1

An

to Wireline Logging
2

1.0

Introduction

Well logs or wireline logs are continuous recordings of well depth versus different petrophysical characteristics of the rocks through which the well is drilled. There are many types of well logs, depending upon the characteristics of the rock being measured. 1.1 Logging Objectives

The main purpose of well logging is:
  to provide data for evaluating petroleum reservoirs. to aid in testing, completion and repairing of the well.

To calculate the oil reserve in an oil pool we need to know the following.     Thickness of the oil bearing formation. Porosity of the formation. Oil saturation. Lateral extent of the pool.

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2.0

Types of Well Logging

Well logging is classified into three broad categories:    2.1 Open Hole Logging Cased Hole Logging Production Logging

Open Hole Logging

Logging surveys taken before the hole is cased are called open hole logs. The logs included in this group are:
     Electrical surveys (induction, laterolog and microlog logs). Sonic logs. Caliper Logs. Dipmeter Logs. Radioactive surveys (density, neutron and gamma ray logs).
4

2.1.1

Electrical Logs

Electrical logs (Induction, laterolog, and microlog) measure the electrical properties of the formation along with the formation fluids. 2.1.2 Sonic Logs

Sonic logs measure the elastic or (sound) wave properties of the formation. 2.1.3 Caliper Logs

Caliper logs measure the size or geometry of the hole. 2.1.4 Dipmeter Logs

Dipmeter logs measure dip of the formations.

2.1.5

Radioactive Logs

Gamma ray & neutron logs measure radioactive and neutron absorption properties.
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2.2

Cased Hole Logging

Logging surveys taken after the casing is lowered are usually categorized as cased hole logs. The surveys included in this group are:    Gamma Ray Neutron Temperature


  

Chlorine
Pulsed Neutron Cement Bond Log Tracer Logs

Some of these surveys like the gamma ray, neutron and temperature logs can be run in both open and cased hole wells.
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2.3

Production Logging

Well logging surveys taken to improve production or repair the well are termed as production logs. Surveys included in this category are:

Pressure Temperature Fluid Density

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3.0

Logging Equipment: Surface and Downhole

Log measurements are made using a measuring sonde (with electronic cartridge) lowered on a cable from a winch, which is

mounted on a logging truck or offshore unit.

8

3.1

Logging Truck and Offshore Unit

The truck and units are laboratories containing:  The main winch which may hold as much as 26,000 ft (8,000 m) of multi-conductor steel-armored cable with a pulling capacity of several tons.  The winch man control panel.

The surface logging panels which power and control the
down hole tools, process the incoming information and transmit the information to recording equipment.
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Logging Truck and Offshore Unit (Contd.)

Depth measuring system.


 

Electrical generator.
Printer for making log prints. Recent years have seen the introduction of fully computerized logging unit which not only handle the data acquisition but permit well site data processing/evaluations.

Offshore units are mounted on skids and bolted (or welded) to the deck of drilling vessel or platform.
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Fig. 3.1: A Logging Truck

11

Fig. 3.2: An Offshore Logging Unit

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3.2

Computerized Logging Units

Service companies offer logging services from computer-based logging units. The advantages of using computer-based units are many and their use is to be encouraged. Some of the systems

available include:

 

Eclips 5700: Western Atlas Maxis 500: Schlumberger
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Computerized Logging Units (Contd.)

Computer-based units offer the following features:

 

All logs are recorded on 4 mm dats. Computer control of the data allows logs to be recorded either logging up or down with all curves on depth.

Calibration are performed under programme control and can be performed more quickly, consistently and accurately.

Logs can be played back from the data tapes on many different formats.

Basic well-site, processing/analysis of data is available.
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Fig. 3.3: CLS-3700

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16
Fig. 3.4: ECLIPS-5700

4.0

Logging Cables

The logging cables fulfill three functions:

 

Running in and pulling out the tool and control of tool speed. Electrical interface between the downhole logging tool and the

surface processing and recording equipment.
 Depth measurement.

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4.1

Depth Measurement

Film and tape movement are governed by cable motion, which is transmitted by a calibrated spooler wheel to mechanical or electrical drive system which permit choice of depth scale on film.

