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Lesson 14 Welder¶s Qualification
SECTION IX Welder¶s Qualifications / Essential Variables
We will discuss all of the welder¶s essential variables listed in QW-353 for the SMAW process. Please turn to page 52 of Section IX.
QW-353 Shielded Metal-Arc Welding (SMAW) Essential Variables
Paragraph QW 402 Joints QW 403 Base Metals QW 404 Filler Metals QW 405 Positions Brief of Variables
.4 .16 .18 .15 .30 .1 .3
Deletion of Backing Change Pipe Diameter Change in P Number Change in F Number Change in weld t deposited Addition of a position Change from vertical Up to Down or Down to UP progression
QW-353 Shielded Metal-Arc Welding (SMAW) Welder Essential Variables The first essential variable listed is ± Backing (Removal of). If a welder is qualified using any type of backing. Fillet and partial penetration welds are also considered welding with backing. welding double sided welds where the weld metal of the first pass is used after gouging/grinding as weld metal backing for the balance of the weld. and asked to perform an open root weld he must retest without backing to be qualified to perform the welding. The Code definition of backing is welding with a backing bar or retainer. .
So this translates to a change in diameter to one smaller than qualified by the welder¶s pipe coupon on a previous test with this process. turn to page 143 in Section IX.QW-353 Shielded Metal-Arc Welding (SMAW) Welder Essential Variables The next inline is a change in Pipe Diameter qualified. The ranges of pipe diameters qualified are given in Section IX. As pipe diameters become smaller the difficulty for a welder is increased resulting in a higher skill level requirement. .
3. . From 1 inch (25mm) to 2-7/8 inch (73mm) qualifies 1 inch to unlimited. Over 2-7/8 inch (73mm) qualifies 2-7/8 inch to unlimited.QW-452.3 GROOVE-WELD DIAMETER LIMITS As we can see: 1. 2. because it is only easier for the welder as the diameter of the Pipe welded increases. Under 1 inch (25mm) qualifies the diameter down to the size welded to unlimited diameter.
QW-452. If a welder qualified on a NPS 6 inch pipe coupon the range of diameter qualifications in production with the WPS he tested to will be _________. 2.3 GROOVE-WELD DIAMETER LIMITS Quiz 1. If tested with a NPS 2 inch coupon what is his minimum and maximum diameter range is ________. .
3 GROOVE-WELD DIAMETER LIMITS Quiz 1. .QW-452. 2. If a welder qualified on a NPS 6 inch pipe coupon the range of diameter qualifications in production with the WPS he tested to will be 2-7/8´ to unlimited. If tested with a NPS 2 inch coupon what is his minimum and maximum diameter range is 1´ to unlimited.
groupings for welder qualifications. group that he/she has not qualified for then a retest is required. We will have a more thorough lesson on Alternate Base Metals later in this course. There are three basic P-No.QW-353 Welder Essential Variables P-Numbers. P-Numbers serve to group metals by mechanical and chemical properties. . So it is reasonable to think that not all metals can be welded using the same technique. or have the same level of difficulty for welders. If a welder changes to a PNo.
Number. . F.QW-432 F Numbers We have now arrived at the Filler Metal Number or F.Numbers are a grouping of electrodes and filler metals that weld in a similar way and in general present more or less difficulty for a welder. In other words some FNumber filler metals require different skills than others and must be qualified individually in most cases.
Turn now to Page 132 of Section IX . So all of the above are F-Number 4 EXX10 would be E-6010 with an F-Number of 3 The XX is the tensile strength 70.000 PSI ect.. E-7018-A1. 8018-B1 etc.QW-432 F Numbers The table of F Numbers coming up is read in the following way« EXX18 stands for all SMAW electrodes ending in 18 such as E-7018.
there are restrictions on those qualifications. Turn now to Page 137 of Section IX . There are some provisions for using lower FNumbers when qualifying with numbers 2 to 4 but.QW-433 Alternate F-Numbers for Welder Performance Qualifications Changing the F Number for a welder may affect his ability to weld and require requalification.
if a welder qualifies without backing with an electrode assigned to F-Number 4.QW-433 Alternate F-Numbers for Welder Performance Qualifications Examples 1. Using the table QW-433. What F-Numbers can he use with backing in a production weld? 2. What F Numbers can he weld without backing? .
