You are on page 1of 8

Organizing Engineering

Research Papers (1)


Setting of research (): ?
Research problem () :
Quantitative specification of problem () :

Importance of problem () :
, ?
Research objective ()
Methodology to achieve objective
Anticipated results ()
Contribution to field ()
Consumer demand for hard disc bandwidth has significantly
increased in recent years owing to the large size of files and increased
disc size.
However, the conventional interface for hard discs cannot
easily support such a high bandwidth and demands many pin counts to
comply with such a requirement.
For instance, the conventional interface requires 28
pins and can only support 133 MHz bandwidth. Consequently, the
failure rate in manufacturing exceeds 5% when the conventional
interface must satisfy 150 MHz bandwidth requirements.
Doing so prevents the integration of many functions
into a chip with limited pin counts because the conventional interface
not only requires many pins, but also makes commercialization
Based on the above, we should develop a novel connecting
interface for hard discs for supporting up to 150 MHz bandwidth
requirements and minimizing the number of pins to four.
To do so, this novel connecting interface with serial
transmitting and receiving lines can be used to facilitate communication
between the system and hard disc. The serial interfaces can then be used to
eliminate the cross talk between transmitted and received data, discovered in
conventional interfaces, and can easily support bandwidths of up to 150 MHz.
Next, the minimal pin requirement can be satisfied using the serial interfaces.
As anticipated, the novel serial interface can facilitate robust
communication between system and hard disc and easily support up to 150
MHz bandwidth requirements.
Moreover, the proposed interface can allow chipset vendors to
integrate more functions into one chip than they did before. In addition to
making a high performance hard disc commercially feasible, the proposed
interface can be easily upgraded in the future.
In high-speed optical communications, the clock and data recovery (CDR)
circuit is largely responsible for recovery of the clock used to sample the data bits. The
signal stream in point-to-point commucation systems such as SONET is continuous;
otherwise, during the idle time, some synchronization bits are transmitted to maintain the
bit-level synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver. In these systems,
CDR based on Phase Lock Loop (PLL) design is widely recognized as the optimal
solution. PLL-based CDR has been increasingly studied to remain apace of higher data
rate system requirements. Time division multiplexing (TDM) passive optical network
(PON) is a promising means of resolving bottlenecks in broadband access. Among the
standards specified and the most widely accepted ones include Ethernet PON and
Gigabit PON standardized by IEEE and ITUT-T, respectively. In these TDM PON
systems, the upstream traffic aggregating to the optical line terminal consists of bursts
from various optical network units.
Therefore, recovering a clock in a relatively short time to increase efficiency is
problematic given that the burst length in conventional PON systems is no longer than
thousands of bits. Applying the conventionally adopted PLL CDR to PON systems is
problematic given its relatively long recovery time.
For instance, a commercially available PLL-CDR chip used in a legacy
continuous optical link generally takes two thousand bits to lock its voltage controlled
oscillator (VCO) to the incoming data in both phase and frequency.
This long locking time appears to be intolerable for systems like PON.
Based on the above, we should develop novel CDR scheme,
capable of recovering a clock efficiently to increase the pocket
efficiency of PON systems.
To do so, a hybrid phase and delay lock loop
architecture can be derived, consisting of a VCO, voltage controlled
delay line, phase detector, charge pump and low pass filter. HSPICE
can then be simulated. Next, a prototype can be designed to
demonstrate the effectiveness of the CDR scheme.
As anticipated, the proposed monolithic scheme can
acquire the sampling phase well within 50 ns in a 2.5 Gbps system
such as PON.
In addition to averting frequency jittering greater than
6MHz, i.e. 4800ppm, the proposed CDR scheme can facilitate a more
aggressive design, with an even lower loop gain.
Further details can be found at