The cable is marked magnetically every 100 ft or 25 m under
constant tension. These marks are detected at the cable passing the spooler device and serve as the reference for precise depth.
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4.2

Memorization

Where several tools are in combination, it is necessary to store in a memory the readings of each tool as it passes a given depth and to discharge this memory only when the last sensor reaches that depth. In this way all the data is recorded on depth.

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Fig. 4.1: Logging Tools in Combination

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21
Fig. 4.2: Memorization

5.0 

The Logging Tool

Logging tools vary in complexity from a simple electrode carrying mandrel to a sophisticated system of electronic circuits, enclosed in a pressure – resistant metal housing and capable of operating at high temperatures.

The sonde is generally attached below an electronic cartridge,
which carries in a protective housing the electronic modules or hardware for the downhole instrument.

Where several tools are being run in combination each of the sondes and cartridges in the tool string has a pass through facility for the signals to or from tools lower in the string.
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The Logging Tool (Contd.)

Each sonde-cartridge set can be connected electrically and
mechanically to the bridal or cable head by a quick connect system consisting of pins and sockets and a thread ring.

(Ex) Centralizers or stand-off may be attached to the sonde and cartridge.

Logging tools vary in sizes and shapes. A typical logging string is 3 5/8” in diameter and 35 ft long.
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The Logging Tool (Contd.)

Most tools are built to withstand 20,000 psi pressure and 350oF to 400oF temp.

Modern tools are “modularised” to allow combination tool strings by appropriate mixing and matching.

The need for pressure control equipment will limit the total length of the tool string that can be safely assembled and run in the hole.
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Fig. 5.1:

Logging Tools

25

Fig. 5.2:

Electronic Cartridge

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TOOLS
27

6.

Modern Logging Tools

6.1 Formation Fluid Content Indicators

    

Induction Laterolog Micro-focused (micro resistivity) devices Pulsed neutron Inelastic gamma (carbon/oxygen)


MRI
NMR
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6.2

Porosity-Lithology Indicators    

Sonic (Acoustic) Density Neutron Natural Gamma Ray

Spectral Gamma Ray

6.3

Reservoir Geometry Indicators   

Dipmeter FMS/FMI Star Imager

Circumferential Acoustic Scanning
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6.4

Formation Sampling Tools

 

Formation Tester RFT, MDT Sidewall Coring

6.5

Auxiliary Tools

 

Spontaneous Potential Caliper

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7.0 CHARACTERISTICS OF DOWNHOLE TOOLS The characteristics of these devices are summarized as under:

7.1

Resistivity Tools
7.1.1 Induction Tools

Induction tools belong to the resistivity tool family and attempt to measure true formation resistivity, Rt. They work like metal detectors by inducting currents in the formation. Induction logs are called by a variety of names and initials such as:

  

Induction logs ISF DIL or DIFL

They may be run simultaneously with a variety of other measurements such as SP, Gamma Ray (GR), caliper and porosity devices. 31

Fig. 7.11: An example of Dual Induction Log

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7.1.2

Laterolog Tool

The most important tool in the family of Laterolog Tools is the Dual Laterolog-Microspherically Focused log (MSFL). Older versions such as LL3 or LL7 are no longer widely used. The DLL-MSFL can be run with SP, GR, caliper and some porosity tools.

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Fig. 7.1.2: An example of Laterolog

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7.1.3

Micro-resistivity Devices

Micro-resistivity devices attempt to measure the formation
resistivity close to the borehole wall. The MSFL is usually run with the dual laterolog and not separately, but the proximity and microlaterolog tools are run as separate surveys usually with a microlog (ML). The ML is a special type of log and gives good

indications of porous and permeable zones.
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36
Fig. 7.1.3: An example of Microlog

7.1.4

Dipmeter

Dipmeter come in several versions, four-arm dipmeters and sixarm dipmeters. High resolution dipmeters record all the necessary information for computing formation dip and azimuth. A secondary application is the use of the dipmeter measurements of hole deviation and direction to determine hole geometry, location and true vertical depth of points in deviated

wells.
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38
Fig. 7.1.4: An example of Dipmeter Log