3 and 4 with backing. 2. Also the ³Qualified For´ F Number 4 without backing is included which makes sense as he performed that weld for his test. 2. then left to read the ³Qualified For´ Column we find F Numbers 1. He can weld F-Numbers 1 through 4 with backing.QW-433 Alternate F-Numbers for Welder Performance Qualifications Solution 1. Going right across the row titled ³Qualified With´ to F-Number 4 without backing then down to each x in the boxes. .
QW-433 Alternate F-Numbers for Welder Performance Qualifications Notice that the large table only addresses FNumbers 1 through 5. Let¶s have a look at those. The rest of the F-Numbers are in a small table along with notes beneath the large table. .
QW-433 Alternate F-Numbers for Welders .
QW-452. Turn to Page 142 of Section IX . electrode/filler metal F-number in a P-Number base metal combination. We will now have a look at those rules. welding process. A welder is restricted by the amount of weld metal he deposits during his performance qualification test with a particular.1 (b) Thickness Of Weld Metal Deposit The fifth essential variable listed is change in thickness of Weld deposit.
QW-452. Perhaps GTAW root and SMAW fill passes and cap.1 (b) Thickness Of Weld Metal Deposit The column µThickness t. Perhaps a bit of E6010 and the rest E-7018. . of weld metal in the coupon¶ refers to the amount of weld metal from a process or a filler metal.
.1 (b) Thickness Of Weld Metal Deposit Example Assume one welding process. SMAW and one electrode E-7018 using a P-No.QW-452. A coupon thickness of 3/8 inch was welded using E-7018.1 pipe. 4) . In the column on the right titled µThickness of weld metal qualified¶ we see 2t. that the welder can deposit in production. so 2 x 3/8´ = 3/4´ this is the maximum amount of E-7018 (F-No.
we see that welder¶s limit of deposited weld metal with an F-No.QW-452.4 is the maximum to be welded.1 (b) Thickness Of Weld Metal Deposit Suppose now the coupon is 1/2´ thick and a welder welds it with 100% E-7018 using 3 weld layers. .
3 and 3/4´ of any F-No. backing. diameter. The welder can deposit up to 1/4´ of any F-No. P-No. meaning position.1 (b) Thickness Of Weld Metal Deposit Another combination in the 1/2´ coupon.3) and 3/8´ of E-7018. .4 with any production WPS he is otherwise fully qualified for. progression etc. By the first column 2 x 1/8´ = 1/4´ of E-6010 (FNo..3) and 2 x 3/8´ = 3/4´ of 7018 (F-No.4).QW-452. 1/8´ of E-6010 (F-No.
1(b) . * Hint See Note 1 of table QW-452.1 (b) Thickness Of Weld Metal Deposit Quiz How can we qualify a welder for unlimited thickness with both F-No.3 and 4 in a single coupon? If he or she welds a coupon that is at least ___ thick and deposits at least___´ of E-6010 and at least ___´ of E-7018 using a minimum of ____ layers of each filler metal.QW-452.
position. progression etc. P-No.3 and/or F-No.QW-452. backing. diameter.4 with any production WPS he is otherwise fully qualified for such as. . The welder can deposit unlimited t with any FNo.1 (b) Thickness Of Weld Metal Deposit Solution If he or she welds a coupon that is at least 1´ thick and deposits at least 1/2´ of E-6010 and at least 1/2´ of E-7018 using a minimum of three weld layers for each filler metal..
QW-353 Welder Essential Variables The next essential variable listed is Position. Consider the welding positions versus the welder test positions for a moment. 1 designates the coupon orientation. Positions for pipe tests are designated by an alphanumeric such as 1G. . 5G and. Turn to Page 148 QW-461. The G means a groove butt weld. in this example the pipe is on the horizontal and is rotated/rolled beneath the welder and is considered to be flat welding. We will use pipe test coupons. 6G.4 in Section IX. The others are 2G.
