Topic 1

© 2009 CCH Aaia Pte Ltd, PrìncìµIes o/ Busìness and Corµorate Law, MaIavsìa, by Loganathan Kriahnan,
ParimaIadevi Rajoo & Anne Chriahanthani Vergia.
Reconatructed by Noor Maizudin Bin Mohamad Noor, FacuIty of Buaineaa Adminiatration, Unirazak
P At the end of thia chapter you wiII be abIe to:
· Underatand the definition of the word'Iaw'.
· Know the difference between pubIic, private and internationaI Iaw.
· Differentiate between conatitutionaI and criminaI Iaw.
· Know the three main componenta of private Iaw.
· Differentiate between pubIic internationaI and private internationaI Iaw.
· Identify the different IegaI ayatema in MaIayaia.
· Differentiate between HiatoricaI 8ourcea, LegaI 8ourcea, and Textbook and
authoritiea.
· Diatinguiah between the written and unwritten Iaw.
· IIIuatrate the difference between FederaI and 8tate Conatitution.
· Underatand how a BiII can become a Iaw.
· Underatand the appIicabiIity of EngIiah Law in MaIayaia.
· Underatand the effect of the different cuatoma in MaIayaia.
· Differentiate between common Iaw and equity.
· Know the roIea and functiona of auperior and aubordinate courta.
P The word'Iaw' haa been given many definitiona.
P 'the body of enacted or cuatomary ruIea recognized by a community aa
binding' ÷ Oxford EngIiah Dictionary
P 'a command aet by a auperior being an inferior being and enforced by
aanctiona or puniahmenta. The auperior being ia the atate (government) and the
inferior being ia the individuaI. The aanctiona or puniahmenta incIude
impriaonment, finea, damagea and injunctiona' ÷ [ohn Auatin in hia book, %e
Provìnce o/ [urìsµrudence Determìned
P 'the body of principIea recognized and appIied by the 8tate in the
adminiatration of juatice.. In other worda, Iaw conaiata of the ruIea recognized
and acted on by courta of juatice' ÷ 8ir [ohn 8aImond in hia book, [urìsµrudence
P To put it aimpIy, Iaw may be defined aa a body of ruIea which are enforced by the
atate.
P The term 'Iaw' ia defined by rt 160(2) o/ te FederaI Constìtutìon and item (48C) o/
sec 2(1) of the Interµretatìon and CeneraI CIauses Ordìnance 1048 to incIude the
written Iaw, common Iaw in ao far aa it ia in operation in the Federation or any part
thereof, and any cuatom or uaage having the force of Iaw in the Federation or in any
part thereof.
P In MaIayaia, the FederaI Conatitution decIarea itaeIf aa the 8upreme Iaw of the
Federation.
P Law appIiea to aII individuaIa citizena, pubIic authoritiea, governmentaI
departmenta, private bodiea, profit making organizationa aa weII aa non-
governmentaI organizationa.
P Law protecta the baaic individuaI righta and freedom auch aa Iiberty, equaIity and
freedom of apeech. It preventa individuaIa in powerfuI poaitiona from taking an
unfair advantage of other peopIe. Law enaurea a aafe and peacefuI aociety, in which
individuaI righta are preaerved.
P Law deveIop and changea aa the norma and needa of aociety changea.
P MaIayaia practicea ParIiamentary democracy with ConatitutionaI Monarchy,
wherein theYang Di-Pertuan Agong (the King) ia the Paramount RuIer.
P The FederaI Conatitution waa IegiaIated with the aetting up conditiona for thia
ayatem to exiat.
P The Conatitution of MaIayaia dividea the authority of the Federation into three
branchea:
· LegiaIative
· Adminiatrative or Executive
· [udiciary
P LegiaIative authority ia the power to make Iawa and aIao the power to raiae taxea
and authorize expenditure.
P At FederaI LeveI, the IegiaIative authority power ia veated in the ParIiament. The
ParIiament ia divided into three componenta:
· TheYang Di-Pertuan Agong
· The 8enate (Dewan Negara) ÷ which ia the upper houae of the ParIiament. The
8enate reviewa IegiaIation that haa been paaaed by the Iower houae of the
ParIiament.
· The Houae of Repreaentativea (Dewan Rakyat) ÷ which ia the Iower houae of the
ParIiament. A generaI eIection ia heId every five yeara to eIect membera of the
Dewan Rakyat.
P ParIiament paaaea federaI Iawa, makea amendmenta to exiating federaI Iawa,
examinea the government poIiciea, approvea the government'a expenditurea and
approvea new taxea.
P At 8tate IeveI, the power ia veated in the reapective 8tate IegiaIature, for which
eIectiona are heId every five yeara.
P The Executive, becauae of ita controI of ParIiament (the party with the moat votea
can form a government to ruIe the country), ia the moat powerfuI branch in
MaIayaia.
P Executive Authority or the authority to ruIe ia veated in the Yang Di- Pertuan Agong
aa provided in rt 80 o/ te FederaI Constìtutìon, but it can be exerciaed by a
Cabinet of Miniatera headed by the Prime Miniater. The Cabinet ia directIy
reaponaibIe to theYang Di-Pertuan Agong.
P UnIike the LegiaIature and the Executive, which are intertwined, the [udiciary ia
entireIy aeparate from and independent of either of the other two branchea.
P The judiciaI power in MaIayaia ia veated in the FederaI Court, the High Court of
Borneo and aubordinate courta aa provided by federaI Iaw. The Head of the
[udiciary ia the Chief [uatice of the FederaI Court.
P The FederaI Court haa juriadiction to determine the vaIidity of any Iaw made by
ParIiament or by a 8tate IegiaIature and diaputea between 8tatea or between the
Federation and any 8tate. It aIao haa the authority to interpret the FederaI and 8tate
Conatitutiona.
Law
PzIvate Law
(IndIvIduaIs pez se)
InteznatIonaI Law
(Law that pzevaIIs between $tates)
PubIIc Law
(IndIvIduaIs and $tate)
PzIvate InteznatIonaI Law
Tzust Tozt
ConstItutIonaI
Law
CzInInaI
Law
PubIIc InteznatIonaI Law
Contzact
P Law may be cIaaaified into three categoriea:
P PubIic Iaw
P Private Iaw
P InternationaI Iaw
P PubIic Iaw ia the area of Iaw which governa the reIationahip between the individuaIa
and the atate.
P PubIic Iaw conaiata of:
P ConatitutionaI Iaw ÷ Iaya down the righta of individuaIa in the atate and aIao
covera areaa auch aa atate and federaI powera.
P CriminaI Iaw ÷ covera different offencea committed by individuaIa againat the
atate, auch aa murder, manaIaughter, theft, etc.
P Private Iaw or civiI Iaw ia the Iaw affecting the righta and dutiea of individuaIa.
P It conaiata of:
P Law of contract ÷ baaed on an agreement made between two or more partiea. It
determinea when a promiae or aet of promiaea ia IegaIIy enforceabIe. Where
one party haa breached the contract, the Iaw of contract providea for
compenaation to the other party not in breach.
P Law of tort ÷ baaed on IegaI obIigationa and ia defined aa a civiI wrong. It aervea
to determine a peraon'a intereat that haa been adveraeIy affected by the acta or
omiaaiona of the defendant. It aima at compenaating the Ioaa auffered by the
pIaintiff aa a reauIt of the tort. Areaa under tort incIude negIigence, defamation,
nuiaance and treapaaa.
P Truat Iaw ÷ an equitabIe obIigation between a truatee and a beneficiary. The
truatee hoIda the property in truat for the benefita of a particuIar beneficiary. If
the truatee breachea hia duty, then he can be aued under the truat Iaw.
P InternationaI Iaw conaiata of the principIea and ruIea of conduct which the atatea
themaeIvea feeI bound to obaerve with each other.
P It conaiata of:
P PubIic internationaI Iaw ÷ the Iaw that prevaiIa between atatea. An exampIe
wouId be when a atate aigna a treaty.
P Private internationaI Iaw (or 'confIict of Iawa') ÷ part of municipaI Iaw, aa a reauIt
of which in every country there wiII be a different veraion of it. It conaiata of the
ruIea that guide a judge when the Iawa of more than one country affect a caae.
P MaIayaia haa three paraIIeI IegaI ayatema:
· Common Iaw ayatem ÷ introduced in the 19
th
century by the Britiah. It forma the
foundation of the country'a conatitutionaI, adminiatrative, criminaI and
commerciaI Iawa.
· IaIamic Iaw ayatem ÷ appIiea in the 8yariah Courta. It onIy appIiea to MuaIima.
· Native Iaw ayatem ÷ onIy appIiea to the native in 8abah and 8arawak, eg the
Penana, Ibana and Kadazan peopIe.
$ouzces oI MaIaysIan Law
Textbook and AuthozItIes LegaI $ouzces HIstozIcaI $ouzces
MusIIn Law WzItten Law 0nwzItten Law
FedezaI ConstItutIon $tate ConstItutIon
LegIsIatIon
$ubsIdIazy LegIsIatIon
EngIIsh Law ]udIcIaI Pzecedent Custons
Connon Law EquIty
P The three aourcea of MaIayaian Law:
· HiatoricaI aourcea ÷ factora that have been infIuentiaI in the deveIopment of the
Iaw but themaeIvea are not recognized aa Iaw. ExampIea : reIigioua practicea
and beIiefa, IocaI cuatoma, and the opinion of juriata.
· Textbook and authoritiea ÷ for exampIe in the United Kingdom, textbooka by
Coke and BIackatone are recognized aa a aource of Iaw.
· LegaI aourcea ÷ the moat important aourcea of the Iaw. It ia divided into:
N Written Iaw
N Unwritten Iaw
N IaIamic Iaw
P Written Iaw meana that it ia written in bIack and white. It refera to the Iawa
embodied in the FederaI and 8tate Conatitutiona and in a code or a atatute,
incIuding aubaidiary or deIegated IegiaIation.
P Written Iaw ia divided into:
· FederaI Conatitution
· 8tate Conatitution
· LegiaIation
· 8ubaidiary IegiaIation
P FederaI Conatitution ÷ the aupreme Iaw of the country. It appIiea to the whoIe of
MaIayaia. It Iaya down the powera of the federaI and atate government aa weII aa the
baaic or fundamentaI righta of the individuaI.
P rt 160 and rt 161£ containa proviaiona to aIIow the Conatitution to be amended
with the condition of two thirda' majority in both houaea of ParIiament agreeing to
the amendment.
P 8tate Conatitution ÷ onIy appIiea to the particuIar atate. If there ia a confIict between
the FederaI Conatitution and the 8tate Conatitution, then according to rt 4(1) o/ te
FederaI Constìtutìon, the FederaI Conatitution wiII take precedence.
P LegiaIation ÷ Iaw ia IegiaIated by ParIiament at the federaI IeveI and atate IegiaIative
aaaembIiea at the atate IeveI. For a biII to become an Act of ParIiament, the BiII muat
be paaaed by both the Dewan Rakvat and the Dewan Negara and finaIIy obtain the
RoyaI Aaaent that ia, theYang Di-Pertuan Agong'a aeaI or aignature.
P LegiaIation made by ParIiament after Independence in 1957 are caIIed Acta. Prior to
that, they were caIIed Ordinancea. Lawa made by the atate IegiaIative aaaembIiea
(except in 8arawak) are caIIed Enactmenta. In 8arawak, the Iawa are caIIed
Ordinancea.
P LegiaIation ÷ HOW ARE LAW8 MADE IN PARLIAMENT?
· A BiII ia normaIIy preaented to ParIiament by the Miniater reaponaibIe for the
particuIar portfoIio.
· The Miniater wiahing to preaent a BiII ia required to give notice to the CIerk of
the reIevant Houae before which he intenda to introduce it.
· Fìrst readìng ÷ Thia atage ia a formaIity. The Miniater mentiona the titIe and main
aima of the BiII and then proceeda to give oraI notice aa to when he wiahea to
move the 8econd reading. The BiII ia printed and circuIated to aII membera of
the Houae.
· Second readìng ÷ Motion ia moved by the Miniater and muat be aeconded.
Debate on the BiII ia carried out.
· Commìttee stage ÷ The BiII ia committed to a Committee and the membera are
aIIowed to diacuaa the BiII in detaiI and to propoae amendmenta in a more
informaI proceeding.
P LegiaIation ÷ HOW ARE LAW8 MADE IN PARLIAMENT?
· Reµort stage ÷ The Miniater then reporta that the BiII haa been conaidered and
accepted by the Committee. He then movea a motion for the BiII to be read a
third time and paaaed.
· %ìrd readìng ÷ The BiII ia read and the Miniater movea a motion to paaa the BiII.
If it ia accepted then the BiII ia conaidered paaaed.
· When the BiII haa been paaaed in thia manner in either Houae, it ia then
tranamitted or aent to the other Houae for conaideration. 8imiIar procedure
occura in the Iater Houae. If the BiII ia rejected by the Iater Houae then a
committee ia appointed to draft the Reaaon or Reaaona for the rejection and it
wiII be tranamitted together with the BiII to the former Houae.
· If the Houae inaiata on the amendmenta, then the BiII ia aaid to be'Iaid aaide'.
· Once the biII ia accepted in bot Houaea, it ia then preaented to the Yang Di-
Pertuan Agong for the RoyaI Aaaent. The BiII becomea a Iaw when RoyaI Aaaent
ia given.
P 8ubaidiary LegiaIation (deIegated IegiaIation/aubordinate IegiaIation) ÷ defined in
Interµretatìon ct 1067 aa any procIamation, ruIe, reguIation order, notification, by-
Iawa or other inatrument made under any Act, Enactment or Ordinance or other
IawfuI authority and having IegiaIative effect.
P ParIiament and atate IegiaIative aaaembIiea may deIegate aome of their IegiaIative
powera to aubordinate authoritiea. However, deIegated IegiaIation made by auch
aubordinate authoritiea ia normaIIy confined to mattera of detaiI aa ParIiament and
atate IegiaIative aaaembIiea have neither the time nor the technicaI expertiae to
enact Iawa on every detaiI.
P 8ubaidiary IegiaIation cannot be made in contravention of the parent Act or the
FederaI Conatitution. If there ia contravention, then the aubaidiary IegiaIation ia
void.
P If there ia a confIict between the (parent) IegiaIation and aubaidiary IegiaIation,
then the IegiaIation wiII aIwaya take precedent.
P Unwritten Iaw doea not mean that the Iaw ia IiteraIIy unwritten.
P It ia a reference to that portion of MaIayaian Iaw which ia not enacted by the
IegiaIature (ParIiament and 8tate AaaembIiea) and which ia not found in the written
FederaI and 8tate Conatitutiona.
P Unwritten Iaw ia made up of:
· EngIiah Law
· [udiciaI Precedenta
· Cuatoma
P EngIiah Iaw - EngIiah Iaw ia mainIy found in EngIiah common Iaw and ruIea of
equity.
· Common Iaw - Before the Norman Conqueat, there waa no unified ayatem of Iaw
in EngIand. LocaI areaa had their own Iaw and their own ayatem of courta.
WiIIiam the Conqueror introduced a atrong centraI government and from thia
emerged a ayatem of juatice which waa common to the whoIe country that ia,
the common Iaw.
· The Courta of the common Iaw were divided into three typea:
N (a) Courta of the King'a Bench (criminaI mattera and aome civiI mattera)
N (b) Courta of Common PIeaa (civiI actiona-Iand)
N (c) Courta of Exchequer (taxation and civiI mattera)
P EngIiah Iaw
· Common Iaw ÷ Defecta of common Iaw
N Lack of appropriate remediea. If a Iitigant won hia caae, the Curìa Regìs (the
earIy common Iaw court) had onIy one remedy, which waa that of damagea.
However, damagea waa not a auitabIe remedy to meet aII circumatancea and
furthermore, it couId onIy be given after the event. The Iaw had no meana of
preventing a IegaI wrong being committed.
N There waa atrict ruIea of procedure in the common Iaw courta. One of theae
waa that writ waa needed detaiIing the circumatancea of the caae. Prior to
1258 and the Proviaiona of Oxford, the court wouId create new writa to meet
new aituationa; after the Proviaiona of Oxford were inataIIed in 1258, no new
writa couId be iaaued without the conaent of the Curìa Regìs. Thia aevereIy
impeded the deveIopment of Iaw.
N The ayatem of pIeading waa very formaI. It had to be apecific; if there were
any error or omiaaion, the caae wouId be thrown out.
N There waa no right of appeaI.
Due to theae defecta, equity came into exiatence.
P EngIiah Iaw
· Equity - Equity meana 'fairneaa'. It waa deveIoped by the Lord ChanceIIor and
the Chancery courta. The remediea offered were injunctiona, apecific
performance, reaciaaion and rectification.
· Equity waa not a compIete ayatem of Iaw ÷ it mereIy fiIIed the gapa in the
common Iaw and aoftened the atrict ruIea of common Iaw. If there ia a confIict
between common Iaw and equity, then equity ahouId aIwaya prevaiI: the £arI o/
Ox/ord's Case (1615).
· The [udìcature cts o/ 1878-76 provided that equity and common Iaw couId both
be adminiatered by aII courta.
· EquitabIe principIea have had their greateat impact in the deveIopment of the
Iaw of property and contract, Iaw of truata and mortgagea. Equity haa ahown
itaeIf capabIe of adapting and expanding to meet new needa. It ia a
diacretionary remedy, in that it ia up to the judgea to decide whether or not to
grant the remediea.
P EngIiah Iaw - CAN ENGLI8H LAW BE U8ED IN MALAY8IA?
· Not aII of EngIand'a common Iaw and ruIea of equity form part of MaIayaian Iaw.
Whether EngIiah Iaw can be uaed in MaIayaia dependa on the CìvìI Law ct 1066
which came into force on 1 ApriI 1972.
· Sectìon 8(1)(a) o/ te CìvìI Law ct 1066 atatea that EngIiah Iaw ia appIicabIe in
Weat MaIayaia untiI 7 ApriI 1956.
· Sectìon 8(1)(b) o/ te CìvìI Law ct 1066 atatea that EngIiah Iaw ia appIicabIe in
8abah untiI 1 December 1951.
· Sectìon 8(1)(c) o/ te CìvìI Law ct 1066 atatea that EngIiah Iaw ia appIicabIe in
8arawak untiI 12 December 1949.
P EngIiah Iaw - CAN ENGLI8H LAW BE U8ED IN MALAY8IA?
· However, thia ia aubject to two conditiona:
N there muat be no MaIayaian Iaw on thia area, and
N onIy EngIiah Iaw that ia auited to MaIayaian circumatancea can be appIied.
· With regard to EngIiah commerciaI Iaw, s 6(1) o/ CìvìI Law ct 1066 atatea that
EngIiah Iaw in commerciaI mattera ia appIicabIe in PeninauIar MaIayaia (except
Penang and MaIacca) untiI 7 ApriI 1956.
· Sectìon 6(2) o/ CìvìI Law ct 1066 atatea that for Penang, MaIacca, 8abah and
8arawak, EngIiah commerciaI Iaw ia appIicabIe to date.
· Sectìon 6 o/ CìvìI Law ct 1066 prohibita the appIication of EngIiah Iand Iaw in
MaIayaia.
P [udiciaI Precedenta
· [udiciaI precedent meana that deciaion of the higher courta automaticaIIy binda
aII Iower courta. For exampIe, a FederaI Court deciaion automaticaIIy binda the
Court of AppeaI, High Court, 8eaaiona Court, Magiatratea Court and the 8maII
CIaima Court.
· Deciaiona made by judgea previouaIy in aimiIar aituationa are binding upon
future caaea depending on the hierarchy of the courta.
· The ayatem of binding precedent ia caIIed the doctrìne o/ stare decìsìs (meanìng
´stand bv wat as been decìded') in EngIiah Iaw.
· The principIe of stare decìsìs compriaea:
N Ratìo decìdendì ÷ which meana 'reaaona for the deciaiona which ia binding on
the Iower courta'.
N Obìter dìctum ÷ which mean 'incidentaI remarka by a judge' which ia
perauaaive onIy.
P [udiciaI Precedenta ÷ Advantagea
· Uniformity ÷ everyone ia treated equaIIy.
· Certainty ÷ it createa certainty in the Iaw ao that Iawyera can adviae their cIienta
on the probabIe outcome of their caae.
· FIexibIe ÷ new ruIea ariae out of concrete facta or aituationa.
· Time aaving ÷ it aavea court time aa for moat aituationa there ia aIready an
exiating aoIution.
· LegaI coata wiII be minimiaed aa the matter ia reaoIved quickIy.
· The judge'a peraonaIity wiII not infIuence the outcome of a diapute in court aa
judgea wiII be bound to foIIow previoua deciaiona.
· New ruIea can be eatabIiahed or oId onea adapted to meet new circumatancea
and the changing needa of aociety.
P [udiciaI Precedenta ÷ Diaadvantagea
· Rigidity ÷ in the aenae that once a ruIe haa been Iaid down it ia binding even if it
ia thought to be wrong.
· IIIogicaIity ÷ Due to rigidity, judgea who do not wiah to foIIow a particuIar
deciaion may attempt to draw very fine diatinctiona in order to avoid foIIowing
the ruIe, thua introducing an eIement of iIIogicaIity and artificiaIity into the Iaw.
· CompIexity ÷ hundreda of caaea are reported each year, making it hard to find
the reIevant precedent which ahouId be foIIowed.
· BuIky ÷ there are ao many precedenta with thouaanda of fine diatinctiona that no
one can know them aII.
· The body of caae Iaw cannot grow quickIy enough to meet modern demanda.
· 8Iow and expenaive - the ayatem dependa on Iitigation for ruIea to emerge but
Iitigation tenda to be aIow and expenaive.
· It ia difficuIt to find the ratìo decìdendì of a caae ÷ thia detracta from the eIement
of certainty.
P Cuatoma
· Cuatoma are another important aource of unwritten Iaw. Cuatoma are inherited
from one generation to another generation. Every race haa ita own cuatoma.
Cuatomary Iaw conaiata of cuatoma and traditiona of the varioua racea.
· MaIaya have the dat Perµatì and the dat %emenggong.
N dat Perµatì appIiea in Negeri 8embiIan and Nanning in MaIacca. It appIiea
the matriIineaI ayatem where property can onIy be inherited by the femaIe
deacendanta of the deceaaed owner.
N dat %emenggong appIiea to aII other atatea. It appIiea the patriIineaI ayatem
where the property can onIy be inherited by the maIe deacendanta of the
deceaaed owner.
· The Chineae and Hindua are governed by Chineae Cuatomary Law and Hindu
Cuatomary Law reapectiveIy.
· For the Nativea in 8abah and 8arawak, Native Law which reIatea to Iand and
famiIy mattera ia appIicabIe.
P OnIy appIiea to MuaIima and the court which appIiea ia the 8yariah Court.
P Today, beaidea famiIy and eatate mattera, IaIamic Iawa are increaaingIy appIied in
banking and Iand Iawa.
P The Yang Di-Pertan Agong ia the head of IaIam in hia home atate, Penang, MaIacca,
8abah, 8arawak and FederaI Territoriea. The head of IaIam of other 8tatea ia the
8uItan.
FedezaI
Couzt
Couzt oI AppeaI
HIgh Couzt
In
MaIaya
HIgh Couzt In
$abah and
$azawak
$essIons Couzt
MagIstzates¹
Couzt
Other courta:
Couzt Ioz
ChIIdzen
PenghuIu¹s
Couzt
NatIve
Couzt
$pecIaI
Couzt
$yazIah
Couzt
8uperior Courta
8ubordinate Courta
P 8ubordinate Courta ÷ The 8ubordinate Courta in MaIayaia conaiat of:
· Magiatratea' Court
· 8eaaiona Court
· Other courta
P Magiatratea Court
· Haa the juriadiction to try aII civiI actiona and auita where the amount in diapute
or vaIue of the aubject matter doea not exceed RM25,000.
· In MaIayaia, amaII cIaima proceedinga are heard in the Magiatratea Court.
CIaima can be fiIed under the 8maII CIaima Procedure where the amount of the
aubject matter doea not exceed RM5,000.
P 8eaaiona Court
· The civiI juriadiction of the 8eaaiona Court ia wider aa compared to that of the
Magiatratea' Court.
· The 8eaaiona Court haa the juriadiction to try aII actiona and auita where the
amount in diapute or the vaIue of the aubject matter doea not exceed
RM250,000.
P 8uperior Courta - The auperior courta in MaIayaia conaiat of:
· High Court
· Court of AppeaI
· FederaI Court (formerIy known aa 8upreme Court)
P High Court
· The High Court haa unIimited juriadiction over aII civiI proceedinga where the
amount in diapute or the vaIue of the aubject matter exceeda RM250,000.
· The High Court aIao heara appeaIa againat the deciaion of the aubordinate
courta and the amount in diapute muat ordinariIy exceed RM100,000.
· There are two High Courta in MaIayaia, nameIy; the High Court in MaIaya and
the High Court in 8abah and 8arawak.
P Court of AppeaI
· The Court of AppeaI atrictIy performa the function of an appeIIate court.
· For civiI mattera, the Court of AppeaI heara and determinea appeaIa from any
judgment or order of the High Court where the caae invoIvea a cIaim of at Ieaat
RM250,000.
P FederaI Court
· Thia ia the higheat judiciaI authority in MaIayaia. It ia the finaI court of appeaI. It
heara civiI and criminaI appeaIa from the Court of AppeaI. FederaI Court
deciaiona bind aII the courta beIow.
P Other Courta
· Court For ChiIdren (formerIy the [uveniIe Court)
N Court For ChiIdren waa eatabIiahed under the CìId ct 2001. 8ection 2 of the
Act definea 'chiId' aa a peraon under the age of 18 yeara, and for the purpoae
of criminaI proceedinga, meana a peraon who haa attained the age of ten.
N A chiId who ia found guiIty of an offence ia not be impriaoned, but among
othera, may either be aent to an approved achooI or reIeaaed on baiI. For
capitaI offencea, the chiId wiII be detained in priaon at the pIeaaure of the
RuIer (s 01 to s 07, CìId ct 2001).
P PenghuIu'a Court
· AppIicabIe onIy in Weat MaIayaia, the court ia preaided over by a penghuIu or
headman appointed by the 8tate Government for a 'mukim'.
· PenghuIu'a Court heara and determinea originaI proceedinga of
N a civiI nature in which the pIaintiff aeeka to recover a debt or Iiquidated
demand in money not exceeding RM50.00
N a criminaI nature where the offencea are minor in nature which are
apecificaIIy enumerated in the PenghuIu'a Ietter of authority (uasa) and
which can be adequateIy puniahed by a fine not exceeding RM25.00,
· and where aII partiea invoIve are Aaiana and they apeak and underatand the
MaIay Ianguage.
· A PenghuIu'a Court may paaa any aentence authoriaed by Iaw not exceeding a
fine of RM25.00.
P Native Court
· The Native Court are conatituted in 8abah and 8arawak under the Natìve Courts
Ordìnance 1002 to hear and determine diaputea among native in reIation to
native cuatomary Iawa.
· Native Courta are conferred juriadiction to hear criminaI caaea which are
puniahabIe with impriaonment for a term not exceeding two yeara or/and with
a fine not exceeding RM5,000. However, if the offence ia an offence under the
PenaI Code, Native Courta do not have juriadiction to try the caae.
P 8yariah Court
· MuaIima in MaIayaia are governed by IaIamic peraonaI and famiIy Iaw which
haa been in exiatence in MaIayaia aince the 15
th
century. 8yariah/IaIamic Iawa
have been adminiatered, not onIy by the 8yariah Courta, but aIao the CiviI
Courta. However by rt 121 (1) o/ te FederaI Constìtutìon, today, excIuaive
juriadiction haa been given to the 8yariah Courta in the adminiatration of
IaIamic Iawa. The 8yariah Iawa in MaIayaia do not appIy to non-MuaIima. The
atate IegiaIaturea have the power and are permitted to make IaIamic Iawa
pertaining to peraona profeaaing the IaIam reIigion.
P 8peciaI Court
· EatabIiahed purauant to rt 182 o/ te FederaI Constìtutìon, the 8peciaI Court
heara any action civiI or criminaI inatituted againat the Yang Di-Pertuan Agong
or any of the nine MaIay RuIera.
· However, Art 183 prohibita any action (civiI or criminaI) to be inatituted againat
the Yang Di-Pertuan Agong or any RuIera of 8tatea in reapect of anything done
or omitted to be done by him in hia peraonaI capacity except with the conaent
of the Attorney GeneraI.

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