7.2

Acoustic Tools

7.2.1

Sonic Tool

The modern sonic tool is known as full wave sonic which improves on the older borehole compensated sonic. It may be run with GR, SP and caliper or combined with an induction tool. In addition to recording the travel time of a compressional wave through the formation (t), special

waveform recording techniques and use of multiple receivers allow the
measurement of shearware travel time amplitude logs of different waveform components are used for fracture detection.
39

Fig. 7.2.1: An example of Sonic Log

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7.2.2

Cement Bond Log tool

Cement Bond Log (CBL) measures the attenuation of the sound

waves between the transmitter and the receiver.
The CBL indicates the amplitude of the first arrival E1. This amplitude is a maximum for un-cemented and free casing and it is minimum when the casing is well cemented.

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42
Fig. 7.2.2: Principle of Operation of VDL

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Fig. 7.2.3: Uncemented Pipe

44
Fig. 7.2.4: Good Bond Casing Cement

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Fig. 7.2.5: CBL-VDL Interpretation

7.3

Radioactive Tools 7.3.1 Gamma Ray Tool

Gamma ray tools measure the natural radioactivity of the formation. Gamma rays are bursts of high energy electromagnetic waves which are spontaneously emitted by some of the radioactive elements as they decay to a more stable state. Three most common elements in rocks which emit

gamma rays are uranium, thorium and potassium.
46

Fig. 7.1: An example of Gamma Ray Log

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7.3.2

Spectral Gamma Ray Tool

This tool measures the number and energy of naturally occurring
gamma rays in the formation and distinguishes between elements and daughter products of three main radioactive families; uranium, thorium and potassium.

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Fig. 7.3.2: An example of Spectral Gamma Ray Log

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7.3.3

Density Tool

Compensated density tools are the primary porosity measuring

devices. A GR, caliper and neutron log are normally run with the
density. A modern version of the density tool is known as litho density tool. In addition to measuring bulk density, it measures the photoelectric factor (Pe) which is an indicator of formation lithology.
50

Fig. 7.3.3: An example of Density Log

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7.3.4

Neutron Tool

There are several types of neutron tools. Todays standard is the dual spaced neutron which records N, the neutron

porosity index. It is normally recorded for an assumed
lithology. Reading the porosity curve requires close attention to the porosity scale and assumed matrix.

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Fig. 7.3.4: An example of Dual-Spaced Neutron Log

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7.3.5

Pulsed Neutron Capture Tool

The pulsed neutron capture tool makes a measurement that helps distinguish oil from salt water in the formation in cased holes. It may also be used in open holes as a last resort when drill pipe becomes stuck.

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55
Fig. 7.3.5: An example of TDT Log

7.3.6

Carbon / Oxygen Logging Tool

Carbon/oxygen logging is a relatively new service which uses in
elastic fast neutron scattering in an attempt to directly measure the relative abundance of carbon, oxygen and other elements in a formation. Its application is in cased holes and it is a natural candidate for these parts of world where fresh formation waters preclude the use of pulsed neutron capture logs.
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57
Fig. 7.3.6: An example of Carbon / Oxygen Log

7.4

Wireline Formation Testers

Several types of wireline formation testers are available. These devices allow limited samples of formation fluid to be drawn from the formation and brought to the surface for analysis. These wireline formation testers also allow multiple formation pressure tests one try into the hole and are valuable addition to the formation evaluation arsenal.
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59
Fig. 7.4: An example of Pretest

7.5

Spontaneous Potential (SP)

The SP device measures naturally occurring (spontaneous) potential in the wellbore. This tool utilizes a single moving electrode in the borehole and a reference electrode at the surface, usually located in the mud pit. The SP curve therefore is a record of the potential

difference which exists between the surface electrode and the moving
electrode in the borehole.

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61
Fig. 7.5: An example of SP Log

7.5.1

The “Fish”

This is a remote electrode made out of lead, connected to the

logging panel by a long insulated wire, via a truck installation. It is

usually buried in a damp earth, the mud-pit or lowered into the sea,

sufficiently far from electrical sources to be at zero potential. It is

needed as the reference electrode at infinity for the Sp.

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8.0

Calibrations

The calibrations of logging tools fall into three categories.