H. the more positions a welder can perform. The four positions for welding are Flat.V. Horizontal.QW-461.O . Vertical and Overhead. These are referred to as: F.4 Groove Welds in Pipe ± Test Positions The more difficult the test position.
V.V.QW-461.H. We will use pipe in the examples. and O. and O 6G qualifies F. H and. V.4 Groove Welds in Pipe ± Test Positions There are corresponding pipe and plate test positions that qualify a welder for F. O (this yields all positions) . 1G qualifies F (Rotated) 2G qualifies H 5G qualifies F.
O. Either of these two yields an all positions welder. V. Therefore if a welder tests in 2G and 5G he/she was tested for all positions. V. 2G covers H and 5G covers F.4 Groove Welds in Pipe ± Test Positions Section IX allows combining test positions to produce an all position welder. H and.QW-461. and O Which is equal to 6G that qualifies F. .
In this way you can go straight to a one page table and review a Welder Performance Qualification (WPQ) for position and diameter qualifications.QW-469.1 Performance Qualifications . Turn to Page 151 Section IX .Position and Diameter Limitations All of this information is compiled into one table.
Notice the entry on the top row right Position and Type Weld Qualified. Ignoring Fillets because any welder qualified for groove 1G is qualified for the same fillet 1F. [Note (1) ] Below that Groove Below Groove exists two sub-headings Plate and Pipe Over 24 inches and Pipe less than or equal to 24 inches. .
To the left we have Qualification Test Which has the sub-headings Weld and Position .
is qualified Move up from the second F and find Pipe less than or equal to 24 in. To the right we see the entries F F F ignore fillets.D. See [ Note (3)] .We will use the Pipe-Groove [ Note (3)] row. O. Move up at the first F and find Plate and Pipe Over 24 in. Starting at the top of the table in the Qualification Test column move down and stop at the 1G entry below. O. is qualified.D.
QW452.6 .4.3. is qualified.D. O.Pipe less than or equal to 24 in. See [ Note (3)] Note (3) See diameter restrictions in QW-452. and QW-452.
O. .Notice that while the welder can weld on pipe in the ³position qualified´ he or she is still restricted by the diameters given in the table below on. Pipe less than or equal to 24 in..D.
. If a welder welds Vertically Up (Uphill) during a particular test he is only qualified for Vertically Up.QW-353 Shielded Metal-Arc Welding (SMAW) The last essential variable listed is Progression. This is as simple as it gets. qualify Downhill and you must weld another coupon to qualify Uphill. Should the welder be required to weld Vertically Down (Downhill) he will be required to weld a test coupon (keeping other variables the same) welding Vertically Down. The reverse is also true.
What are his qualifications as listed in table QW353? . The welder will use SMAW with E-6010 for the root pass for a total weld deposit t of .5´) pipe coupon in the 6G position. The coupon is Schedule 160 and has a wall T of 0. Obviously no backing will be used. The balance of the weld deposit t (.531´.406´) will be performed using 3 weld layers of E-7018 filler metal.125´ (1/8´).QW-353 (SMAW) Welder Essential Variables Quiz A welder performs a test on a NPS 4´ (4. All welding will be uphill during the test.
3 and ____inches of F-No.(SMAW) Welder Essential Variables Continued The test qualifies ___ positions with a minimum diameter of ______ and a maximum of _______. The welder will also be qualified to weld _____or _______backing. . The test also qualifies the welder to deposit ___ inches of F.No. The thickest weld he can make using this combination in production is__________.4. The welder¶s production welds must made using _______ progression.
