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Presented by:

JAO, CRISTINA R.N.


Bicol University
Master in Nursing
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° CHART -refers to a map that helps managers navigate through
patterns in their employees. Help organize the workplace while
outlining the direction of management control of subordinates.
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ÄOften called organization chart, org chart,
organigram(me), or organogram(me))
Ä A diagram that shows the structure of an
organization and the relationships and relative
ranks of its parts and positions/jobs.
ÄA necessary management tool, particularly useful
when companies reorganize, embark on a merger
or acquisition, or need an easy way to visualize a
large number of employees.
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° An organizational chart of a company usually shows the managers and sub-workers


who make up an organization. It also shows the relationships between the
organization's staff members which can be one of the following:

Ñ MD - direct relationship between superior and subordinate.

2 Lateral - relationship between different departments on the same


hierarchical level.

3 Staff - relationship between a managerial assistant and other areas. The


assistant will be able to offer advice to a line manager.

4 Functional - relationships between specialist positions and other areas.


The specialist will normally have authority to insist that a line manager
implements any of their instructions.
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Ñ. Vertical charts
Depicting the chief executive at the top with
formal lines of authority down the hierarchy.
Most common.
2. Left to Right or Horizontal chart
Depicts the chief executive at the left with
lower echelons to the right.
3. Concentric or Circular chart
Show the chief executive in the center with
successive echelons of the concentric circles.
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° ADVANTAGES
Ñ.Maps lines of decision making authority.

2.Helps people understand their assignments and those of their


co-workers.

3.Reveals to managers and new personnel how they fit into the
organization.

4.Contributes to sound organizational structure.

5.Shows formal lines of communication.


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° Shows only formal relationships.


° Does not indicate degree of authority.
° May show things as they are supposed to be or
used to be rather than as they are.
° Possibility exists of confusing authority with
status.
Benefitsf niztints

ÄOrganization charts are an effective way to


communicate organizational, employee and
enterprise information.

ÄOrganizational charts provide the greatest value


when used as a framework for managing change and
communicating current organizational structure.

ÄUsing org chart software, Human Resources


professionals can create org charts automatically
from HR databases and distribute them to
management.
ÄOrganizational charts provide managers with specific
departmental information that can then be used as a
baseline for planning, budgeting and workforce
modeling.
ÄOrganizational charts can be linked directly to
spreadsheets or budgeting tools for interactive what-
if analysis, making planning and decision-making
easier.
ÄOrg charts are ideal for sharing the organization's
strategic vision, as well as defining responsibilities,
dependencies and relationships.
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 VALUES
Basic convictions and beliefs about what is
desirable or important.

 ATTITUDES
Mental state of readiness.

 PERCEPTIONS
Consciousness, awareness
 PERSONALITY
Relatively a stable set of characteristics and
temperaments.

 ROLES
Expected behaviors in given situations.

 HERO
A person honored for outstanding qualities
 CULTURE
Combination of assumptions, values symbols,
language and behaviors that manifest the
organizations norms and values.

2 Aspects
Ñ. Objective Aspect
Exist outside the minds of members of the
organization
2. Subjective Aspect
Related to assumptions and mind-sets
 CULTURAL NETWORK
Primary informal means of communication in the
organization.

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LANGUAGE
° Gestures ±nonverbal form of communication
° Gossip- talk or rumors about others
° Humor- verbal forms of humor could be jokes, whereas visual
forms could be cartoons posted on bulletin boards
° Jargon-specialized vocabulary or idioms specific to a way of
work
° Jokes- a funny anecdote
° Slang- specialized vocabulary of idioms outside the standard
language
° Signal- given by a gesture
° Slogan- catchword or motto; figures or speech in which one
thing is likened to another and spoken of as it is were the
other thing
        
 
Ñ. Military
° Language includes such as terms as battle zone, tight ship, captain, troops, battles,
campaigns enemies and stars

2 Sports
° Terms such as teams, stars and quarterbacks are used

3 Anthropology
° Terms include family, novice, big daddy, big momma, elder and prodigal son

4 Television
° Terms include sitcom, soap opera, country club, playground, nursery and jungle

5 Mechanistic
° Terms such as factory, assembly line, and well-oiled machine are used

6 The ³zoo´
° Terms such as sly fox, chicken and top dog appear
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· The sum total of an organizations beliefs, norms,
values, philosophies and traditions.

· The personality of the organization

· The specific collection of values and norms that


are shared by people and groups in an
organization that control the way they interact
with each other and with stakeholders outside
the organization.
tnetes

° Strong culture is said to exist where staff


respond to stimulus because of their alignment
to organizational values.

° Weak culture where there is little alignment


with organizational values and control must be
exercised through extensive procedures and
bureaucracy.
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° A useful method for performing self-


examinations to understand one¶s strengths and
weakness and how one differs from others.