8.1

Types of calibration
   8.1.2 Shop or Master Calibration. Before Survey Calibration. After Survey Calibration. Shop Calibration

The response of some tools is affected by their physical status (pad wear, aging of components…).
These tools need to be normalised against known standards. The equipment used for the calibration is bulky and not transportable to the field. 63

8.1.2

Before / after Survey Calibration

Done on the wellsite. It ensures that downhole and uphole equipment is working.

In some cases it is the Master Calibration.

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8.2

Purpose

To determine the response of tools against know standards.

To normalize the tool response back to the standard.

A check of the tool operation before and after the job.

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8.3

Principle of Linearity Y = GxX+O

This is the equation of a linear response where: Y X G O ideal tool response actual tool response gain offset

An ideal tool would have Y = X as response.
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Principle of Linearity (Contd.)
Two points are needed to determine the linear function.

Two measurements are made against two reference values.
ZM PM ZREF PREF zero measurement plus measurement zero reference plus reference

Gain and offset are computed from these two measurements.
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Fig. 8.1

68

Principles of Linearity (Contd.) Example ZREF Caliper Calibration 8 inch ring

PREF
Tool Reads: ZM PM

-

12 inch ring

-

8.5 inches 11.0 inches

Gain = 0.889 Offset = 2.22 Y = 0.889 X + 2.22 After calibration, a tool reading of 6.5 inches is normalised to: Y = (0.889 x 6.5) + 2.22 = 8 inches
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Environment
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9.0
9.1 

Logging Environment
Rigging Up To Run a Log Fig. 9.1 shows a setup for a typical land logging job. A logging truck is anchored about 100 to 200 ft from the well. Two sheave wheels are mounted in the derrick, one hung from the crown block and the other chained down near the rotary table. The logging cable from the truck winch is passed through the sheave wheels, attached to the logging tool string and lowered in to the hole. A more detail diagram of this rig up is shown in Fig. 9.2. Between the top sheave wheel and the elevators there is a tension device called the “load cell” to measure the logging cable tension and displays it in the logging truck.

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Fig. 9.1: A setup for a logging job

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Fig. 9.2: Details of wireline logging rig up

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74
Fig. 9.2.1: Top sheave and elevator arrangement during logging job

Fig. 9.2.2: Lower sheave tie-down arrangement

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9.2

Logging Speed

Logging speed is indicated by curve, gaps, ticks on the edge of log. Acceptable speed depends on the type of log, the intended use of data and type of formation being logged. Normal logging speeds are given in table. 9.2.1 Tool Resistivity log Recommended Logging Speed F/min. F/hr. 100 Remarks 6000 Faster is possible but unsafe.

Resistivity & GR log
Neutron log Density log Sonic log

60
30 30 30

3600
1800 1800 1800

Dipmeter
Micro-resistivity

60
40

1800
2400
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9.3

Log Presentation

The API standard presentation used by all logging companies consists of a left hand track (Track-1) 6.4 cm wide, a depth track 1.9 cm wide and two right hand tracks, each 6.4 cms wide (track 2 & 3).

Track 1 is always scaled linearly into 10” large divisions” (A

“small division” is 1/10 of a “large division” i.e., 1/100 track
width).

Track 2 and 3 may be both linear (Fig. 9.3.1) both logrithmic (Fig. 9.3.2) or a mixture of logrithmic and linear (Fig. 9.3.3) with track 2 serving for resistivity and track 3 for sonic.
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Fig. 9.3.1

Fig. 9.3.2

Fig. 9.3.3

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Log Presentation (Contd.)

The depth scaling is chosen according to the purpose of the log, 1:200 and 1:500 are the conventional

scales for recording.

The log headings (Fig. 9.4) displays all the relevant

information about the well and the logging operations:
well name, company, field, well coordinates bit size, mud data, data logged type of equipment used, calibrations and any special remarks concerning the job.
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80
Fig. 9.4: Log Heading

9.3.1

Repeatability and Calibrations

At the end of a log, a repeat section and calibration tail are
usually attached. The repeat section verifies that the tool is functioning consistently.

A calibration record is made on the film/print and tape before and after the survey to show that the equipment was correctly adjusted and no drift in adjustment has occurred during the

log.

9.4

Data Transmission

Taped data can be transmitted by telephone to a log computing centre or company office for decision making.
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