062´.250´ inches of F. The test also qualifies the welder to deposit . .812 or 1.(SMAW) Welder Essential Variables Solutions The test qualifies all positions with a minimum diameter of 2-7/8´ and a maximum of unlimited. 3 and . The thickest weld he can make using this combination in production is .812´ inches of F-No.4. The welder¶s production welds must be made using uphill progression.250 +. The welder will also be qualified to weld with or without backing.No.
under the rules of Section IX he can weld many other P-Numbers using the F-No. filler metal and. As you will see a welder can test for example on a P-No. etc. 1 base material with a selected F-No.QW-353 Shielded Metal-Arc Welding (SMAW) Welder Essential Variables The next series of slides address the alternate base materials for welder qualifications. used for the test. diameter. position. maintaining all the other essential variables for the welder. .
SECTION IX QW 423 ± Turn to Page 131 Alternate Base Materials for Welder Qualification Versus Base Metal Qualified .
When a base metal in the left column is used for welder qualification. . the welder is qualified to weld all combinations of base metals in the right column.QW-423 Alternate Base Metals for Welder Qualification Base metals used for welder qualification may be substituted for the metal specified in the WPS in accordance with the following in-text table. Including unassigned metals of similar composition to these metals.
51 through P-No. 61 through P-No. 47 P-No. 25 P-No. 41 through P-No. 1 through P-No. 34. 11. PNo. 51 through P-No. PNo. 62 . 1 through P-No. or P-No. 53 or PNo. 53 or PNo. 11. 61 through P-No. 34. 21 through P-No. 25 P-No. 62 Base Metal (s) for which the Welder is Qualified P-No. or P-No.Base Metal (s) Used for Welder Qualification P-No. 21 through P-No. 47 P-No. 41 through P-No.
all we need to do is qualify a welder to weld any P-No. Welders are also limited by the Filler Metal Number (F-No.) used during a test. from the list and he can weld all of the others. . This would be great! There is however a problem with this theory.QW-423 Alternate Base Metals for Welder Qualification So.
If a welder qualifies on any P-Number from P 1 through P 11, P 34 or P 41 through P47 he/she is qualified to weld any of those metals together. Be warned this is further
limited by the F-number (s)!
If a welder qualifies on P 21 to P 25 he/she is qualified to weld any of these metals together or any combination of these aluminum alloys together!
If a welder qualifies on P 51 to P 53 or P 61 to 62 he/she is qualified to weld any of these metals together or in any combination of Titanium or Zirconium alloy!
In theory a welder could be qualified for all the listed base materials by welding just three (3) coupons. Remember our lesson on Filler Metal Numbers (F-Numbers). This is where the welders limitations become very important. One of the essential variables for a welder is the FNumber of the electrode he qualifies with during a given test.
Assume it will be required to make the weld with a filler metal that is designated as a F-No. 1 to 11.1 base material.41 in Section IX. He would have to prove his skill with the F-No. The welder has qualified to weld P No.41 filler metal. a P-No.41. There is a problem . 34 or 41 through 47.41 filler metal. So let¶s have him weld one of the nickels.Suppose a welder qualifies with SMAW using an FNo.4 electrode the test coupon is a P-No. . he has not qualified any of those metals with a FNo.
41. The welder will have to test again on any of those metals using a SMAW electrode designated as a F-No. which are in Section IX for the welding processes listed on page 52. Welders are limited by all of the following essential variables (skill issues). why because the FNumbers 4 and 41 are considered to require different skill levels to weld. The F-Number is a welders essential variable as well as a procedures.He is qualified for SMAW using a F-No.41. .4 electrode not F-No.
16 .QW-353 Shielded Metal-Arc Welding (SMAW) Essential Variables Paragraph QW 402 Joints QW 403 Base Metals QW 404 Filler Metals QW 405 Positions .30 .1 .15 .3 Brief of Variables Deletion of Backing Change Pipe Diameter Change in P Number Change in F Number Change in weld metal t deposited Addition of a position Change from vertical Up to Down or Down to UP progression .18 .4 .
41 as listed on the WPS/PQR.Simply put the welder must qualify all of his/her essential variables. . In our example he/she is disqualified for the nickel alloy weld because of the required F-Number qualification being F-No. not just be qualified to weld a particular P-Number.
A welder is limited by. weld metal thickness. PNumber. backing and progression. . F. pipe diameter.Number. position. process. All of these Essential Variables must meet the requirements of the WPS to be used in the production weld.