° Isabel Briggs-Myers (Ñ 5) has identified four


dimensions of psychological type. Each of the
four dimensions has two categories.
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DIMENSIONS CONTRASTING CATEGORIES


Attitude toward life Introversion Extroversion

Perception Sensing Intuiting

Judgment Thinking Feeling

Orientation to outer world Judging Perceiving

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° Geert Hofstede
identified five dimensions of culture in his
study of national influences:
°  
 - The degree to which a society
expects there to be differences in the levels of power.

°
       - individualism is
contrasted with collectivism, and refers to the extent
to which people are expected to stand up for
themselves, or alternatively act predominantly as a
member of the group or organization.
° R  
 

 - refers to the value
placed on traditionally male or female values.

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- describes a
society's "time horizon," or the importance
attached to the future versus the past and
present.
endennedy

° defined organizational culture as  




  
. They measured
organizations in respect of:

° Feedback - quick feedback means an instant


response.

° Risk - represents the degree of uncertainty in


the organization¶s activities.
   
 
° The Tough-Guy Macho Culture. Feedback is
quick and the rewards are high. This can be a very
stressful culture in which to operate.
° The Work Hard/Play Hard Culture is
characterized by few risks being taken, all with rapid
feedback.
° The Bet your Company Culture, where big
stakes decisions are taken, but it may be years
before the results are known.
° The Process Culture occurs in organizations
where there is little or no feedback.
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° Power Culture which concentrates power among a


few.
° In a Role Culture, people have clearly delegated
authorities within a highly defined structure.

° By contrast, in a Task Culture, teams are formed


to solve particular problems.

° A Person Culture exists where all individuals


believe themselves superior to the organization.
dein

° Defines organizational culture as:


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° At the first and most cursory level of Schein's model
is organizational attributes that can be seen, felt and
heard by the uninitiated observer - collectively
known as  .
° The next level deals with the professed culture of an
organization's members - the . At this level,
local and personal values are widely expressed
within the organization.
° At the third and deepest level, the organization's
tacit assumptions are found. These are the elements
of culture that are unseen and not cognitively
identified in everyday interactions between
organizational members.
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° The Blame culture This culture cultivates distrust and fear,


people blame each other to avoid being reprimanded or put down,
this results in no new ideas or personal initiative because people
don¶t want to risk being wrong.

° Multi-directional culture This culture cultivates minimized


cross-department communication and cooperation. Loyalty is only
to specific groups (departments). The lack of cooperation and Multi-
Direction is manifested in the organization's inefficiency.

° Live and let live culture This culture is Complacency, it


manifests Mental Stagnation and Low Creativity. People here have
little future vision and have given up their passion.
° Brand congruent culture
People in this culture believe in the product or service of
the organization, they feel good about what their company is
trying to achieve and cooperate to achieve it.

° Leadership enriched culture


People view the organization as an extension of
themselves, they feel good about what they personally achieve
through the organization and have exceptional cooperation.
  
° The Paradigm: What the organization is
about; what it does; its mission; its values.
° Control Systems: The processes in place to
monitor what is going on.
° Organizational Structures: Reporting lines,
hierarchies, and the way that work flows through
the business.
° Power Structures: Who makes the decisions,
how widely spread is power, and on what is
power based?
° Symbols: These include organizational logos
and designs, but also extend to symbols of power
such as parking spaces and executive
washrooms.
° Rituals and Routines: Management
meetings, board reports and so on may become
more habitual than necessary.
° Stories and Myths: build up about people and
events, and convey a message about what is
valued within the organization.

   
identified four core cultures with a leadership
and management focus.

l. Control Culture
Authoritative, conservative, impersonal,
tough minded, realistic, systematic, task driven,
objective, and prescriptive

ll. Collaborative Culture


° Adaptive, Collegial, democratic, informal,
participative, personal, relational, supportive, and
trusting.
lll. Competence Culture
Challenging, efficient, emotionless, formal,
impersonal, intense, objective, rational, and task
driven.
lV. Cultivation Culture
Attentive, emotional, enabling,
humanistic, nurturing, people driven, personal,
promotive and relaxed.
 
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l. Positive Culture
Members are proactive and interactive to meet
their satisfaction needs.

ll. Passive-defensive Culture


Reflect expectations for members to interact with
people in ways that will not threaten their own security
lll. Aggressive-defensive Culture
Members are expected to approach tasks in forceful
ways to protect their status and security.

*Protect their security and status in reactive, guarded


ways.
    
identified four types of culture:
· Academy Culture
Employees are highly skilled and tend to
stay in the organization while working their up
the ranks
· Baseball team Culture
Employees are ³free agents´ who have
highly prized skills
· Club Culture
Most important requirement for
employees in this culture is to fit into the group.

· Fortress Culture
Employees don¶t know if they¶ll be laid off
or not.
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