript, it should start a double space beneath all other information and can be proceeded by the initial P.S., PS, or PS: However, the current trend is to omit these initials. A busy person reading will often read the postscript while noticing else, knowing that there may be found the most interesting tidbit of the letter. Many business people write postscript for emphasis rather than for afterthoughts, and they are frequently used or personal messages in business letters


such as a resignation letter. Include the same on the envelope. On-Arrival Notations Type in all uppercase characters. 12/6/2010 .Optional Parts of the Business letter 9. You might want to include a notation on private correspondence. if appropriate.

Open Punctuation b.Letter Layout 1. In open punctuation. Mixed Punctuation A. 12/6/2010 . a. Punctuation Style Two forms. Open Punctuation. no line of any letter part (except the body) has any punctuation at the end unless the abbreviation requires a period.

Mixed Punctuation In mixed punctuation. especially those in Asia and Great Britain. a colon follows the salutation. Foreign writers. 12/6/2010 . use a comma in place of a colon after the salutation. He argue that colons are too formal. a comma follows the Complimentary close.Letter Layout B.

Block Style Every line begins at the left margin. This is in common format because it is quick and easy to set up. 1.Letter Layout Business letters are usually arranged in one of the letter style. 12/6/2010 .

and signature sections begins at the horizontal center of the page or are place so that they end near the right-hand margin. where all other parts begin. 12/6/2010 . or begin at the left margin. Attention and subject lines may be indented. complimentary close. Modified block The date. centered.Letter Layout 2.

Block Style 12/6/2010 .Modified block.

Semi block style (Modified block with paragraph indented) 12/6/2010 .Letter Layout 3.

Engage the services of well-qualified and experienced persons to write special reports on the problems. The report writer conducts surveys. 2. 12/6/2010 118 .Report 1. In reports. the authority makes decisions. Essential for those organizations which collect information to keep record . 3. 4. investigations and submit his recommendations and suggestions on the basis of research for writing a report Purpose: Make a written record of any event or a summary of an action. WHAT IS REPORT? A report is factual piece of writing based on research and observations of any event or matter on which definite information is required. Study problems are examined for the purpose to convey information to others.

To communicate a Reports we should include seven C·s: 1. 2. 5. 3. 4. Completeness Conciseness Consideration Concreteness Clarity Courtesy Correctness 12/6/2010 119 . 6. 7.

Short Reports Long 12/6/2010 120 .

Report may be daily weekly monthly quarterly yearly 12/6/2010 121 .

Format Of Reports Short Reports can be presented in two ways: 1. Letter Format 2. Memo Format 12/6/2010 122 .

Subject 5.Salutation 6.Sender Add: 2.Date 3.Receiver Add: 4.Complementary Closing 8.signature 12/6/2010 123 .Message (in body we can write Suggestions) 7.Elements of short Report The following points are necessary for writing any short report in letter format: 1.

I met people of both sexes of different age. Report on introducing a new product in the Market. 12/6/2010 124 Introducing a new hair color Research . Almost everyone welcomed the idea of a perfumed hair-color because those now available in the market don¶t have fragrant smell.Short Business Report (Letter Format / specimen). Most of the interviewed people wanted to use light perfume. Most people demanded that hair color should not contain any compound that might thin the growth of hair. 123 Karachi Subject: Dear Sir. September 22.groups but all above thirty-five. They also complained about stain of color on clothes permanently. they wanted different colors with different shades. Brown & CO. Ahmad Peshawar cant. Besides. Ltd. 2006 The sale Director. I have completed my report as asked by you in your letter of August 15th. I discussed different aspects of this product with all the people whom I met. 2006.

the replacements should be sent promptly. if there are any points that need clarification. Ahmad 12/6/2010 125 . The color should contain a shampoo compound to act as a pre-dye washing. 5.1 Observations In view of these findings. It should be available at all drug and provision stores. Besides. Yours truly.continue«. brown and golden 2. I may be called at any time convenient to you. I recommend that: 1. 4. If we receive any complaint from our customer. We should have only three shades: black. All advertising media should be activated immediately about the new product. 3.

To write any short report in Memo format. we can follow the same elements of the memorandum: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ To: From: Subject: Date: Message with Recommendation/Suggestions 126 12/6/2010 .

2006 Research I have completed my report as you asked me in your letter on August 15th. they wanted different colors with different shades. They also complained about stain of color on clothes permanently. Most of the interviewed people wanted to use light perfume. Brown & CO.Memo Report(informational)-specimen To: From: Subject: Date: The sale Director. Ltd Ahmad & Brothers Introducing a new hair color September 22. Besides. I discussed different aspects of this product with them . Most people demanded that hair color should not contain any compound that might thin the growth of their hair. I met people of both sexes of different groups who were all above thirty-five. 12/6/2010 127 . Almost everyone welcomed the idea of a perfumed hair-color because those now available in the market don¶t have fragrant smell. 2007.