.Destructive Testing of Welder¶s Qualification Coupons There are three items that must be addressed when performing destructive testing of a welder¶s test coupon. Where in the test coupon specimens shall be taken from. 2. 3. How many specimens are required. The type of the specimens required. 1.
.The type and number a listed in that paragraph. of Section IX .1(a) and are accompanied by notes referencing paragraphs found in Article III.These items are listed in Article IV Welding Data of Section IX in a tabular form. 452. Turn now to Page 142 of Section IX.
Allows the substitution of side bends for face and root when the coupon is 3/8´ to less than 3/4´. Note 3. Combinations outside of this description will require side bends. Note 1. and thereby differentiates pipe from plate coupons. Specifies the number of coupons used for the listed welder pipe groove test positions.Notice that the notes underneath the table do the following things: General Note: Defines the ³Thickness of the Weld Metal´ and disallows using the reinforcement as part of the thickness deposited. Coupons tested by face and root bends. . Note 2. Limits the type of weld bend coupons that can be used when doing combination welder or process tests a single coupon.
Turn to Page 173 .We will now examine the figures referenced in QW-452.1(a) for removal of Welder¶s Performance Coupons.
Horizontal. Overhead just the same as the single 6G test. taken from the locations indicated in the graphic.Next an example of the coupons required for a 2G and 5G test in a single coupon which will qualify a welder for all four of the positions. Flat. This coupon requires 6 bend specimens instead of the usual 4. Vertical and. .
1(b) for Welder¶s ³Thickness of Weld Metal (t) Qualified´.We will now examine the figures referenced in QW-452. Turn to Page 142 .
Also. backing and. . progression. Example: The welder deposits 3/8´ he is qualified to weld up to 3/4´ in production welding with the process and filler metal used during his test. position.Notice that the welder must deposit at least 1/2´ in a minimum of three layers/passes to be qualified for unlimited thickness in production. as stated previously in addition he will be limited by diameter. All thickness below 1/2´ follow the 2 x t rule.
2.s and/or processes and could have been qualified unlimited thickness based on the test they performed. 3. They will each be qualified to weld unlimited thickness in production with that process and F-No. Example: Note 1: Two welders deposit 1/2´ each. both used three layers in a single 10´ Schedule 140. diameter used during the test. backing and. 1´ thick coupon with SMAW F-No. 4 electrodes.Combination tests are described in notes 1. using the position. and. progression. . They could also have used different F-No.
backing and. They will each be qualified to weld unlimited thickness in production with that process and F-No. using the position. diameter used during the test. both used three layers in a single 1´ thick coupon with SMAW F-No. They could also have used different F-No. progression. 4 electrodes. .Example: Note 2: Two welders deposit 1/2´ each. s and/or processes and would have been qualified unlimited thickness base on the test they performed.
They could also have used different F-No. s and/or processes and would have been qualified unlimited thickness base on the test they performed. diameter used during the test. They will each be qualified to weld unlimited thickness in production with that process and F-No. backing and. . both used three layers in a single 1´ thick coupon with SMAW F-No. 4 electrodes. progression. using the position.Example: Note 3: Two welders deposit 1/2´ each.
6G test position 5. Uphill progression 6. Process SMAW Only . Pipe diameter NPS 8´ (8. F-No.1) 3 layers of weld metal 7.4 (SFA 5.500´ 4.Example .Thickness 0. P-Number 1 pipe coupon 2.625´) 3.Billy Bob Welder¶s performance test was made under the following conditions using Big Welding Company¶s WPS CW-1010 : 1.
.Next we fill out the of Welder¶s Performance Qualification Form QW484 (WPQ) for Billy Bob Welder.
Diameter 4. F-Number 3. Weld Metal thickness . with or without and. Vertical Progression (Uphill or Downhill) 6. without qualifies both for a given F-Number and lower FNumbers in some instances. Position 7. a welder has only Essential Variables and for SMAW they are: 1.Remember. P-Number 2. Backing. 5.