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Electronic communication

? Electronic communication have revolutionized both the

ability to access other people and to reach them almost
? Organizational boundaries become less relevant as a
result of electronic communication
Oomputer aided communication
? Email
? Instant messaging
? Intranet
? Extranet
? Web conferencing
? VoIP
? Voice mail
? 6 
 ’ commonly called 

 ’ is a method of exchanging digital messages
across the Internet or other computer networks.
Originally’ email was transmitted directly from
one user to another computer.
? îoday's email systems are based on a ÷

 model. Email servers accept’ forward’
deliver and store messages. Users no longer need
be online simultaneously and need only connect
briefly’ typically to an email server’ for as long as it
takes to send or receive messages.
? E-mail was widely accepted by the business
community as the first broad electronic
communication medium and was the first ¶e-
revolution· in business communication.
? îhe use of e-mail is increasing due to increasing
levels of globalisation³labour division and
outsourcing amongst other things.
? E-mail is very simple to understand and like postal
mail’ e-mail solves two basic problems of
communication: logistics and synchronization

? Much of the business world relies upon

communications between people who are
not physically in the same building’ area or
even country; setting up and attending an in-
person meeting’ telephone call’ or
conference call can be inconvenient’ time-
consuming’ and costly. E-mail provides a way
to exchange information between two or
more people with no set-up costs and that is
generally far less expensive than physical
meetings or phone calls.

? With real time communication by

meetings or phone calls’ participants have
to work on the same schedule’ and each
participant must spend the same amount
of time in the meeting or call.
? E-mail allows asynchrony: each participant
may control their schedule independently.
? Loss of content
? Information Overload
? Attachment size limitation
? Email bombardment
? Spamming
? Phishing
? Oomputer Worm
? Email Spoofing

? Oontent is lost forever; there is no way to

get the text back.
? Information in context (as in a newspaper) is
much easier and faster to understand than
unedited and sometimes unrelated fragments
of information.
? Oommunicating in context can only be
achieved when both parties have a full
understanding of the context and issue in

? E-mail is a push technology³the sender

controls who receives the information.
Oonvenient availability of mailing lists and
use of "copy all" can lead to people
receiving unwanted or irrelevant
information of no use to them.

? Email messages may have one or more

? Attachments serve the purpose of delivering
binary or text files of unspecified size
? In principle there is no technical intrinsic
restriction in the SMîP protocol limiting the
size or number of attachments. In practice’
however’ email service providers implement
various limitations on the permissible size of
files or the size of an entire message.

? In Internet usage’ an 
   is a
form of net abuse consisting of sending
huge volumes of e-mail to an address in
an attempt to overflow the mailbox Ú
overwhelm the server where the email
address is hosted in a denial-of-service

? 6
’ also known as 

or ÷   
 (6)’ is a
subset of spam that involves nearly identical
messages sent to numerous recipients by e-

? Spammers collect e-mail addresses from

chat rooms’ websites’ customer lists’
newsgroups’ and viruses which harvest users'
address books’ and are sold to other

? In the field of computer security’ ÷ is

the criminally fraudulent process of
attempting to acquire sensitive information
such as usernames’ passwords and credit
card details by masquerading as a
trustworthy entity in an electronic
communication. Oommunications purporting
to be from popular social web sites’ auction
sites’ online payment processors or Iî
administrators are commonly used to lure
the unsuspecting public.

? A   is a self-replicating malware

computer program. It uses a computer network
to send copies of itself to other nodes
(computers on the network) and it may do so
without any user intervention. îhis is due to
security shortcomings on the target computer.
Unlike a virus’ it does not need to attach itself to
an existing program. Worms almost always cause
at least some harm to the network’ if only by
consuming bandwidth’ whereas viruses almost
always corrupt or modify files on a targeted

? E-mail spoofing occurs when the header

information of an email is altered to make
the message appear to come from a
known or trusted source. It is often used
as a ruse to collect personal information.
R 6 

E-mail privacy’ without some security precautions’

can be compromised because:
ÿ e-mail messages are generally not encrypted.
ÿ e-mail messages have to go through intermediate
computers before reaching their destination’
meaning it is relatively easy for others to
intercept and read messages.
ÿ Many Internet Service Providers (ISP) store
copies of e-mail messages on their mail servers
before they are delivered.îhe backups of these
can remain for up to several months on their
server’ despite deletion from the mailbox.
? ÷
 ( ) is a form of real-
time direct text-based communication
between two or more people using personal
computers or other devices’ along with
shared software clients. îhe user's text is
conveyed over a network’ such as the
Internet. More advanced instant messaging
software clients also allow enhanced modes
of communication’ such as live voice or
video calling.

ÿ IM presents some of the same benefits to business users as

to home users: it allows you to communicate with colleagues’
customers and partners at a distance in real time’ like the
telephone’ while avoiding the hefty long distance rates that
apply during normal business hours.
ÿ IM continues to be the communications method of choice
for many because it provides more of

 ’ while being a bit less intrusive than the
ÿ IM is handy for dual communications. For example’ you can
get information from a colleague via IM while you·re on the
phone with a customer’ without having to disrupt the
telephone conversation.
ÿ IM can also be useful  
 ÷’ as the Internet may remain functional during
an outage of regular telephone services.
? Decrease in productivity
? Busy employees complain that those with
less to do distract them from their work
with non-urgent or personal messages
? Bandwidth usage. If you have many
employees engaging in chat’ it can impact
your network·s bandwidth and performance.
? IM communications are also subject to
unwanted advertising (IM spam is referred to
as spim).
? Security
IM software’ especially the use of popular consumer
level IM programs’ raises the following security
ÿ Like other software’ IM clients can be vulnerable to
  ÷ and other flaws that can be
exploited by hackers to launch  attacks.
ÿ Many IM clients allow users to create anonymous
user names that cannot be easily tracked or the true
identity of the IM user identified. If the IM name is not
associated with a legitimate e-mail address’ a user can
send communications pretending to be someone he·s
not (   ).
ÿ IM file transfer features pose a big risk both in terms
of outgoing and incoming files.

? Akonix L7 Enterprise
? IMlogic IM Manager
? Faceîime·s IM Auditor

? An 
 is a private computer network that uses
Internet Protocol technologies to securely share any
part of an organization's information or network
operating system within that organization.
? îhe term is used in contrast to Ê  ’ a network
between organizations’ and instead refers to a
network within an organisation.
? Sometimes the term refers only to the organization's
internal website’ but may be a more extensive part of
the organisation's information technology
? It may host multiple private websites and constitute
an important component and focal point of internal
communication and collaboration.
? Workforce productivity
? îime
? Oommunication
? Web publishing allows cumbersome corporate
knowledge to be maintained and easily accessed
throughout the company using Web technologies.
? Oost-effective: Users can view information and
data via web-browser rather than maintaining
physical documents such as procedure manuals’
internal phone list and requisition forms.
? Promote common corporate culture
? Enhance Oollaboration
? Knowledge of your Audience
? Supports a distributed computing
? An ë ë is a computer network that
allows controlled access from the outside’
for specific business or educational purposes
? An extranet can be viewed as an extension
of a company's intranet that is extended to
users outside the company’ usually partners’
vendors’ and suppliers. It has also been
described as a "state of mind" in which the
Internet is perceived as a way to do business
with a selected set of other companies
(business-to-business’ B2B)’ in isolation from
all other Internet users.
? Exchange large volumes of data using Electronic
Data Interchange (EDI)
? Share product catalogs exclusively with trade
? Oollaborate with other companies on joint
development efforts
? Jointly develop and use training programs with
other companies
? Provide or access services provided by one
company to a group of other companies’ such as
an online banking application managed by one
company on behalf of affiliated banks
? Extranets can be  ÷
  and maintain within an
organization (e.g.’ hardware’ software’
employee training costs)’ if hosted
internally rather than by an application
service provider.
? Security of extranets can be a concern
when hosting valuable or proprietary
? @  is used to conduct live
meetings’ training’ or presentations via the
? In a web conference’ each participant sits at
his or her own computer and is connected
to other participants via the internet. îhis
can be either a downloaded application on
each of the attendees' computers or a web-
based application where the attendees
access the meeting by clicking on a link
distributed by e-mail (meeting invitation) to
enter the conference.

? A 
 is a neologism to describe a
specific type of web conference. It is
typically one-way’from the speaker to the
audience with limited audience
interaction’ such as in a webcast. A
webinar can be collaborative and include
polling and question & answer sessions to
allow full participation between the
audience and the presenter.
? For interactive  ÷ ÷ web
conferences are complemented by
  ÷÷ ÷6 

which provide a range of online facilitation

tools such as 


 ÷or ÷  ÷÷÷÷’
typically with optional anonymity
? îypically’ EMS do not provide core web
conferencing functionality such as screen
sharing or voice conferencing though some
EMS can control web conferencing sessions.
ÿ Slide show presentations
ÿ Live or Streaming video
ÿ Web tours
ÿ Meeting Recording
ÿ Whiteboard with annotation (allowing the presenter and/or
attendees to highlight or mark items on the slide
presentation. Or’ simply make notes on a blank whiteboard.)
ÿ îext chat - For live question and answer sessions’ limited to
the people connected to the meeting. îext chat may be public
(echoed to all participants) or private (between 2
ÿ Polls and surveys (allows the presenter to conduct questions
with multiple choice answers directed to the audience)

? R (
R’ R) is a general term for a family
of methodologies’ communication protocols’
and transmission technologies for delivery of
voice communications and multimedia
sessions over Internet Protocol (IP)
networks’ such as the Internet
? Other terms frequently encountered and
often used synonymously with VoIP are 2 
Ú ’ 2  Ú ’ ÚÊÚ 
 Ú  (VoBB)’  Ú Ú ’ and
 Ú Ú .
? Because of the 
÷÷ that VoIP technology can provide’ businesses
are gradually beginning to migrate from traditional
copper-wire telephone systems to VoIP systems to
reduce their monthly phone costs.
? VoIP solutions aimed at businesses have evolved into
÷" services that treat all
communications³phone calls’ faxes’ voice mail’ e-mail’
Web conferences and more³as discrete units that
can all be delivered via any means and to any handset’
including cellphones. îwo kinds of competitors are
competing in this space: one set is focused on VoIP for
medium to large enterprises’ while another is
targeting the ÷

? VoIP runs both voice and data
communications over a single network’
which can significantly  
÷ ÷÷.
?  ’ which originally marketed itself as a
service among friends’ has begun to cater to
businesses’ providing free-of-charge
connections between any users on the Skype
network and connecting to and from
ordinary PSîN telephones for a charge.

VoIP can be a benefit for reducing communication
and infrastructure costs. Examples include:
ÿ Routing phone calls over existing data networks
to avoid the need for separate voice and data
ÿ Oonference calling’ IVR’ call forwarding’ automatic
redial’ and caller ID features that traditional
telecommunication companies normally charge
extra for are available free of charge from open
source VoIP implementations.[

VoIP can facilitate tasks and provide services that may be

more difficult to implement using the PSîN. Examples
ÿ îhe ability to transmit more than one telephone call
over a single broadband connection.
ÿ Secure calls using standardized protocols (such as
÷ R
. Most of the
difficulties of creating a secure telephone connection
over traditional phone lines’ such as digitizing and digital
transmission’ are already in place with VoIP. It is only
necessary to encrypt and authenticate the existing data

   . Only a sufficiently fast and
stable Internet connection is needed to get a
connection from anywhere to a VoIP provider.

’ including video conversation’ message or
data file exchange during the conversation’ audio
conferencing’ managing address books’ and passing
information about whether other people are available
to interested parties.

 (also known as 
 ’ or ÷÷

) is a centralized
system of stored telephone messages that
can be retrieved by the recipient at a later