It should be available at all drugs and provision stores. Besides. I recommend that: Observation 1. if there are any points that need clarification. If we receive any complain from our customer. We should have only three shades: black. 4.1 In view of these findings. brown and golden 2. 12/6/2010 128 .Continue . The color should contain a shampoo compound to act as a pre-dye washing. the replacements should be sent promptly. 3. I may be called at any time convenient to you. All advertising media should be activated immediately about the new product 5.

Major differences in the long report involve greater length and depth of discussion of more complex problems. Some long report extend from a few pages to several hundred.Long Report A long report is simply the expansion of a shorter report.even into several volumes of information. 12/6/2010 129 .

External Title ii. Letter of Transmittal v. Table of Contents 2. Front Section. Body Section. Conclusion with Recommendations 12/6/2010 130 . Executive Summary or Synopsis ii. We have the following points: i. Acknowledgment iv.Elements for long report-1 1. Description iii. Preface iii. In this section we can include the following points: i.

Glossary iv. Index 12/6/2010 131 . Appendix ii. Bibliography iii.Conti¶d-2 3. We have the following points: i. Back Section.

This page can be made according to the need of the report as some report has title. company name(organization) and date. The title should be brief and clear .g.e. 2008.Front Section LONG REPORT Title page: This is the first page where we can give title of the report and the name of the writer (reporter). 12/6/2010 132 . Title Students¶ Enrollment Record By Azan Qasmi For The Higher Education Date Oct 27. reporter name.

Letters. lecturer in Professional and Academic Writing at Harvard University. It is a short summary of the whole report. who referred this book to the advanced students of college. It shows why and what is the purpose of this report. Journals. The reporter can also thanks Magazines. Here the reporter thanks those who have looked at or commented on it during its various stages of development. Teachers. Acknowledgement: Acknowledging sources means providing written recognition of any ideas that are used or adapted for your work. Book & Newspapers I am very thankful of Kathy Knight. to whom the report is presented. Others ideas.Preface: It introduces the report to the reader. Mohammad Zafeer Qasmi 12/6/2010 133 . Emails.

Cordially. I have tried my best to meet your request and hope this report would be useful. I hope this report would be acceptable to the committee. (³ as it was requested on Oct 20. It is stated that I attached the report as you requested me to write a long report on the issue of________________ on dated __________. It is also called the letter of Authorization or forwarding letter . My evaluation is fair and effective. When an organization asks the writer to prepare a report. then he attaches that letter with the report . Dear Director. Afghnistan.g.Kabul. 2008´).e. I collected various data form the reliable sources and presented the solution for them in great details.Letter of Transmittal: This is the 4th element of a long report. 12/6/2010 134 . Mohammad Zafeer Qasmi Assistant Professor at Kardan Institute of Higher Education . In this letter we use these words.

g. e. This page is placed before the report body. This content table helps us to find easily any heading with page.Table of Contents: We can also write a table of content in long report which needs a separate page from where we get contents and their page numbers. S# 1 2 3 Topics Table of Contents ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Page# 7 14 22 12/6/2010 135 .

it is mentioned how to enroll and pay the fee. and even those interested. Executive Summary or Synopsis: Busy managers. We hope to say at the conclusion that this is the easiest approach for getting admission at the university. It means to write the main summary of the whole long report. In this report we have discussed how to determine the basic method of admission in different classes. e.g. It is very Important because it explains various purposes of the report. can determine whether they wish to read the entire report simply by reading the executive summary. This report makes the way easy for those students who are not local. Besides. get books and uniform. 12/6/2010 136 .Body Section: It contains the followings parts.

background. So it should be formulated carefully. Conclusion with Recommendations: At the end of a long report all the data is logically arranged with recommendation. research and causes of the report. It suggests the future course of action. The report writer should give separate heading and explain turn by turn. All the information are discussed in proper order with headings. methods. He should write about the scope.Description: This part describes the subject matter of the report. 12/6/2010 137 . Mostly the executives take decision on this basis.

Books a. b. They are Supplementary materials for the reader¶s easiness as we include maps. Appendix: It is the last page where the reporter can include those materials which are quite relevant to subject matter of the topic but are not mentioned in the body. published in 2004 from England. 12/6/2010 138 .W.Back( last) Section:. pictures and graphs. tables.It has the following points. Effective Business Communication by Murphy 7th Edition form New York. chart. Rhetoric by C. Bibliography: It is a list of works when the reporter consulted during preparation of the report. It contains the names of the books from where details are taken.

Sometimes a word changes it definition and meaning according to the subjects. 12/6/2010 139 . Example Compound. These words should be given at the end of the report .Glossary: It means to include any term that has several possible interpretations. Here every word gives different meaning according to the subjects. But in math it means a number which is not prime( which can be devisable by itself and one only) 3-5-7-11-17 (2-972). definitions and meaning.In chemistry it means the combination of various elements which can¶t be identified separately. It is very useful for the reader who wants to check the meaning of any word only related to topic.

29 12/6/2010 140 .Index: It is also written at the end of the report or book to guide the reader. E. It is mentioned in an alphabetically form with page number. 19  Accountability.  Abstractions . 22  Acknowledgement.g. It has good effects because if the reader wants to check any difficult word meaning. he just opens the index and find the word with page number.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful